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Type of Item
Fortress of Brum in Pernambuco
This 19th-century plan, made by a captain in the Brazilian Army’s inspectorate of fortresses, shows the fortress at Brum, which was constructed by the Dutch and the Portuguese in the 17th century.
Colton's Persia, Arabia, Et cetera
This map of Persia (present-day Iran), the Arabian Peninsula, and neighboring countries originally appeared in the 1865 edition of Colton’s General Atlas. It extends from a part of Egypt (the Nile Delta) in the west to Afghanistan in the east and reflects the general level of geographic knowledge of the Middle East in mid-19th century America. Coloring is used to indicate borders and certain provinces or settled areas. The map shows cities, mountains, and roads, and includes some notes on topographical features. J.H. Colton & Company was founded in ...
Alphabet of the Five Parts of the World
This abecedarium, published in Paris in 1863, is made up of color lithographs, purportedly illustrating the people of the different countries of the world. Each letter is associated with a country, which is represented by individuals in traditional dress, usually a couple, who are supposed to reflect the place and its population. These representations, somewhat romantic, are more theatrical than anthropologically accurate. Many are very approximate, sometimes even unrealistic or inaccurate. For the letter Q, for example, “Quebec” is represented by a woman in oriental dress, and a minaret and ...
Unidentified African American Soldier in Union Uniform with Wife and Two Daughters
In May 1863, U.S. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton issued General Order Number 143 creating the Bureau of U. S. Colored Troops. This photograph shows an unidentified African American soldier in a Union uniform, with his wife in dress and hat, and two daughters wearing matching coats and hats. The image was found in Cecil County, Maryland, making it likely that this soldier belonged to one of the seven United States Colored Troop regiments raised in Maryland. The photograph is from the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs ...
Bird’s-Eye View of Property on Alleghany Avenue, Philadelphia, 25th Ward
This print shows a bird's eye view of the grid plan of the city of Philadelphia, looking southeast from Frankford Road in northeast Philadelphia toward the Delaware River. The area depicted lies between Westmoreland Street and a few blocks south of Columbia Street, consisting mainly of the open land surrounding the Aramingo Canal, the Reading Railroad depot between Lehigh Avenue and Somerset Street, and the tracks of the Philadelphia, Trenton, and New York Railroad line. A few dwellings, churches, and other structures comprise the landscape, with a heavier concentration ...
Union Volunteer Refreshment Saloon, of Philadelphia
This print is a lively scene from November 1863 containing a view of the two hospitals, refreshment stand, and other buildings of the Union Volunteer Refreshment Saloon located near the Navy Yard at Swanson and Washington Avenues in Philadelphia during the American Civil War. Situated at the transportation hub between the North and the South on land leased for free from the Philadelphia, Wilmington & Baltimore Railroad, the saloon was a volunteer relief agency that provided meals, hospital care, washing, sleeping, and writing facilities to military personnel, refugees, and freedmen. It ...
Map of the Battle of Gettysburg, 1863
The Battle of Gettysburg, one of the most decisive battles of the American Civil War, was fought on July 1–3, 1863 near a small Pennsylvania town important for its many road and railroad connections. The Confederate army under General Robert E. Lee consisted of 72,000 men and was organized into corps commanded by Generals James Longstreet, Richard S. Ewell, and Ambrose P. Hill and a cavalry corps commanded by General J.E.B. “Jeb” Stuart. The Union army commanded by General George G. Meade had about 94,000 ...
Gettysburg Address: Nicolay Copy, 1863
This document represents the earliest of the five known drafts of what is probably the most famous American speech. Delivered by President Abraham Lincoln in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, at the dedication of a memorial cemetery on November 19, 1863, it is now familiarly known as “The Gettysburg Address.” Drawing inspiration from his favorite historical document, the Declaration of Independence, Lincoln equated the catastrophic suffering caused by the Civil War (1861–65) with the efforts of the American people to live up to the proposition that “all men are created equal.” This ...