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17 results
Demonstration of the Truth
Izhar al-Haqq (Demonstration of the truth) is a work of Islamic apologetics that broke new ground in the Muslim approach to the Bible and to Christian doctrine. Written by Indian Shia scholar Rahmatullah al-Dihlawi (circa 1817−91), it received the approbation of the Ottoman sultan, Abdülaziz (reigned 1861−76). It was printed in 1867 at the imperial press in Istanbul for distribution among Arabic-speaking Muslims. Rahmatullah based his innovative approach on analysis of European Protestant historical or higher criticism, i.e., on reinterpretations and reformulations of biblical historiography made by ...
Contributed by
Qatar National Library
The Distant Countries: Notes on the Journey (California, Mauritius, Aden, Madagascar)
Louis Laurent Simonin (1830–86) was a French mining engineer, writer, and traveler, who in this book, published in 1867, chronicled his impressions of four widely different places: the U.S. state of California; the British-controlled island of Mauritius; Aden (Yemen); and Madagascar. Simonin explained that these places would be of interest to European readers and that all four had shown economic development and other progress in recent years. He was impressed by California’s diverse population, and remarked on the state’s achievements in communications and transportation. Turning to ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Portuguese Possessions in Oceania
This book by Affonso de Castro, an infantry captain in the Portuguese Army who served as governor of East Timor (present-day Timor-Leste) from 1859 to 1863, is one of the earliest historical studies of this former Portuguese colony. The work is in two parts. The first part examines the history of East Timor from its occupation by the Portuguese in the 16th century, and recounts Queen Mena's conversion to Christianity and the disputes with the Dutch over the region. In the second part of the study, the author examines ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
View of Beirut, Looking Towards Body of Water
This image by the firm of Maison Bonfils depicts the city of Beirut, Lebanon, sometime in the last third of the 19th century. Maison Bonfils was the extraordinarily prolific venture of French photographer Félix Bonfils (1831-85), his wife Marie-Lydie Cabanis Bonfils (1837-1918), and their son, Adrien Bonfils (1861-1928). The Bonfils moved to Beirut in 1867 and, over the next five decades, their firm produced one of the world's most important bodies of photographic work about the Middle East. Maison Bonfils was known for landscape photographs, panoramas, biblical scenes, and ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Aerial Panoramic View of Beirut
This image by the firm of Maison Bonfils depicts the city of Beirut, Lebanon, sometime in the last third of the 19th century. Maison Bonfils was the extraordinarily prolific venture of the French photographer Félix Bonfils (1831-85), his wife Marie-Lydie Cabanis Bonfils (1837-1918), and their son, Adrien Bonfils (1861-1928). The Bonfils moved to Beirut in 1867 and, over the next five decades, their firm produced one of the world's most important bodies of photographic work about the Middle East. Maison Bonfils was known for landscape photographs, panoramas, biblical scenes ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Wills Concerning the School in Gabrovo
The Gabrovo School was the first secular school in Bulgaria. Founded in 1835, it trained Bulgarian teachers and employed such notable Bulgarian scholars as Neofit Rilski. This work contains the wills of several men associated with the Gabrovo School, including one of its co-founders, V. E. Aprilov. The wills appear in Bulgarian with the corresponding Greek translation on opposite pages. Printed at the end of the book are illustrations of the grave monuments of Aprilov and the school's other co-founder, N.S. Palauzov.
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Library of Congress
Damascus. The Great Mosque and View of Damascus.
This photograph by the firm of Maison Bonfils depicts the Great Umayyad Mosque of Damascus (Jāmi' al-Umawī al-Kabīr) as it appeared in the late 19th century. Constructed in the eighth century on the site of earlier places of worship, the mosque is a site of spiritual significance to both Sunni and Shi’a Muslims. It also is said to house the head of John the Baptist. Maison Bonfils was the extraordinarily prolific venture of the French photographer Félix Bonfils (1831-85), his wife Marie-Lydie Cabanis Bonfils (1837-1918), and their son, Adrien ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Bulgarian Haiduts
Georgi Stoikov Rakovski (1821-67) was a famous Bulgarian revolutionary who drew inspiration from the haiduts, the traditional bandits who lived in the mountains of Bulgaria and robbed from the Ottomans. He intended to write a larger history of the haiduts in Bulgaria, but was able to send his publisher only the 39 pages that comprise Book I before he died of tuberculosis at the age of 46.
