65 results in English
The Lincoln Bible
On March 4, 1861, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney administered the oath of office to Abraham Lincoln using a Bible provided by William Thomas Carroll, clerk of the Supreme Court, because Lincoln’s family Bible was packed with other belongings that still were en route to Washington from Springfield, Illinois. In the back of the velvet-covered Bible, along with the seal of the Supreme Court, the volume is annotated: "I, William Thos. Carroll, clerk of the said court do hereby certify that the preceding copy of the Holy Bible is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Depictions of King Mindon’s Donations at Various Places from 1853 to 1857
This Burmese manuscript (Or 13681) from the British Library shows seven scenes of King Mindon’s donations at various places during the first four years of his reign (1853-57). The artist not only depicted the seven different historical merit-making ceremonies of King Mindon, but he also described the cost of the royal donations in detail. The mid-19th century parabaik (folding book) has red-tooled leather covers, the front cover bearing in gold letters the title “Depictions of King Mindon’s donations at various places beginning in the year 1215, first [volume ...
Contributed by The British Library
Emigrant's Map and Guide for Routes to North America
This map by Gotthelf Zimmermann reflects the importance of German immigration to North America in the mid-19th century. When the Revolution of 1848 failed to produce desired reforms within the German confederation, droves of disillusioned Germans turned their sights abroad. Maps such as this helped show them the way. At the time, land in the United States was cheap, fertile, and plentiful, making it an ideal choice for immigrants eager to establish new settlements and to begin new lives. German communities in the United States became so prevalent that on ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Writing Manual
Sava Dobroplodni (1820–94) was a noted educator, dramatist, and literary figure during the era of the National Revival in Bulgaria. In his role as an educator, he wrote many textbooks, including this pismennik (writing manual). Published in 1853, Dobroplodni’s guide was one of the earliest Bulgarian manuals of writing, or orthography, as well as the first to provide definitions of such literary terms as metaphor, synonym, and allegory. The book showed the Slavic, Greek, German, and French alphabets, offered rules for writing, and gave examples of good writing ...
A Modern Version of the Tale of Genji in Snow Scenes
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. This triptych is a joint work by Utagawa Kunisada (Toyokuni III ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
United States of North America: Perry Arrives in Uraga, Soshu Province
Commodore Matthew C. Perry (1794–1858) of the United States Navy entered the port of Yokohama in 1853 with an intimidating fleet of steam warships, in order to force Japan to open up after nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact. The “black ships” that he came with became a common subject for popular prints. The Japanese people were increasingly exposed to Western culture as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction, and a mixture of curiosity, awe, and anxiety at the influx of unfamiliar technology and customs can be seen ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Pilgrimage of Alpha (Manuel Ancízar) in the Northern Provinces of New Granada, 1850–51
Peregrinación de Alpha (Manuel Ancízar) por las provincias del norte de la Nueva Granada, en 1850 i 51 (The pilgrimage of Alpha (Manuel Ancízar) in the northern provinces of New Granada, 1850–51) consists of articles written by Manuel Ancízar (1812–82), published in book form in 1853. Ancízar, who wrote under the pseudonym Alpha, was secretary of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission) of New Granada (the Spanish viceroyalty that comprised all or parts of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). Formed in 1849, the commission included engineers and geographers ...
The Square of Barbacoas, Province of Barbacoas
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows several people in the main town square of Barbacoas (present-day Nariño Department), Colombia. Situated in a valley near the southwest Pacific coast, Barbacoas was the center of an extensive gold- and platinum-mining industry that flourished from the mid-17th century. The mines were worked by indigenous laborers and African slaves. Barbacoas was also the name of a province when Paz painted this picture in 1853. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New ...
Men Crafting Feluccas and Canoes, Province of Barbacoas
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows two men at work building boats in Barbacoas (present-day Nariño Department), Colombia. Located in the far southwest of Colombia near the border with Ecuador, Barbacoas is both a town and was the name of a province when Paz painted this picture. The man on the left is finishing a canoe. Behind the individual on the right is a felucca, inside the rough shelter. Transport of goods by river to the Pacific Ocean was an important aspect of the provincial economy of ...
