39 results in English
Ringling Bros. Lion Tableau Wagon
Parades to celebrate the arrival of the circus to town in America featured highly decorated wagons carrying the circus band and artists along main thoroughfares to the big top circus tent, attracting patrons along the way. This “Lion Tableau” wagon was built by Sebastian Wagon Works of New York City in approximately 1880 for the Adam Forepaugh Circus.  A telescoping platform holding the figure of Saint George fighting a dragon was removed around 1889 and the lower portion was converted into a bandwagon. The wagon was purchased by the Ringling ...
Contributed by Circus World Museum
Maps of Shazhou in Jiangyin County
The land on which Shazhou, Jiangyin County, Jiangsu Province (present-day Zhangjiagang) is located was formed by alluvial deposits of the Yangtze River over a period of thousands of years. As the land grew and changed, local people made paintings of the area, which they petitioned the authorities to acquire. Measurements of the narrow strip of land formed by the river deposits differed, and those seeking to obtain land often conspired with officials, resulting in lawsuits and disorder. Two officials, Wu Heng and Xie Cunbin, together with the magistrate of Jiangyin ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Group of Afghan Durbaries in Lahore, December 1880
This 1880 photograph of a group of Afghan notables in Lahore is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The Persian term durbar (darbar in Hindi) used in the caption describes a gathering of princes and other notables, usually for the purposes of state administration and business. In this durbar two British officers are present, one on the floor to the left of center and the other behind him, suggesting that they might have been cooperating with the Afghan attendees ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General Hume and Staff at Kandahar, 1881
This photograph of the staff of Major-General Robert Hume at Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Hume led the Southern Afghanistan Field Force and supervised the British withdrawal from Kandahar in April 1881. He is in the center, with a full beard and a sash across his chest. Surrounding him are the staff members who assisted him in coordinating the evacuation, along with two Baluch orderlies. The withdrawal from Kandahar marked the end of the war. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Medical Officers at Kandahar, 1881
This photograph of 24 medical officers of the Southern Afghanistan Field Force in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. It is estimated that at least 30 surgeon officers accompanied the field force in 1880 in the fighting that culminated at the Battle of Kandahar. The men pictured here were withdrawn from Kandahar by April 1881. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what it saw as growing Russian influence in Afghanistan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Barrack Square, Kandahar, 78th Highlanders
This photograph of the 78th Highlanders at Barrack Square in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The 78th Highlanders, a Scottish infantry regiment then commanded by Colonel A.E. Warren, did not arrive in Afghanistan until November 1880. Most of the fighting was over by then, as the British victory at the Battle of Kandahar several months earlier was the last major battle of the war. In this photograph, the 78th Highlanders pose for a group portrait ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Natives of Kandahar
This photograph of a large group of Kandahar residents is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Kandahar, the second-largest city in Afghanistan, was occupied by the British Southern Afghanistan Field Force from September 1880 until April 1881, when all British forces withdrew from the country. This photograph is taken at a palace zenana (harem) quarters, which clearly were not being used by women at the time, given the presence of a large group of men and boys of different ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Street View, Kandahar
This photograph of a street view of Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. A crowd seems to have gathered to watch the photographer, who is also regarded by a young boy perched on a roof. Shops, houses, and a section of the city wall are visible from this point, which is called Charsu or Char Su. It is where the main routes into Kandahar from the gates in the city walls converged. The photograph was taken during ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Street View, by Sir Benjamin Simpson
