29 results in English
Colton’s Peru and Bolivia
This 1855 map of Peru and Bolivia shows topographical features, cities, towns, forts, rapids, and rivers. National and regional boundaries are marked in pink, green, yellow, and blue. An inset map of Lima, the capital of Peru, appears in the lower-left-hand corner. In the upper right are the River Madeira, forming part of the border between Peru and Brazil, and the Amazon, the upper parts of which are known in Peru as the Marañón and in Brazil as the Solimões. A note indicates the navigability of the River Ucayali up ...
European Turkey as the Theater of War between the Turks and the Russians
This map shows southeastern Europe during the Crimean War (1853−56) that pitted Russia against the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and its allies Britain, France, and Sardinia. The western European powers backed the Turks in order to block Russia’s expansion into the Black Sea region, which they believed threatened their positions in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Many of the war’s major battles were fought on the Crimean Peninsula in southern Russia, which, ironically, is not shown on this early map of the “theater of war.” The conflict ...
Colton's Persia, Arabia, Et cetera
This map showing the Arabian Peninsula, Persia (present-day Iran), Afghanistan, and Baluchistan (present-day Iran and Pakistan) was published in 1855 by the G.W. and C.B. Colton and Company of New York. Coloring is used to indicate borders and certain provinces or settled areas. The map shows cities, mountains, and roads, and includes some notes on topographical features. The old Qatari city of Al Zabara is shown. The map is accompanied by a one-page summary of the geography, people, principal places, and recent history of Afghanistan and Baluchistan. The ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Map of the Near East
German geographer and cartographer Heinrich Kiepert (1818–99) is generally regarded as one of the most important scholarly cartographers of the second half of the 19th century. He was head of the Geographical Institute in Weimar between 1845 and 1852 and professor at the University of Berlin from 1852 until his death. Shown here is Kiepert’s 1855 map of the Near East, which appeared in the Kiepert’s Neuer Hand-Atlas über alle Teile der Erde (Kiepert’s new portable atlas of all parts of the world), published by Dietrich ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Copy of the U.S.-Japan Treaty of Peace and Amity
After his initial visit to Japan in July 1853, Commodore Matthew C. Perry (1794–1858) returned to Japan in March 1854 to start discussions with Hayashi Akira and other Bakufu (shogunate) representatives in Yokohama. After protracted negotiations, the U.S. and Japanese representatives signed the U.S.−Japan Treaty of Peace and Amity. Consisting of 12 articles, the treaty proclaimed everlasting peace and amity between the two countries and approved the opening of the Shimoda and Hakodate ports, the supply of fuel and water, and the establishment of a U ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Commentary of Husayn
Tafsīr-i Ḥusaynī (Commentary of Husayn) is a commentary on the Qurʼan, transcribed in two volumes. The original commentary was written in 1504 (910 AH), but this copy was made in 1855–57 (1272–74 AH) by Wali ul Din. The first volume of this manuscript covers the chapters (surahs) in the Qurʼan from Fatihah (Opening verse) to Kahf (The cave); the second volume the surahs from Maryam (Mary) to Al-Nās (The people). The manuscript is beautifully transcribed on handmade paper, with commentary devoted to each concept, word, or thought. Words ...
Indian Summer
Adalbert Stifter (1805–1866) was one of the greatest stylists of German literature. He began his career in the spirit of Austrian Biedermeier by writing stories for the bourgeois reading public. The theme of these stories, which first appeared in popular journals and almanacs, was often the humanization of the elemental. Stifter later thoroughly revised these works, which led to their publication in his Studien of 1844–50 and Bunte Steine of 1853. After the revolutionary upheavals of 1848, Stifter distanced himself from contemporary trends. Der Nachsommer (Indian summer), the ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
The Breath of Perfumes
Ahmed Mohammed al-Maqqari (1591–1632 AD, 992–1041 AH) was an Arab historian who wrote one of the oldest histories of Muslim Spain. He was born in Tlemcen, in present-day Algeria, and at times lived and worked in Morocco and in Egypt. His most important work, Nafh at-teeb (The breath of perfumes), consists of two parts. The first is a compilation from many authors on Andalusia and its history, including descriptions of the main Andalusian cities and the lifestyles of their peoples. The second part is a biography of the ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Colton's Japan: Nippon, Kiusiu, Sikok, Yesso and the Japanese Kuriles
J.H. Colton & Company was founded in New York City, most likely in 1831, by Joseph Hutchins Colton, a Massachusetts native who had only a basic education and little or no formal training in geography or cartography. Colton built the firm into a major publisher of maps and atlases by purchasing the copyrights to other maps and re-publishing them. Most of the Colton maps were of individual states or groups of states in the United States, but some were of other countries. This 1855 map of Japan is attributed to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Laguna de Siecha, Province of Bogotá
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) shows Laguna de Siecha, in the province of Bogotá (present-day Cundinamarca Department) in west-central Colombia. The lake was of religious significance to the indigenous local Chibcha Muisca people, who were believed to have made gold offerings to their deities at the lake. Settlers in search of gold drained the lake in colonial times, but it has since refilled. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted the daily activities and traditional ...