Porters in the Mountains of Barbacoas, Province of Barbacoas
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows two porters with heavy loads in the mountains of Barbacoas. One of the men has stopped to fix his shoe. Barbacoas is a municipality in present-day Nariño Department, in the far southwest of Colombia near the border with Ecuador. In 1853, when the picture was made, it was also the name of a province that stretched from the Pacific lowlands up to the mountains of the Cordillera Occidental. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of ...
Exterior View of Palm Huts on the Beaches Across from Gorgona Island, Province of Barbacoas
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) depicts a village scene on the Pacific coast of Colombia, across the water from the island of Gorgona. Shown are two palm huts on stilts, surrounded by lush growth. Ships are visible in the bay. In the foreground a man is working with an axe. In 1853, when the picture was painted, Barbacoas Province stretched from the Pacific lowlands up to the mountains of the Cordillera Occidental. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population ...
The Marimba, a Popular Musical Instrument, Province of Barbacoas
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a man playing a marimba while another man listens. Similar to the xylophone but with a greater range of musical tones, the marimba consists of a series of bars that are struck with mallets. The instrument originated in Africa and made its way to Central and South America with the slaves brought from Africa to these regions. The painting is set in what was then Barbacoas Province, in the far southwest of Colombia near the border with Ecuador. The watercolor is ...
The Interior of a Home on the Beach at Boquerones, Province of Barbacoas
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows the interior of a beachfront home and its inhabitants and possibly guests. On the right, a marimba hangs from the ceiling. The painting is set in what was then Barbacoas Province, in the far southwest of Colombia near the border with Ecuador. In 1853, when the picture was painted, Barbacoas Province stretched from the Pacific lowlands up to the mountains of the Cordillera Occidental. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia ...
A Gold-Washing Technique, Province of Barbacoas
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows people panning for gold along a riverbank in what was then Barbacoas Province, in the far southwest of Colombia near the border with Ecuador. Behind them, two men are fishing. In 1853, when the picture was painted, Barbacoas Province stretched from the Pacific lowlands up to the mountains of the Cordillera Occidental. It was the center of an extensive gold- and platinum-mining industry that flourished from the mid-17th century. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity ...
Indians Living by the Banks of the Tapaje River, Province of Barbacoas
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a group of three Indians, described in the caption as living on the banks of the Tapaje River in what was then the Province of Barbacoas. The painting implicitly contrasts the large pot being fashioned by the person seated on the left, and the commercially-manufactured bottle held by the boy. In the distance are palm trees and a tropical blue sky. Located in the far southwest of Colombia near the border with Ecuador, Barbacoas Province stretched from the Pacific lowlands up ...
Poncho Weaver in Cali, Province of Buenaventura
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a man making woolen ruanas (ponchos) on a large foot-pedaled loom. Weaving of this kind was one of the most important crafts of the Indians of the Cordillera Occidental, in the Andean region in Colombia. In 1853, when Paz painted the picture, Cali was in the province of Buenaventura; it is now the capital of Valle del Cauca Department. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted the daily activities ...
View of Cali and of the Snow-Capped Mount Huila, Province of Buenaventura
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a view of the city of Cali with Mount Huila in the background. The mountain lies about 80 kilometers southeast of Cali and is an active volcano. Santiago de Cali, also known simply as Cali, is the third-largest city in present-day Colombia. In 1853, when Paz painted this picture, Cali was in the province of Buenaventura; today it is the capital of Valle del Cauca Department. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population ...
Campesinos of Cali, Province of Buenaventura
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows three campesinos (Amerindian and mixed-race farmers or farm laborers) in a rural area of Cali, in what was then the province of Buenaventura in western Colombia. Cali is now the capital of Valle del Cauca Department. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of the country’s different ethnic, racial, and social groups. Paz was born in Almaguer in the province of ...
View of the Mountains above Cali from a City Street, Province of Buenaventura
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows the streets of Cali, formally known as Santiago de Cali, in western Colombia. The majestic mountains in the background to the west of the city, known as the Farallones (rocky cliffs), are a part of the Cordillera Occidental of the Colombian Andes. At the time the watercolor was made, Cali was a part of Buenaventura Province. It is now the capital of Valle del Cauca Department. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population ...
Mestizos of Cartago in a Roadside Shop, Province of Cauca
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a mestizo (of mixed Amerindian and European ancestry) couple inside their roadside shop, possibly a food stall, from which they are about to make a sale to a passer-by. The scene is set in Cartago in western Colombia, then in the province of Cauca but now a part of the department of Valle del Cauca. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs ...