This photograph of a scene, assumed to be in Kandahar, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Men and young boys have gathered on both levels of a ruined building and in its courtyard and are observing the photographer. In the foreground is a charpoy (also seen as chaar payee), a bed frame made of woven rope used throughout Afghanistan as an outdoor bed during the hot summer. The photograph most likely was taken during the British occupation of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Courtyard of Wali Sher Ali Khan's Zenana, by Sir Benjamin Simpson
This photograph of the ornately decorated courtyard of a palace in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The photograph most likely was taken during the British occupation of Kandahar, which lasted from September 1880 to April 1881. It shows the exterior of the zenana, the women’s quarters of the palace of Sher Ali Khan, who was amir of Afghanistan for most of the period 1863–79. Sher Ali Khan was the son of Dōst Moḥammad Khān ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Durrani Gate
This photograph of the Durrani Gate in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ahmad Shah Durrani made Kandahar his capital when became the ruler of an Afghan empire in 1747. The heavy wooden doors of the gate, one of the entrances to the Kandahar citadel, can be seen in the back center of the photograph. Soldiers in pith helmets stand guard, regarding a scene that includes camels and herdsmen who have just emerged from the gate, civilians ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ottoman Commercial Code: Arabic Translation
This volume contains Arabic translations of four works related to the Ottoman commercial code originally published in Turkish: The Commercial Code, Appendix, Sources of Court Judgments, and Commentary. The Ottoman commercial code and updates of it were based on the French code of 1807. The importance of the code lies in the fact that it represented a break with the tenets of al-shari’ah (Islamic law) and prepared the way for promulgation of criminal and civil codes and reorganization of courts. Publication of the translation was a project of the ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Superabundance of the Commendable and the Reinforcement of the Yet-More Commendable: Poetry Collection
This diwan, Al-Faydh al- Muhammadi wa-al-Madad al-Ahmadi wa Huwa Diwan (The superabundance of the commendable and the reinforcement of the yet-more commendable: Poetry collection), is a book of poems, mostly in praise of the Prophet Muhammad or in supplication of his blessing and assistance. Some of the verses vary from this theme, for example, poetic prayers addressing Ahmad al-Rifa’i, founder of the famous Sufi order of which the author, Abū al-Hudá al-Ṣayyādī, was a prominent (and controversial) leader. Abu al-Huda was a prolific writer who rose from humble origins ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Railroad from Paranagua to Curitiba
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The collection contains photographs showing the construction of the railroad in the southern state of Paraná from Paranagua to Curitiba, divided into three sections: Paranaguá-Morretes, Morretes-Roça Nova, and Roça ...
Accessible Introduction to the Prophets Mentioned in the Qur’an. Essay on the Rules for Use of “la-siyyama,” (“Especially”)
This Arabic manuscript contains two short works by the 18th-century Egyptian scholar Ahmad ibn Ahmad al-Suja’i. The first work, of seven pages, deals with prophets mentioned in the Qu’ran, who are described in verse with commentary. The individuals mentioned include some of the Old Testament prophets, such as Moses, Aaron, and Isaac. The second tract, of three pages, is entitled Risalah fi ahkam la-siyyama (Rules governing use of “especially”). It is a discussion of the meaning and proper usage of this idiom. Both works have been published in ...
Araucaria
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. These araucaria trees in the Atlantic Forest, or Mata Atlantica, were photographed in the late 19th century by Marc Ferrez (1843-1923), a Brazilian artist of French heritage who documented ...
Old Recife
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. The port city of Recife, which appears in this photograph, was one of the earliest settlements in Brazil. Established in the late 1500s by the Portuguese, it was under ...
Buildings Designed by Architect Daniel Peter Ferro Cardoso
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. Daniel Pedro Ferro Cardoso was an inventor and engineer involved in the construction of many public buildings in Brazil. This picture shows a plan for the Hospital of the Order of ...
G-e-e-t Up!
