52 results in English
Table Mountain
This view of Table Mountain (Cape Town, South Africa) is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. This drawing, probably made from a ship moored off Robben Island, is one of the most accurate renderings of Table Bay from this period. The notes at the lower left, in Dutch, are keyed to the letters on the ...
Khoikhoi Fording a Stream
This view of a Khoi woman and child fording a stream with a Khoi man behind them is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The Khoikhoi were pastoralists who were derived from the aboriginal hunting population of southern Africa, the San. After establishment of the Dutch colony at Table Bay in 1652, the Khoikhoi were ...
Lion
This depiction of what is probably a lion and a small antelope is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The artist most likely was a Dutchman, born in the 17th century, who was attached in some capacity to the Dutch East India Company and possibly en route to the Dutch East Indies or on his ...
Khoikhoi in a Storm
This view of a group of Khoi people in a storm is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The drawing shows the traditional dress of the Khoi women: peaked hat, kaross (sheepskin cloak) across the shoulders, a small apron or fuller skin kaross around the waist, and leggings of dried raw-hide. The text on the ...
African Ox and Khoi Couple
These two sketches depicting an African ox and a Khoi couple are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The annotations provide details about African cattle and about the differing dress worn by Khoi men and women. The cattle owned by the Khoikhoi were of the Sanga breeds, which resulted from the interbreeding of the indigenous ...
Harvesting Scene
This view of a harvesting scene is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The drawing shows a farming scene with the stacking of hayricks from ox wagons, with a Khoi matjieshuis (mat house) in the foreground and a farmhouse at the back. The Khoi are asking for tobacco from a colonist who is smoking as ...
Khoikhoi Yoking Oxen, and Other Sketches
These sketches are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. Various activities are depicted in these vignettes: at the top, a Khoi man holding oxen while a colonist adjusts the yoke; in the middle, a woman milking a cow into a large ceramic pot; at bottom left, men dealing with a recalcitrant sheep; and at bottom ...
Khoi Women and Dutch Colonist
This view of a group of Khoi women in various costumes and poses, with a woman colonist holding a container, is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The annotations describe Khoi dress and ornamentation, explaining that Khoi women wear several strings of beads around the neck, with copper beads the most favored. The note remarks ...
Khoi Women
These sketches of Khoi women engaged in various activities are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The Khoikhoi were pastoralists who were derived from the aboriginal hunting population of southern Africa, the San. After establishment of the Dutch colony at Table Bay in 1652, the Khoikhoi were subjugated in wars with the Dutch in 1659 ...
Khoi Women Dancing
These depictions of Khoi women are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. In these drawings, the artist has caught the movement of the bodies, clothing, and beads. The annotation, in Dutch, refers to “five dancing Hottentot women,” the latter being the historic name given to the Khoikhoi at the time of white settlement, and now ...
Khoikhoi Drinking from Kaross
These two sketches are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. On the left, Khoikhoi are being given a drink by a colonist, a kaross (a cape or blanket made from skins) serving as the receptacle into which it is poured. The right-hand drawing shows the sequel, with a man drinking from the kaross. The notes ...
Sketches of Khoikhoi
These two sketches are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The sketch on the left depicts an older woman with a walking stick and poorly kept leggings; the sketch on the right depicts an elegantly dressed younger woman. The text, in Dutch, reads: “When the Hottentots are newly born their noses are pushed in, and ...
White Horsemen; Lion Hunt
These sketches are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The top sketch shows armed colonists on horseback; the correction to the drawing suggests that there was only one acceptable way to carry a musket. The bottom sketch shows a trap set to catch a lion, which is being fired at from the undergrowth on the ...
Khoi Family
This sketch of a Khoi couple and child seen from behind is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The woman wears a pointed skin cap, large earrings, double kaross (a blanket or cape made of skins), and skin leggings. The man has ornaments in his hair, a skin bag as well as the roll sack ...