Natural Bridge, Called the “Land Bridge,” Province of Bogotá
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) of a scene in Bogotá Province (present-day Cundinamarca Department), Colombia shows two men and their pack animals high on the rocky terrain above a river. Another man stands closer to the water. The caption on the painting indicates that the pack train is en route from Pandi to Cunday (in present-day Tolima Department) and that the river – possibly the Sumapaz – emerges after running underground for more than 300 meters. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of ...
Guatavita Lake, Province of Bogotá
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) shows Guatavita Lake in the province of Bogotá (present-day Cundinamarca Department), Colombia. The caption on the painting states that the lake, situated at an altitude of 3,139 meters, was a “notorious place of worship of the aboriginal people.” The lake was a sacred place to the local Chibcha Muisca people, who revered its water deity. The initiation rites of their chiefs, in which the new chief, covered in gold dust, would dive into the lake and other gold offerings would be ...
Panoramic View of the Town and District of Pacho, Province of Bogotá
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) shows the town of Pacho, Bogotá Province (present-day Cundinamarca Department), Colombia, where, as the caption explains, a rich iron mine was located. Situated in the Andes at an altitude of 1,900 meters, Pacho was the site of the first foundry in Latin America, established in 1814. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of the country’s different ethnic, racial, and social groups ...
View of the Town of Pandi, Province of Bogotá
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) shows the town of Pandi in the province of Bogotá (present-day Cundinamarca Department), Colombia. The caption on the painting indicates that the town is located  “less than a half league [about two kilometers] from the natural bridge of Icononzo over the Sumapaz River, full of erratic stones, 1,000 meters above sea level, with a particular group of hieroglyphs made by the Chibchas Indians.” The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and ...
View of the Plain of Fusagasugá, Province of Bogotá
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) shows the llano, or plain, of Fusagasugá in the province of Bogotá (present-day Cundinamarca Department), Colombia. The caption on the painting indicates that this was a place of relaxation for the inhabitants of Bogota. “It is located over 1,772 meters over the sea level, with an average temperature of 20.5 centigrade. At a distance from the capital of 11 1/2 Granadan leagues.” The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia ...
Wooden Bridge over the Cuja River, Province of Bogotá
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) shows the wooden bridge over the Cuja River in the province of Bogotá (present-day Cundinamarca Department), Colombia. A man and his mule are crossing the bridge. The scene is near Fusagasugá, an area of Colombia known for its natural beauty and pleasant climate. The Cuja flows north into the Caribbean. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of the country’s different ethnic, racial ...
Erratic Stone, near the Town of Pandi, with Hieroglyphs made by the Indians, Province of Bogotá
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) shows an unusual red-painted and inscribed rock in the province of Bogotá (present-day Cundinamarca Department), Colombia. The caption on the painting identifies the scene as that of an “erratic stone, located near the town of Pandi, close to another group, with hieroglyphs made by the Indians, all facing the Boquerón, from where the Sumapaz runs down to the Magdalena.” The monolith is one of the first recorded sites of rock art in Colombia, and the “hieroglyphs” are pictographs made by the local ...
Rocks with Hieroglyphics Made by the Indigenous People, Province of Bogotá
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) depicts a rugged scene in the province of Bogotá (present-day Cundinamarca Department), Colombia. The caption on the painting identifies the scene as that of “stones with hieroglyphs made by the Indians, close to the Facatativá [River], facing the savannah of Bogotá.” The “hieroglyphs” are pictographs made by local people, probably in pre-colonial times. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of the country’s ...
A Family Excursion Close to Bogotá, Province of Bogotá
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) shows a large family group on an excursion near Bogotá, in the province of Bogotá (present-day Cundinamarca Department), Colombia. People of different ages are seated on a rug, engaged in various activities. A man plays the guitar and a couple dances. Local people, including two mounted men, watch from the back. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of the country’s different ethnic ...
Tequendama Falls, Province of Bogotá
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) shows Tequendama Falls, in the province of Bogotá (present-day Cundinamarca Department), Colombia. The caption on the painting indicates that the falls are 146 meters high, located at 2,467 meters above sea level, and 4 ½ leagues distant from the capital city of Bogotá. According to more accurate present-day measurements, the falls are 157 meters high, and located 32 kilometers west of the capital. At the falls, the Bogotá River plunges down a rocky gorge that is only 18 meters wide at ...