This photograph of a rural scene in Albania is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Imperial Military Middle School, Ṣanʻāʾ
This photograph from the Abdul-Hamid Collection in the Library of Congress shows the Imperial Military Middle School in Ṣan'ā', Yemen. Sultan Abdul-Hamid II (1842-1918) ruled the Ottoman Empire from 1876 to 1909. The Abdul-Hamid Collection consists of 1,819 photographs in 51 large-format albums dating from about 1880 to 1893. An avid collector and promoter of photography, the sultan appears to have conceived the work as a portrait of his empire for a Western audience, intended to highlight the empire's modernization. Well-known Ottoman commercial photographers such as Abdullah ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Moslem Egypt and Christian Abyssinia; Or, Military Service Under the Khedive, in his Provinces and Beyond their Borders, as Experienced by the American Staff
William McEntyre Dye (1831–99) was a graduate of the United States Military Academy, a former colonel in the United States Army, and a veteran of the American Civil War. In late 1873, Dye entered the service of Ismail Pasha, the khedive of Egypt and Sudan, who was recruiting, with the assistance of General William T. Sherman, American officers to serve as advisors in his army. Egypt was at that time formally still part of the Ottoman Empire, but it exercised a high degree of autonomy. Dye served as assistant ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Plan, Imperial Military Middle School, Monastir
This photograph from the Abdul-Hamid Collection in the Library of Congress reproduces an architectural drawing for the Imperial Military Middle School in Bitola, Macedonia, a city known in the Ottoman Empire as Monastir. Sultan Abdul-Hamid II (1842-1918) ruled the empire from 1876 to 1909. The Abdul-Hamid Collection consists of 1,819 photographs in 51 large-format albums dating from about 1880 to 1893. An avid collector and promoter of photography, the sultan appears to have conceived the work as a portrait of his empire for a Western audience, intended to highlight ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Imperial Military Middle School, Monastir
This photograph from the Abdul-Hamid Collection in the Library of Congress shows the Imperial Military Middle School in Bitola, Macedonia, a city known in the Ottoman Empire as Monastir. Sultan Abdul-Hamid II (1842-1918) ruled the empire from 1876 to 1909. The Abdul-Hamid Collection consists of 1,819 photographs in 51 large-format albums dating from about 1880 to 1893. An avid collector and promoter of photography, the sultan appears to have conceived the work as a portrait of his empire for a Western audience, intended to highlight the empire's modernization ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Pishin Valley and Upper Basin of the Lora: Constructed from the Surveys and Reconnaissances Executed by Officers Attached to the Forces Serving in Southern Afghanistan, Collated with Major Wilson's Map by W. J. Turner
This map of the region around the Pishin Lora River in southern Afghanistan and western Pakistan was presented at a meeting of the Royal Geographical Society in London on February 9, 1880, in connection with a paper by Major-General Sir Michael A. Biddulph, “Pishin and the Routes Between India and Candahar [Kandahar].” The previous year, Biddulph had led a military expedition of British, Gurkha, and Punjabi troops on an expedition from British India into Afghanistan. The map is based on an earlier British military map, with corrections and additions based ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Girl Shepherdess with Sheep, Bulgaria
This photograph of a young shepherd girl in Bulgaria is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pustaha about Protection against Evil
This illuminated book made of tree bark is a pustaha, written in the script of the Batak people of Northern Sumatra. Pustahas were books describing magical practices, and were intended for use only by Batak spiritual leaders and their disciples. This pustaha describes forms of protection against evil, and is from the special collections of the KITLV/Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies in Leiden.
Chinese Children at the Tjap-Gomeh Festival in Makassar
This photograph shows Chinese children participating in the Tjap Go Meh Festival in Makassar, the largest city on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi. Tjap Go Meh, which takes place 15 days after Chinese New Year, was widely celebrated among Chinese immigrants in Indonesia, and became popular with the local population as well. Also known as the Lantern Festival, it involves parades and performances similar to those on the new year. The picture was taken by the studio of British photographers Walter Bentley Woodbury and James Page, who arrived in the ...
Pendopo of the Palace of the Mangkoenagoro of Surakarta
This photograph shows the pendopo of the palace of the Mangkunegaran dynasty in Surakarta. The pendopo, a large open-air pavilion built on columns, is a crucial element of Javanese architecture. It is open on all sides and provides shelter from sun and rain, but allows breezes to enter. Mangkunegara was established as a small principality with a hereditary ruler in the center of Surakarta in 1757, following the breakup of the area’s main kingdom, Mataram, as part of the divide-and-conquer policy practiced by the Dutch in Java. The photograph ...
