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Type of Item
December 26 Program of the Ciniselli Circus
This one-page document is the very first program of the well-known Ciniselli Circus (now the Bolshoi Saint Petersburg State Circus) for a performance that took place on Monday, December 26, 1877. Four acts were by members of Ciniselli family. Nearly all other acts were by famous performers from abroad, for example, German equestrienne Oceana Renz and the Italian clown Tanti. Following a musical opening, the circus featured a total of 15 acts, with a ten-minute intermission. The acts included horses, clowns, gymnastics, and music. The Ciniselli Circus was founded in ...
Liberty Act by Gaetano Ciniselli
Italian-born Gaetano Ciniselli (1815−81) was a circus equestrian and horse trainer who in 1877 founded the Ciniselli Circus (now the Bolshoi Saint Petersburg State Circus). The circus was housed in the first stone structure in Russia purpose-built for circus. In this painting, Ciniselli is shown performing the liberty horse act, which was an invariable part of the circus program until his death in 1881. The term "liberty horse act" refers to an act in which the horses are directed with verbal commands and are not mounted or held by ...
The Ciniselli Circus (now the Bolshoi Saint Petersburg State Circus) opened on December 26, 1877. The first stone structure in Russia purpose-built for the circus, it was regarded by many as the most beautiful circus building in Europe. The building was designed by architect Vasily Kenel (1834–93), who also produced this watercolor, which has his signature in the lower right-hand corner. The building was a unique engineering structure for its time, designed and built on the basis of the state-of-the-art engineering principles and methods. For the first time, inner ...
Water Supply Works in Rio de Janeiro: Santa Teresa Reservoir
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows the Santa Tereza Reservoir, part of the Rio de Ouro Waterworks, photographed by Marc Ferrez (1843-1923). The system carried water from the Tinqua Mountains to the ...
British Troops Marching in Market Street, Pretoria
This photograph shows British troops marching on Market Street, later called Paul Kruger Street, in Pretoria, South Africa, in 1877. In 1877-78, the British Army engaged in a series of punitive expeditions against the Basuto, Zulu, and Galeka peoples that resulted in the annexation of the Transkei to the Cape Colony. The photograph is from the Van der Waal Collection at the Department of Library Services at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. The Van der Waal Collection forms part of an archive of South African architecture assembled by architectural ...
The Waymarks to Benefits
This manuscript, dated AH 1294 (AD 1877), contains a copy of a very famous prayer book by the Moroccan Sufi, Muḥammad al-Jazūlī (died 1465), with the title Dalā’il al-Khayrāt (The Waymarks to Benefits). The work exists in many manuscripts and is one of the most widely copied Islamic texts. The opening section consists of the 99 names of Allah, followed by prayers and blessings for the Prophet Muhammad, which are divided into sections for daily recitation. The Arabic script is a clear, but slightly ornate, Naskh. The copyist used ...
Commentary to ‘Abd Al-Ghanī Al-Nābulusī's Kifāyat al-ghulām
This late 19th-century manuscript, dated AH 1294 (AD 1877), contains a commentary on Kifāyat al-ghulām (The youth’s sufficiency), one of the many works of ‘Abd al-Ghanī ibn Ismā‘īl al-Nābulusī (1641–1731). ‘Abd Al-Ghanī was a Syrian mystic, theologian, poet, and traveler, and his writings in both poetry and prose reflect his many interests and activities. He spent seven years studying the writings of the Sufi mystics on their spiritual experiences. He also journeyed extensively throughout the Islamic world, to Istanbul, Lebanon, Jerusalem, Palestine, Egypt, Arabia, and Tripoli. The ...
These nishiki-e (multicolored woodblock prints) of Meiji dignitaries are by Yamazaki Toshinobu (1857–86). They are group portraits of members of the early Meiji government, formed when imperial government resumed in Japan in 1868 after the Tokugawa shogunate. Most of the figures depicted were statesmen important to the Meiji Restoration, such as Sanjō Sanetomi (seen at rear right in the center panel), Iwakura Tomomi (rear left in right-hand panel), Kido Takayoshi (rear right in left-hand panel), and Ōkubo Toshimichi (front left in left-hand panel). The portrait of each personage is ...
Central Africa: Naked Truths of Naked People
Charles Chaillé-Long (1842–1917) was an American from the state of Maryland who enlisted as a private in the Union Army in the Civil War, fought in the Battle of Gettysburg, and rose to the rank of captain. In 1870 he was one of the approximately 50 former Union and Confederate officers recruited to assist the khedive of Egypt in developing a national army. He became chief of staff to General Charles (“Chinese”) Gordon when Gordon was governor of Equatoria Province in Sudan. In that capacity, in April 1874 Chaillé-Long ...
El Mosquito, January 3, 1875
El Mosquito, which described itself as a “weekly independent, satirical, burlesque periodical with caricatures,” appeared for the first time on May 24, 1863. In the more than 1,500 issues published between then and the last issue in 1893, the newspaper satirized the behavior of local politicians. The publication provides a unique vantage point on the formation of the modern nation-state in Argentina. Published on Sundays, the newspaper consisted of four pages, with the two middle pages exclusively dedicated to lithographs that caricaturized current events and important figures of the ...
Walt Whitman, Half-Length Portrait, Seated, Facing Left, Wearing Hat and Sweater, Holding Butterfly
This photograph of the American poet Walt Whitman, taken in 1877, was one of Whitman's favorites. He used the butterfly-on-hand as a recurring motif in his books and intended for this photo to be reproduced as the frontispiece in this sample proof of Leaves of Grass from 1891. To foster the image of himself as one with nature, he claimed that insect was real and one of his "good friends." In fact, the die-cut cardboard butterfly was clearly a photographic prop. Now in the collections of the Library of ...
Walt Whitman's Cardboard Butterfly
Shown here is the brilliantly colored cardboard butterfly that belonged to the American poet Walt Whitman. In 1877 Whitman had a photograph taken by W. Curtis Taylor of Broadbent & Taylor in Philadelphia of himself holding the butterfly, a portrait Whitman intended to use as the frontispiece for a new edition of Leaves of Grass. To foster the image of himself as one with nature, he claimed that insect was real and one of his "good friends." In fact, the die-cut cardboard butterfly was clearly a photographic prop. Now in the ...