Entrance to Bogotá through San Victorino, Province of Bogotá
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) depicts the San Victorino entrance to Bogotá. In the background, as identified by the caption on the painting, are the snow-capped peaks of Tolima, Quindío, Santa Isabel, Ruíz, and Mesa de Herveo. San Victorino was already a well-developed route out to the west of the city in the 18th century. The scene shows people of different social classes, oxen, carriages and carts, and men on horseback. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of ...
Group of Rocks with Hieroglyphs near Pandi, Province of Bogotá
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) depicts a scene in the province of Bogotá (present-day Cundinamarca Department), Colombia. The caption on the painting identifies the subject as a “group of stones near the town of Pandi, with hieroglyphs made by the Indians, facing the Boqueron, close to the old lake of Fusagasuga, probably when the upper lake of Sumapaz fell, which led to the discovery of an underground river, on top of which sits the natural bridge of Icononzo. It could be said that the Indians wanted to ...
The State Penitentiary, for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania
This print is a bird's eye view of the prison built in 1823–36 at 2101–99 Fairmount Avenue, Philadelphia, after the designs of John Haviland. It shows the prison designed with radial corridors, courtyards, and a Gothic-style entranceway and outer wall. It was also known as Cherry Hill State Prison and was one of the largest and most expensive structures of its day. It was most unusual in having flush toilets and heating in the cells. A horse-drawn wagon is visible within, and another, probably a paddy wagon ...
Price and Harper's Steam Saw Mill, Fancy Chair Manufactory, and Lumber Yard, Girard Avenue, between Seventh and Eighth, Philadelphia
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. This advertisement shows the four-story brick building and adjoining lumber yard on Girard Avenue above Seventh Street tenanted by Price & Harper. Signboards on the front facade read, "fancy-chair factory, steam sawmill, turning & scroll sawing, and iron foundry." Large piles of lumber are visible in the yard that extends west to Eighth Street from the factory building. A man leads a horse out of the yard, while horse-drawn ...
Rowley, Ashburner and Company's Oil, Alcohol, Fluid and Pine Oil Works. Kensington Screw Dock, Penn Street above Maiden, Philadelphia
William H. Rease, born in Pennsylvania circa 1818, was the most prolific lithographer of advertising prints in Philadelphia during the 1840s and 1850s. This advertisement shows the Kensington Screw Dock on North Penn Street above Maiden Street (later Laurel Street) from the Delaware River. Shipwrights work on the hull of a square-rigged ship raised in the dry dock in front of the firm's building. At the wharf, horse-drawn drays travel past the neighboring oil manufactory and distillery and a captain, with a dog, leans on a hitching post to ...
Shad Fishing (Taking up the Net)
This print shows shad fishermen working near Philadelphia, across the Delaware River from New Jersey. Several of the men are African American. They stand waist deep in the river, gathering up their catch into a rowboat. Visible in the foreground and background are residential buildings and a local church, a Philadelphia pier, the mills of Gloucester, New Jersey, and sailboats on the river. The print is by James Fuller Queen, a Philadelphia lithographer and pioneer chromolithographer known for his attention to detail who produced many views of the city.
The Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons
This document is a membership certificate for the Philadelphia Society for Alleviating the Miseries of Public Prisons. The society was founded in 1787 by prominent Philadelphia citizens, including Benjamin Franklin and Dr. Benjamin Rush, with the aim of correcting abuses in the city jail. The lithograph contains a vignette with a portrait bust of Bishop White, the long-time president of the organization, and a bird's-eye view of the buildings and grounds of Eastern State Penitentiary. The paragraph at the bottom describes this institution, also known as Cherry Hill State ...
Leaves of Grass
Walt Whitman (1819–92) is generally considered to be the most important American poet of the 19th century. He published the first edition of his major work, Leaves of Grass, in 1855. For the remainder of his life, Whitman produced further editions of the book, ending with the ninth, or "deathbed," edition in 1891–92. What began as a slim book of 12 poems was by the end of his life a thick compendium of almost 400. Whitman regarded each version as its own distinct book and continuously altered the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Louisa Van Velsor Whitman, Head-and-Shoulders Portrait of a Woman, Facing Slightly Left
Walt Whitman is generally considered to be the most important American poet of the 19th century. Of English and Dutch ancestry, he was born on May 31, 1819, in West Hills, Long Island, New York, the second of nine children. This daguerreotype by an unidentified photographer dates from around 1855, the year that Whitman published the first edition of his major work, Leaves of Grass, and shows his mother, Louisa Van Velsor Whitman (1795–1873). Emotionally close to Louisa, Whitman once told a friend: “How much I owe her! It ...
Contributed by Library of Congress