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Library of Congress
Accounts of the Executors of V.E. Aprilov Submitted to N.N. Aprilov
The Gabrovo School was the first secular school in Bulgaria. Founded in 1835, it trained Bulgarian teachers and employed such notable Bulgarian scholars as Neofit Rilski. This volume provides the school's financial statistics and budgets for a number of years, and includes teachers' salaries and expenditures for books, newspapers, and school supplies, as well as income received from donations and other sources of revenue. The book complements a separate work, The Gabrovo School and Its First Trustees, which was a history of the school’s early years, edited by ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Two Opium Smokers on Java
This carte-de-visite photograph shows two opium smokers on the island of Java. Opium smoking was introduced into Java by the Dutch, who established a major port at Batavia (present-day Jakarta) and imported Indian-grown opium for local sale and later for re-export to China. Opium smoking was at first mainly a part of social life among Javanese upper classes, but in the 19th century it increasingly spread to the laborers who served the expanding colonial economy. The photograph was taken by the firm of Woodbury & Page, which was established by the ...
Contributed by
Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and the Caribbean Studies KITLV
Eight-Point Program for a New Government
This manuscript is the handwritten draft of proposals formulated by Sakamoto Ryōma (1836-67) and Gotō Shōjirō (1838-97), pro-imperial activists from the Tosa Domain (now Kochi prefecture) in western Japan, in 1867. In this document, Ryōma and Shōjirō proposed an eight-point program of political reforms to be undertaken by the new imperial government after the expected resignation of Tokugawa Yoshinobu (1837-1913), the last shogun. The proposed reforms included enactment of new fundamental laws, recruitment of capable people to serve as government advisers, establishment of diplomatic relations with foreign powers, and establishment ...
Contributed by
National Diet Library
Bulgarian Folk Calendar for Leap Year 1868
Bulgarian Folk Calendar for Leap Year 1868 is one of a number of popular folk calendars produced by En’o Kŭrpachev (1833–1916), a publisher in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), during the National Revival era in Bulgaria. The first published Bulgarian calendar appeared in 1818. Over 100 of them were published during the National Revival era alone. The wave of popularity for Bulgarian calendars began in the 1840s and continued long past the end of the Revival period. Calendars were a popular genre of reading material in the 19th century, and ...
Contributed by
Central Library of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
The Young Maiden Oshichi
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. From the series Edo Meisho (Famous sites of Edo), this 1867 ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Sketch of the Careysburg Road
Careysburg, Liberia, was established in late 1856 by order of the Liberian Senate and House of Representatives. It was the country’s first interior settlement, and was deliberately situated on a plateau surrounded by hills in order to provide a healthier environment for settlers unable to cope with the heat, humidity, and disease-carrying mosquitoes of the coastal lowlands. The town was named for the Reverend Lott Carey (1780-1828), a former slave from Richmond, Virginia, the first American Baptist missionary to Africa, and an important figure in the early affairs of ...
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Library of Congress
Syriac Grammar
This work is a grammar of Syriac written in Garshuni (Arabic in Syriac letters). The Syriac words and expressions are partially vocalized, and the section titles are in both Arabic and Syriac. In the colophon, the work is called a musawwada (draft) and there are numerous corrections and annotations to the text. It is also stated that the copy was completed on the 18th of Ab, meaning August, 1867. It was first created at the Monastery of Saints Cyprian and Justina at Deir Kfīfāne in Lebanon; later it belonged to ...
Contributed by
Holy Spirit University of Kaslik
Ibn Khallikan’s Biographical Dictionary, Volumes 1 and 2
Abu-l ‘Abbas Ahmad Ibn Khallikan (1211–82 AD, 608–81 AH) was a Kurdish Muslim jurist who lived in present-day Iraq, Syria, and Egypt. Wafayat al-a’yan wa-anba abna az-zaman (Obituaries of eminent men and history of the contemporaries), better known as Ibn Khallikan’s biographical dictionary, is the book on which its author’s fame rests. Considered a work of the highest importance for the civil and literary history of the Muslim people, it occupied Ibn Khallikan from 1256 until 1274.  The dictionary is of enormous scope—the English ...
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Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Alphabet Book for Primary Schools in the Bosnian Vilayet
The first printing house in Bosnia and Herzegovina was founded in 1519 by Božidar Goraždanin, in the city of Goražde, in eastern Bosnia. Two years later, in 1521, the establishment closed and was moved to Romania. Subsequently, a small number of books written in Bosnia and Herzegovina were sent outside the country to be printed, in Venice, Vienna, Rome, and elsewhere, but books were not produced in the country. In the second half of the 19th century, there was a revival of interest in printing and publishing in Bosnia and ...
Contributed by
National and University Library of Bosnia and Herzegovina