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Type of Item
Isabel, Brazilian Princess
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows Princess Isabel, the daughter of Pedro II and, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1889, the heir to the Brazilian throne. It was taken by Joaquim José ...
Zhang Heng (78–139 AD), a native of Xi’e, Nanyang (in present-day Henan Province), was an astronomer, mathematician, inventor, and an accomplished scholar. He began his career as an official during the Eastern Han dynasty (25–220). Controversy about his views and political rivalry with other officials led him to retire and return to Nanyang, but in 138 he was recalled to serve in the capital. He died a year later. He received posthumous honors for his scholarship and creativity. Two of his representative works are Hun yi (Armillary ...
Three Collections of Proverbs and Sayings
This printed book was published in 1883 at the famous Jawa’ib Press founded by the Arab printer, author, and journalist Ahmad Fāris al-Shidiyāq. As is often the case with early printed books, the publication itself has received more attention than the contents of the work. Jawa’ib Press was established in the Ottoman capital of Constantinople (Istanbul) in 1860 and operated for about 20 years publishing the newspaper al-Jawa’ib (begun in 1861) as well as more than 70 Arabic classics and tracts. Books were printed in runs of ...
The Transvaal and Bechuanaland
This pamphlet by Gavin Brown Clark (1846–1930), honorary secretary of the Transvaal Independence Committee, was part of the debate in Great Britain in the 1880s concerning policy toward South Africa and Bechuanaland (present-day Botswana). The Afrikaans-speaking Boers, descendants of the first Dutch settlers in South Africa, began migrating across the Vaal River in the 1830s and established the South African Republic (also known as the Transvaal) in 1856. The Boers also settled and claimed neighboring Bechuanaland. Britain annexed the Transvaal in 1877, but the Boers rebelled and restored their ...
The Full Moon and its Illumination of the Operations of the Sun and the Moon
The author or compiler of this manuscript, Alī ibn Sālim ibn Muhammad, introduces himself as a student of Dāwūd al-Antāki, and further attributes the text he is presenting to the famous eighth-century authority on science, Jābir Ibn Hayyān. The text is divided into three main sections followed by a conclusion. The first section is on mines, and discusses the association between various mines and celestial bodies. The second section covers stones; the third section discusses plants and herbs. There is an additional folio with some information not contained in the ...
This late Victorian book of children’s poetry presents a bright and cheery view of London at the height of its imperial glory. Felix Leigh, who wrote the verses, was a prolific writer whose drawings and poems were featured for many years in the magazine Boy’s Own Paper. The illustrations are by Thomas Crane and Ellen E. Houghton. Crane designed the ornamental pages and Houghton did the figure drawings. Thomas Crane was the older brother of Walter Crane (1845-1915), who brought about revolutionary improvements in illustrated children’s books ...
Essays on Northwestern Mongolia: Results of the 1879–1880 Travels for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society
Grigorii Nikolaevich Potanin (1835–1920) was a Russian scholar and public figure, a pioneer of regional studies, and an expert on the cultural life of Siberia. Learned as a geographer, historian, ethnographer, and naturalist, he traveled extensively to parts of present-day Kazakhstan, Mongolia, and China, beginning with his military service. He studied mathematics and physics at the University of Saint Petersburg in 1859–61. He and a friend, Nikolai Yadrintsev (1842–94), were accused of fostering Siberian separatism, convicted, and sentenced to hard labor and exiled to Siberia. Rehabilitated in ...
El Mosquito, January 3, 1875
El Mosquito, which described itself as a “weekly independent, satirical, burlesque periodical with caricatures,” appeared for the first time on May 24, 1863. In the more than 1,500 issues published between then and the last issue in 1893, the newspaper satirized the behavior of local politicians. The publication provides a unique vantage point on the formation of the modern nation-state in Argentina. Published on Sundays, the newspaper consisted of four pages, with the two middle pages exclusively dedicated to lithographs that caricaturized current events and important figures of the ...