Khoi Groups
These two sketches are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The drawings give details of Khoi activities and dress. The annotations, in Dutch, refer to the tobacco bag hanging on the back of the individual on the left of the left-hand sketch; to the ox-hide shoes fastened with leather thongs worn by the person shown ...
Lion Hunt
These vivid sketches of a lion hunt are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The note, in Dutch, at the upper right states: “The lions cause these people much loss in cattle, but they combat them bravely.” The longer note on the left concerns relations between the Khoi, who by this time lived a semi-settled ...
Khoi Dancers and Musical Instruments
This series of sketches is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The sketches show Khoi activities, including facial painting, drumming, and dancing. The annotations, in Dutch, provide details of the designs used in face painting and of the different drums played by men and women. The right side of the sheet is devoted to dancing ...
Khoi Arrows; Sketches of Farm Servants
These sketches are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. Shown here are weapons used by the Khoi. The accompanying text, in Dutch, remarks on the smoothness and sharpness of the arrows and indicates the varieties of wood used by the Khoi to make the bows. Also shown is an assegai, a long spear that is ...
Khoikhoi Milking
This sketch is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The drawing shows Khoi men and women milking large African cattle. Milk was a main means of sustenance for the Khoi, and African herders developed special techniques to make a recalcitrant cow produce milk, even if her calf had died. The note, in Dutch, describes these ...
Khoikhoi with Cattle
This sketch is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The drawing at the top shows a Khoi family traveling with their domestic animals. The annotations note the walking stick carried by the man and the rings made of elephant tusks around his arms, designed to parry blows by enemies. In a reference to a known ...
Cape Vultures
These sketches of Gyps coprotheres (Cape vultures) are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The note, in Dutch, explains: “These birds are called ‘strontvogels’ [excrement birds] by the Hottentots, but African eagles by the Dutch. Wherever they find a beast, be it small or large, that has died or has been shot, there they are ...
Notes on Architectural Perspective
These elementary architectural sketches with extensive notes are from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi people, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The artist most likely was a Dutchman, born in the 17th century, who was attached in some capacity to the Dutch East India Company and possibly en route to the Dutch East Indies or on his way back to the ...
Landscape and Notes on Shading and Perspective
This sketch showing a landscape with mountains, farm buildings, and a European man is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi people, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The artist most likely was a Dutchman, born in the 17th century, who was attached in some capacity to the Dutch East India Company and possibly en route to the Dutch East Indies or ...
Zulu Chief, South Africa
This 1895 photo of a Zulu chief in native dress standing in front of a thatched hut is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855-1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. The Zulu are southern Africa’s largest ethnic group. Zululand, where this photograph was taken, was absorbed into the British colony of Natal following ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Austral Africa: Losing It or Ruling It; Being Incidents and Experiences in Bechuanaland, Cape Colony, and England
John Mackenzie (1835–99) was a Scottish missionary who was sent by the London Missionary Society to South Africa in 1858. He lived at Shoshong in present-day Botswana in 1862–76. Mackenzie believed that the Ngwato and other African peoples with whom he worked were threatened by Boer freebooters encroaching on their territory from the south, as well as by politicians such as Cecil Rhodes who wanted to see extensive territories to the north annexed to the British Cape Colony. He thus began a campaign for the establishment of what ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Transvaal and Bechuanaland
This pamphlet by Gavin Brown Clark (1846–1930), honorary secretary of the Transvaal Independence Committee, was part of the debate in Great Britain in the 1880s concerning policy toward South Africa and Bechuanaland (present-day Botswana). The Afrikaans-speaking Boers, descendants of the first Dutch settlers in South Africa, began migrating across the Vaal River in the 1830s and established the South African Republic (also known as the Transvaal) in 1856. The Boers also settled and claimed neighboring Bechuanaland. Britain annexed the Transvaal in 1877, but the Boers rebelled and restored their ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Drawing (with a Western Perspective) of the East Indies from the Promontory of Good Hope to Cape Comorin
This portolan map by the Dutch engraver, publisher, and map seller Frederick de Wit (1629 or 1630-1706) shows the Indian Ocean from the Cape of Good Hope to the west coast of India (Malabar). The map was first published in 1675 and was reprinted in 1715. It is oriented with east at the top. Kishm is placed in the present-day United Arab Emirates (UAE) and repeated as “Quaro” and “Quiximi.” The shape of the Arabian or Persian Gulf differs from that shown on other maps. There is a big island ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Rock Painting S00176, Bethlehem, Dihlabeng District Municipality, Free State, South Africa
This San rock painting depicts an upside-down, plum-red antelope with a bleeding nose and, at the upper left, a smaller antelope painted in yellow, also bleeding from the nose. The upside-down posture and the nasal emanations both indicate death. For the San, this death was both literal and metaphoric. Metaphorically, death involved a shaman's passage to the Spirit World that was believed to exist behind the rock surface. The painting is from the eastern Free State of South Africa, which is noted for its depictions of upside-down antelope in ...