A Llapanga and a Mestizo of Cauca, Province of Cauca
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a distinctively clad llapanga arm in arm with a well-dressed mestizo. The llapangas, a term corrupted since Paz’s time to ñapangas, were working-class, mixed-race women. Llapanga means “barefoot,” one of the characteristics of these women, who tended to wear a cotton blouse with red or azure embroidery and a full flannel skirt with embroidered hem, and to have neat and well-groomed bare feet. Llapangas usually did embroidery, dressmaking, or shop work. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which ...
Nevado del Quindio, Province of Cauca
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820–1902) shows the dormant volcano Nevado del Quindío in Colombia. Rising to 4,760 meters in the Cordillera Central, the middle of the three Andean mountain ranges that run north–south through the country, the volcano is located in what was then Cauca Province (now Quindío Department). The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of the country’s different ethnic, racial, and social groups ...
Water Bearers, Province of Cauca
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows water bearers in the Province of Cauca (present-day Cauca Department), in southwest Colombia. The woman balances an enormous earthenware water pot on her head, while the man rides a horse carrying cylindrical containers made of bamboo or palm canes. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of the country’s different ethnic, racial, and social groups. Paz was born in Almaguer in ...
Cigar Maker, Province of Cauca
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a cigar maker, a common sight in 19th-century Colombia, where tobacco was an important export crop. The woman is sitting on the floor of the shop rolling tobacco leaves, while a man wearing a ruana (poncho) enters the shop carrying a basket. In the background are blue sky and a palm tree. The scene is set in the Province of Cauca (present-day Cauca Department) in southwest Colombia. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the ...
Portrait of a Black Man from Cartago, Province of Cauca
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820-1902) shows a black man in Cartago in what was then the Province of Cauca (present-day Valle del Cauca Department) in southwest Colombia. People of African descent were brought to Colombia by the Spanish as slaves and were an important part of the labor force from the early 16th century onward. Slavery was abolished in Colombia in 1851, two years before Paz made this painting. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and ...
Interior of an Indian Hut, Province of Chocó
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows an Amerindian family at home in the Province of Chocó (present-day Department of Chocó), in the Pacific lowlands of western Colombia. The scene shows a mother nursing her baby while the father looks on; another adult is seated on the right. In the background are palm trees, mountains, and a sky with billowing clouds. Chocó is one of the wettest places in the world, with an annual average rainfall of more than 10 meters. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s ...
Liquor Shop in the Village of Lloró, Province of Chocó
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows two men buying and consuming liquor at a shop in the village of Lloró. The drink most likely was locally made from cane sugar. Located in the Province of Chocó (present-day Department of Chocó) in western Colombia, the municipality of Lloró has the distinction of being the wettest place in the world, with an average annual rainfall of 13,300 millimeters. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and depicted ...
Exterior View of the Houses in Nóvita, Province of Chocó
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a scene outside a house in Nóvita in western Colombia. The couple on the right are fairly well dressed and of European origin. On the left are two people of African heritage, by appearance much poorer. A gold-mining center in an area of very high rainfall, Nóvita (now a town in the Department of Chocó) was the first capital of what was then the Province of Chocó. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the ...
Bridge on the Ingará River, Province of Chocó
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a bridge over the Ingará River in the Province of Chocó (present-day Department of Chocó) in western Colombia. Two men are crossing the bridge. Chocó is an area of very high rainfall and many such rudimentary bridges, made of wood and lianas used as ties and ropes, spanned its often swollen rivers and streams. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of ...
The Square of Quibdó, Chocó
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820-1902) shows a part of the town square of Quibdó in Chocó Province, western Colombia (present-day Department of Chocó). The painting contrasts the well-dressed woman of European descent and the mother and child of African origin, who are barefoot and more simply dressed. Chocó is the only department of Colombia with both a Pacific and a Caribbean coast and is one of the parts of the country where the Afro-Colombian population predominates. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity ...
View of a Street in Quibdó, Chocó Province
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a view looking down a street in the town of Quibdó in Chocó Province, western Colombia (present-day Department of Chocó). In the painting, Paz illustrates the different ethnic groups living in the town and their occupations and social status. The customers, one of whom wears a hat suggesting that he is some kind of official, are European or mestizo, while the street vendor is of African origin. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the ...