Wedono of Banjaran near Bandung with His Following in Front of His House
This photograph shows the wedono of Banjaran (a region in present-day West Java near Bandung), in front of his house, with members of his entourage. In Dutch-administered Java, a wedono was a native regional administrator. The photograph was taken by the studio of Woodbury & Page, which was established in 1857 by the British photographers Walter Bentley Woodbury and James Page. The photograph is from the collections of the KITLV/Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies in Leiden.
A Large Proportion of Interior Ireland Consists of Bogs from Which Peat Is Dug
This photograph of a peat cutter and a woman at a bog in Ireland is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
New Zealand, Maoris at Their Talking House
This photograph, taken in New Zealand some time between 1880 and 1920, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890-1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Collection of Symbols: Explanation on Prevention in Matters of Guidance
Jāmi’ al-Rumūz: Sharh Mukhtaṣar al-Wiqāya (The collection of symbols: explanation on prevention in matters of guidance) by Shams al-Dīn Muhammad al-Quhustānī (died circa 1546) is a commentary on Mukhtaṣar al-Wiqāya fi Masa‘il al-Hidaya (Brief explanation of the book on prevention in matters of guidance to the true path) by Ubayd Allāh ibn Masūd Mahbūbī, who died in 1346–47. Al-Quhustānī was a scholar of the Hanafi Madhab (one of the four Sunni schools of fiqh, or religious jurisprudence) and a mufti in Bukhara (present-day Uzbekistan). The work ...
Warsaw - Place Krasinski
This photograph of Warsaw is from the George Grantham Bain Collection at the Library of Congress. The collection contains approximately 40,000 glass plate negatives and 50,000 photographic prints, most dating from the 1900s to the mid-1920s. Bain, who was born in 1865 and died in 1944, founded the New York-based Bain News Service in 1898. Specializing in news about New York City, and to a lesser degree the eastern United States, Bain distributed its own pictures and those purchased from other commercial agencies to about 100 newspapers. While ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Syria. Bedouins on the Desert
This photograph of a scene in Syria is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film negatives ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Natives with Ivory Tusks, Dar Es Salaam, Tanganyika
This photograph of a scene in Dar es Salaam, Tanganyika (present-day Tanzania) is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lobengula's Youngest Daughter
This photograph is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film negatives. The photograph depicts the youngest ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Panorama of Constantinople, Taken from the Galata Tower
The firm of Sébah & Joaillier was a partnership between Jean Pascal Sébah (son of the eminent Ottoman photographer Pascal Sébah) and the Frenchman Polycarpe Joaillier. The firm became official photographer to the Ottoman sultan and was responsible for an enormous number of photographs from throughout the Ottoman Empire. Panoramic photographs employ a variety of techniques to create a wide angle of view. This panorama, most likely taken in the late 1880s, is comprised of ten photographs spliced together to give the viewer a broader image than would have been practical ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Book of Religious Precepts and Stories
Risālah-yi ‘Azīzah (A book of religious precepts and stories) discusses the establishment and spread of Islam. The literal meaning of the title is “Tales of the Almighty.” The book covers the sources of the ideas contained in hadith (the collective body of traditions relating to the Prophet Muhammad) and compares them with the text of the Qur’an. It also explores the commandments in the sacred books of other religions and relates them to the Qur’an. The works considered include the Injil (the New Testament of the Bible, or ...
El Mosquito, January 3, 1875
El Mosquito, which described itself as a “weekly independent, satirical, burlesque periodical with caricatures,” appeared for the first time on May 24, 1863. In the more than 1,500 issues published between then and the last issue in 1893, the newspaper satirized the behavior of local politicians. The publication provides a unique vantage point on the formation of the modern nation-state in Argentina. Published on Sundays, the newspaper consisted of four pages, with the two middle pages exclusively dedicated to lithographs that caricaturized current events and important figures of the ...
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