Rock Painting S00501, Bethlehem, Dihlabeng District Municipality, Free State
This San rock painting depicts red-colored rain-animals. Among all San groups, the most important ritual is the Great Dance in which, through trances, the San say that they harness a kind of spiritual power. They use this power for healing, hunting, removing societal tensions, making rain, and other tasks. Aspects of the Great Dance are pervasive in San rock art, in part because this dance was of such great significance to the San, but more importantly because the act of making rock art seems to have been part of the ...
Rock Painting S00568, Bethlehem, Dihlabeng District Municipality, Free State
This San rock painting shows rain-animals in upside-down posture, a familiar indication of death in the San culture. For the San, this death was both literal and metaphoric. Metaphorically, death involved a shaman's passage to the Spirit World that was believed to exist behind the rock surface. The painting is from the eastern Free State of South Africa, which is noted for its depictions of upside-down antelope in a variety of unusual contexts. The image of the painting is part of the Woodhouse Rock Art Collection of the Department ...
Rock Painting S00927, Clocolan, Dihlabeng District Municipality, Free State
This San rock painting shows a rain-animal in plum and white colors. San communities believed that rain-animals had to be captured and slaughtered by shamans in order to bring rain. The image of the painting is part of the Woodhouse Rock Art Collection of the Department of Library Services at the University of Pretoria. The collection includes more than 23,000 slides, maps, and tracings from a large number of rock art sites in South Africa. The San are hunter-gatherer people who lived throughout southern and eastern Africa for thousands ...
Rock Painting S01321, Ficksburg, Dihlabeng District Municipality, Free State
This red-and-black San rock-art image of people and a rain-animal depicts aspects of the Great Dance. Among all San groups, the most important ritual is the Great Dance in which, through trances, the San say they harness a kind of spiritual power. They use this power for healing, hunting, removing societal tensions, making rain, and other tasks. San communities also believed that rain-animals had to be captured and slaughtered by shamans in order to bring rain. The image of the painting is part of the Woodhouse Rock Art Collection of ...
Rock Painting S01392, Ficksburg, Dihlabeng District Municipality, Free State
This San rock painting depicts black-and-red colored magical objects, including rain-animals, such as snakes with animal heads, which are encountered by dancers in their out-of-body vision journeys that are part of the Great Dance. Among all San groups, the most important ritual is the Great Dance in which, through trances, the San say that they harness a kind of spiritual power. They use this power for healing, hunting, removing societal tensions, making rain, and other tasks. San communities also believed that rain-animals had to be captured and slaughtered by shamans ...
Paul Kruger Street, Pretoria, South Africa
This photograph shows Paul Kruger Street, looking south towards Pretoria Station, Pretoria, South Africa, as it appeared around 1910. The railroad station was the work of Sir Herbert Baker (1862-1946), a British-born architect who designed many important buildings in South Africa. The street was named in honor of Paul Kruger (1825-1904), the president of the South African Republic (Transvaal) who led the resistance of the Afrikaans-speaking Boers to Britain in the Boer War of 1899-1902. The photograph is from the Van der Waal Collection at the Department of Library Services ...
