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Letter from Engku Temenggung Seri Maharaja (Daing Ibrahim), Ruler of Johor, to Napoleon III, Emperor of France
This beautiful royal Malay letter from the ruler of Johor, Temenggung Daing Ibrahim, to the Emperor of France, written in Singapore in 1857, is a triumph of style over substance. Its 13 golden lines pay effusive compliments to Napoleon III but convey little else. It is hard to know what either side hoped to gain from the despatch of such a magnificent missive, for in the mid-19th century French interests in Southeast Asia were primarily focused on Indochina, while Johor’s allegiance was firmly with the British. In the letter ...
Sketch Map of Africa with a Comparative Overview of the Journeys of Dr. Barth and Dr. Livingstone
This map compares the voyages of the British explorer David Livingstone (1813-73), who traveled down the Zambezi River in 1851-56, and the German Heinrich Barth (1821-65) who, between 1850 and 1855, explored much of western Africa and the Sahara. Barth traveled to western Sudan, Chad, and northern Nigeria, where he researched the decline of the Fulani Empire and the history of the Hausa people, and recorded local languages and histories. In 1855, he spent eight months in Timbuktu, where he studied the Islamic culture of West Africa. Barth later published ...
Active Passage, Saturna Group, Looking West
The Northwest Boundary Survey of 1857-61 was a joint U.S.-British project to survey the border between the United States and Canada from the crest of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. Carried out jointly by American and British experts, it involved four years of strenuous work in rugged and heavily forested terrain. James Madison Alden (1834-1922) was a Massachusetts artist who, in 1854, enlisted in the U.S. Navy and worked as a cartographer on a project to chart the California coast. In January 1858, Alden became ...
Shirin and Khusraw
Shirin va Khusraw (Shirin and Khusraw) is a story written in the 12th century by Shaykh Niẓāmī Ganjavi (circa 1140-1202), based on a tale found in Shahnamah (Book of kings), the epic-historical work of Persian literature composed at the end of the tenth century by the poet Firdawsi (circa 940–1020). The legend was well known before Firdawsi and further romanticized by later Persian poets. The story chosen by Niẓāmī was commissioned by and dedicated to the Seljuk Sultan Tughrul and to the sultan’s brother, Qizil Arsalan. This copy ...
The Forest Traveler
Georgi Rakovski (1821–67) was an important Bulgarian revolutionary and writer who was one of the leaders in the Bulgarian struggle against Ottoman rule. He lived a life of constant intrigue against the Ottomans, which at times included spying, imprisonment, escape from captivity, organizing rebellions, and surviving a sentence of death that was not carried out. Rakovski published several newspapers and wrote many works intended to inspire the Bulgarian people, including The Forest Traveler, one of the most famous ideological works of Bulgarian literature. Written while Rakovski was in hiding ...
This clearly written manuscript, dated 1857, is a work on grammatical questions by Gabriel Germanus, or Jirmānūs, Farḥāt (circa 1670–1732), metropolitan of Aleppo and founder of the Lebanese Maronite Order. Maronite synod documents of the 16th century reflect a poor standard of Arabic and are often interspersed with Syriac words. Metropolitan Farḥāt was a writer of correct and elegant Arabic and a forerunner of the Maronite initiative in the 19th century Arabic revival. The work was written in 1705 and then printed in 1836 at the American Protestant press ...
View of the Caquetá River near the Port of Descansé, Caquetá Territory
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a party of Amerindians crossing the Caquetá River on a flat-bottomed boat, while two others, perhaps fishermen, are busy on the bank. The Caquetá River rises in fertile, mountainous southwestern Colombia and becomes a major waterway as it flows east across the country’s vast plains. In Brazil, where it is called the Japurá, it ultimately joins the Amazon. The region of Caquetá enjoyed special territorial status at times in the 1840s and 1850s. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s ...
Indian Male and Female of the Macaguaje Nation, Caquetá Territory
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows an Amerindian family of Macaguaje ethnicity. The Macaguaje speak the languages Macaguaje (also called Siona) and Koreguaje. Very few members of this group are now believed to remain. Paz depicts a couple in traditional dress. The man has a bodoquera (blowgun) used for hunting small animals; the woman carries a child in a basket hanging from a head strap. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted the daily activities ...