View from a Street in Nóvita, Chocó Province
In this watercolor, Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows the small village of Nóvita in Chocó Province (present-day Department of Chocó), western Colombia. This region was home to many such villages inhabited by people of African origin. It became economically important in the early 18th century when gold was found in the area. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of the country’s different ethnic, racial, and social groups. Paz ...
The Village of Tebada, Chocó Province
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a scene from a small village on the banks of the Tebada River in Chocó Province (present-day Department of Chocó) in western Colombia. Fishermen are seen on the river, while a man watches from the shore. A woman carries water up from the river. Chocó was mainly inhabited by Afro-Colombians and Amerindians who supported themselves by farming, fishing, and some mining. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and depicted ...
The Village of Sipí or San Agustín, Chocó Province
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows the village of Sipí or San Agustín in Chocó Province (present-day Department of Chocó), western Colombia. The houses are on raised platforms, and parts of tree trunks with notches are used as steps. At the house in the foreground a man leans out from the steps, while a woman passes by in the street. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of ...
View of the San Juan River and Its Navigation Methods, Chocó Province
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows three men wielding long poles pushing off from shore in a flat-bottomed boat on the San Juan River in Chocó Province (present-day Department of Chocó), western Colombia. Villagers, including a woman with a small baby, look on from the bank of the river. In the mid-19th century the population of this relatively poor region was predominantly Afro-Colombian. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and depicted the daily activities and ...
Road to Nóvita via Tamaná Mountain, Chocó Province
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows two porters at a narrow bridge over a rushing mountain stream on what the caption identifies as the road to Nóvita via Tamaná Mountain. The porter on the bridge carries a well-dressed man who is reading a book. The porter approaching the bridge from the right carries a pack. The bridge is the trunk of a large tree. In rugged terrain such as this, porters were sometimes the only means of transport for goods and even people. The Cerro Tamaná is ...
Porters on the Mountain of Nóvita, Chocó Province
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a group of porters setting up camp close to Nóvita, the first capital of the Province of Chocó and now a town in the Department of Chocó, western Colombia. The mountain is probably the nearby Cerro Tamaná, which rises some 4,000 meters above sea level on the western edge of the Cordillera Occidental of the Andes. The mountainous terrain, very high rainfall, and many rivers of this region meant that in the 1850s porters were the main means of transporting ...
Indians of Puracé, Popayán Province
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows four Amerindians in the village of Puracé in Popayán Province (present-day Department of Cauca), in southwest Colombia, an area sandwiched between the western and central cordilleras of the Andes. Puracé is also the name of the local volcano and is a Quechua word meaning “fire mountain.” One of the most active volcanoes in Colombia, it is surrounded by other volcanic mountains and the sources of several major rivers. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of ...
Inhabitants of Patía, Popayán Province
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a mounted mestizo or Amerindian family working with cattle in a field near the Patía River in Popayán Province (present-day Department of Cauca) in southwestern Colombia. In the background are snow-covered mountains. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of the country’s different ethnic, racial, and social groups. Paz was born in Almaguer in the province of Cauca. He joined the ...
Indians of Pansitará, Popayán Province
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows colorfully dressed Amerindian inhabitants of the village of Pancitará, or Pansitará, in Popayán Province (present-day Department of Cauca), southwest Colombia. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and depicted the daily activities and traditional customs of the country’s different ethnic, racial, and social groups. Paz was born in Almaguer in the province of Cauca. He joined the Colombian army at a young age and showed exceptional skills as a ...
Llapangas, Popayán Province
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows three distinctively clad llapangas of Popayán Province (present-day Department of Cauca) in southwest Colombia. Llapanga means “barefoot,” one of the distinctive characteristics of these women, who tended to wear a cotton blouse with red or azure embroidery and a full flannel skirt with embroidered hems and to have neat, well-groomed bare feet. Llapangas usually did embroidery, dressmaking, or shop work. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and depicted the ...
View of the Waterfall on the Vinagre River, Called Waterfall of the Nuns, Popayán Province
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows a stylized view of a waterfall on the Vinagre River (so called for its sulfuric and acidic waters) in the Province of Popayán (present-day Department of Cauca), southwest Colombia. This cascade is known, perhaps for its white and grey coloring, as “las Monjas” (the Nuns). With its pale washes and miniaturized human figures, the painting emphasizes the waterfall’s dramatic drop. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of New Granada and depicted ...