Pretoria Station, South Africa, 1893
This photograph shows the arrival of the first train at Pretoria Station, Pretoria, South Africa, in 1893. Railroad construction in South Africa was spurred by economic development associated with the gold mining industry, following the discovery of gold near present-day Johannesburg in 1886. Pretoria, at the time the capital of the South African Republic, was connected by rail to Cape Town in 1893, and to Durban and Lourenço Marques (in the then-Portuguese colony of Mozambique) in 1895. The photograph is from the Van der Waal Collection at the Department of ...
Union Buildings in Pretoria, South Africa
This photograph shows the eastern facade of the Union Buildings in Pretoria, South Africa. These buildings, 285-meters long and built from light sand stone, were designed in the English monumental style by the architect Sir Herbert Baker (1862-1946). The cornerstone was laid in November 1910, shortly after the Union of South Africa was formed. Construction was completed in 1913, at a cost of £1,310,640 for the buildings and £350,000 for the building site. The stamp on the back of the photograph reads: “Alan Yates, 240 Andries str ...
British Troops Marching in Market Street, Pretoria
This photograph shows British troops marching on Market Street, later called Paul Kruger Street, in Pretoria, South Africa, in 1877. In 1877-78, the British Army engaged in a series of punitive expeditions against the Basuto, Zulu, and Galeka peoples that resulted in the annexation of the Transkei to the Cape Colony. The photograph is from the Van der Waal Collection at the Department of Library Services at the University of Pretoria, South Africa. The Van der Waal Collection forms part of an archive of South African architecture assembled by architectural ...
Church Square, Pretoria, South Africa, 1905
This 1905 photograph shows Church Square in Pretoria, South Africa, looking east. The cast iron fountain, known as the Sammy Marks Fountain, was imported from Ireland by businessman Sammy Marks (1843-1920) and moved from Church Square to the city zoo in 1910. Born in Lithuania, the son of a Jewish tailor, Marks came to South Africa in 1868. He began his career by peddling jewelry and cutlery, but soon became involved in the rapidly developing gold-, diamond-, and coal-mining industries. Behind the fountain is the recently completed Tudor Chambers, then ...
Natal, Rhodesia, and British East Africa
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
British Kaffraria and its German Settlements
In May 1910, the Verein für Sozialpolitik (Association for Social Policy), an influential organization of German economists based in Berlin, decided to commission a series of studies on the colonization and settlement of tropical regions by Europeans, with the goal of determining whether and under what conditions such colonization was economically and socially sustainable. The studies were to assist in the development of the German overseas empire, and German East Africa in particular. Each study was to include an overview of a particular region of settlement; analyses of its economy ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sketches Representing the Native Tribes, Animals, and Scenery of Southern Africa: From Drawings Made by the Late Mr. Samuel Daniell
Samuel Daniell (1775–1811) was an English painter and draughtsman who arrived in South Africa in December 1799. He was appointed secretary and artist for the expedition of 1801–2 from the Cape of Good Hope to Bechuanaland led by P.J. Truter and William Somerville. On his return to England, Daniell published, with the assistance of his uncle, the painter Thomas Daniell, and his brother, the painter and engraver William Daniell, African Scenery and Animals (1804–5). He later moved to Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka), where he made sketches ...
Nursery Tales, Traditions, and Histories of the Zulus in their Own Words: With a Translation into English, and Notes by the Rev. Canon Callaway. Volume 1
Nursery Tales, Traditions, and Histories of the Zulus in Their Own Words is a compilation of Zulu literature gathered by the Reverend Henry Callaway (1817–90) in the Natal region of South Africa in the late 1850s and 1860s. Callaway left the United Kingdom in 1856 to become a Church of England missionary. In 1858 he settled near the Umkomanzi River in Natal and began to study the Zulu language, religious beliefs, and oral traditions. As Callaway mastered the language, he wrote down tales dictated to him by native storytellers ...