Correguaje Indians in Their Traditional Garments, Caquetá Territory
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows members of an Amerindian ethnic group. Paz calls them Correguajes, which is also the name of their language (now usually spelled Koreguaje). Koreguaje speakers live in present-day Caquetá Department in southern Colombia. The people appear to be participating in a ceremonial ritual, with musical instruments, ornate headwear, and necklaces. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of the country’s different ethnic, racial ...
Priest Manuel M. Albis, with Converted Mocoa Indians, Caquetá Territory
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows the priest Manuel Albis with Mocoa Indians who had become Catholics. Albis is known to have been interested in learning about the peoples he encountered in southern Colombia, and published scholarly work on the Andaquí language spoken by people living near Mocoa (also called Lowland Inga). These groups lived along the upper Caquetá and Putumayo Rivers in present-day Caquetá Department. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted the daily ...
Converted Andaqui People, Producing Pita Fiber in Descansé, Caquetá Territory
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows three Andaqui people in Caquetá Territory (present-day Cauca Department), engaged in obtaining pita fiber from the plant Agave Americana. The material was used to make cordage, matting, and rough cloth. The Andaqui lived at the southern end of the Cordillera Oriental. Paz characterizes the people as reducidos, which meant that they lived in a reduction, or mission town, and had become Catholics under the influence of Spanish missionaries. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of ...
An Andaqui Indian. Miguel Mosquera, Caquetá Territory
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows an Andaqui Amerindian, together with a black or mixed-race man identified as Miguel Mosquera, one of a pair of twins who were among the most trusted guides and interpreters with whom Paz worked. Paz captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of the country’s different ethnic, racial, and social groups. Paz was born in Almaguer in the province of Cauca. He joined the Colombian army at a young age and showed ...
Guaqui Indians, Caquetá Territory
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows indigenous Guaqui people in the area of present-day Caquetá Department, southern Colombia. They appear to be gathering fruit from the tall palm trees that grow in this lush forest region. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of the country’s different ethnic, racial, and social groups. Paz was born in Almaguer in the province of Cauca. He joined the Colombian army at ...
Dale, Ross and Withers, Importers and Jobbers of Silks and Fancy Goods, 219 Market Street and 42 Commerce Street, Philadelphia
This advertisement shows the front facade of the five-story storefront built circa 1857 at 219 Market Street in Philadelphia. The building is adorned with the name of the business and the street number on the roof. The print also shows line-drawn partial views of adjacent buildings. The partnership of Dale, Ross & Withers, leading silk merchants in the United States, was formed in 1843 and relocated to this address in 1857. By the mid-1860s, Withers had left the partnership. The illustration is by Stephen Decatur Button (1813-97) and was printed by ...
Woodlands Cemetery. Main Entrance
This print shows the arched gateway entrance to the Woodlands Cemetery. The cemetery was chartered in 1840 on the former estate of botanist William Hamilton at 3900 Woodland Avenue in West Philadelphia. The view includes the classical entrance arch and two families, one entering and one exiting, both attired in black. The entranceway, built after the designs of John McArthur, Jr., was razed in 1936. McArthur was the architect of some of Philadelphia’s most important Civil War-era buildings. The print, by James Fuller Queen, a Philadelphia lithographer and pioneer ...
Alfred Jenks and Son's Machine Works, Bridesburg
This illustration shows the busy industrial complex of Alfred Jenks & Son, located on the east side of Richmond Street between Franklin and Locust streets in Bridesburg, Philadelphia. The firm was established circa 1819 by Alfred Jenks and enlarged in 1853. A horse-drawn flatbed truck enters the courtyard of the U-shaped complex containing several buildings surrounded by wood fencing. Within the yard, clusters of workers transport boxes and planks of wood. Outside the complex, a driver handles a four-horse team pulling a truck loaded with two large machines, as other factory ...