29 results in English
Carpathian Ruthenia
This album, probably published in about 1920, contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. The photographs depict the wooden churches that were central to the practice of Uniate Christianity (combining Roman Catholicism with the Eastern Rite), to which most Ruthenians converted from Eastern Orthodoxy ...
Carpathian Ruthenia. Ceramics
This image is part of an album probably published in about 1920 that contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. Ceramics have been one of the crafts of Carpathian Ruthenia for centuries, as the region has large deposits of kaolin (china clay). Decorated pottery ...
Summary of Petition of Railroad Workers of Hungarian Origin and Protection of Minorities in Czechoslovakia
After World War I, the states of central and southeastern Europe were compelled by the victorious Allied and Associated Powers to sign agreements guaranteeing religious, social, and political equality to their minority populations. The states covered were Austria, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Groups or individuals who believed they had been discriminated against for ethnic or linguistic reasons could petition the League of Nations for redress by the Council. The Minority Section within the League Secretariat was responsible for screening incoming petitions, requesting responses from the accused ...
Petition of Railroad Workers of Hungarian Origin, Draft Reply, Legal Arguments
After World War I, the states of central and southeastern Europe were compelled by the victorious Allied and Associated Powers to sign agreements guaranteeing religious, social, and political equality to their minority populations. The states covered were Austria, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Groups or individuals who believed they had been discriminated against for ethnic or linguistic reasons could petition the League of Nations for redress by the Council. The Minority Section within the League Secretariat was responsible for screening incoming petitions, requesting responses from the accused ...
General Map of European Turkey, Greece and the Ionian Islands
Adrien-Hubert Brué (1786−1832) was a French geographer and cartographer who as a young man accompanied the explorer Nicolas Baudin on his 1800−1803 voyage to New Holland (Australia). Brué returned to France to become an important geographer, associated with the Institut Geographique de Paris and geographer to the king. His Grand atlas universel (Large universal atlas) was first published in 1816 and issued in revised and updated editions in 1825, 1830, and 1838. Shown here is Brué’s map of the Ottoman Empire in Europe, Greece, and the Ionian ...
Essays on the History of the Civil War of 1917-1920
Essays on the History of the Civil War of 1917-1920 is an early history of the civil war that followed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. The book was written by Anatolii Anishev, a researcher at the Tolmachev Military-Political Academy in Leningrad (present-day Saint Petersburg), and published in Leningrad in 1925. In his introduction, Anishev notes that archival sources relating to the war were in poor condition and that almost no monographs existed. This forced him to rely on articles in White Russian magazines and newspapers, which were biased and unreliable ...
Portable Atlas of the Hungarian Kingdom: New and Complete Representation of the Kingdom of Hungary in 60 Plates in Pocket Format
Atlas Regni Hungariae Portatilis: Neue und vollständige Darstellung des Königreichs Ungarn (Portable atlas of the Hungarian kingdom: new and complete representation of the Kingdom of Hungary) is the first pocket-sized atlas of the Kingdom of Hungary. Its creator was a Slovak, Ján Matej Korabinský, who was born in Prešov in 1740 and died in Bratislava in 1811. Korabinský was a professor at several academic institutions, who taught theology, philosophy, and mathematics. The atlas contains copperplate maps of 58 counties, including those that constitute part of present-day Slovakia. All maps also ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Emblems: With Many Images from Ancient Works; by Ján Sambucus of Tyrnavia in Pannonia
Emblemata: Cvm Aliqvot Nvmmis Antiqvi Operis (Emblems: with many images from ancient works) is by the notable Slovak poet, polymath, publisher, collector, and university professor Ján Sambucus (also known as János Zsámboki, 1531−84). Born in Trnava (also referred to as Tyrnavia) in western Slovakia, Sambucus was considered to be the outstanding humanistic personality of Central Europe. He maintained contacts with many European scholars, with whom he collaborated in his publishing and collecting activities and his historical research. A substantial part of his life was spent at the imperial court ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Explanation of the Gospels that the Sacred Mother Church Reads and Proclaims Throughout the Year on Sundays and Other Holidays
Az Evangeliomoknac, Mellyeket Vasarnapokon, Es Egyeb Innepeken Esztendö Altal, Az Anyaszentegyhazban oluasni es Praedicallani szoktanac, Magarazattyanac. Masodic Resze :  Mely Magaban Foglallya, Hvsvettvl Fogva, Adventig Valo Vasarnapi Evangeliomokat (Explanation of the Gospels that the Sacred Mother Church reads and proclaims throughout the year on Sundays and other holidays) is the second volume of a large multivolume work of sermons in Hungarian by church dignitary and religious writer Mikuláš Telegdy (also seen as Miklós Telegdi, 1535−86). The second volume also contains sermons for Sundays from Easter to Advent. The work was ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Antiphonarium Bratislaviense
This illuminated folio with Metz Gothic musical notation comes from the liturgical codex of Canon Jan Han, who was a client of the Bratislava Chapter and the purchaser of this antiphonary. The illuminated initial “S” (Sanctum) with the first two martyrs of the Christian Church, Saint Stephen and Saint Lawrence, accompanied by Saint Vitus, is supplemented by the label Illorum effusus nos in patientia firmet (Their patience enabled us to stream forth), which dates the fragment to 1487. The bottom part of the acanthus decoration on the left margin contains ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Chronicle of the World
Weltchronik (Chronicle of the world) is a German translation of an original Latin text attributed to Joannes de Utino (also seen as Giovanni da Udine, died 1366). This copy was produced in the second half of the 15th century and features extensive decorative colored drawings by an unknown painter. It most likely was created in Bratislava sometime after 1458, during the period of Matthias Corvinus´s accession to the Hungarian throne. It was preserved in the library of the Bratislava Capuchins. The chronicle is a didactic work that would have ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Protocol of the Convent of Bratislava (Heraldic Codex)
Protocollum Venerabilis Conventus Posoniensis (Protocol of the convent of Bratislava) is a heraldic codex containing a list of the patrons and donors of a religious institution in Bratislava with 67 full-page painted miniatures of their respective coats of arms. The last listing was created in 1763. The armorial book was begun in 1710 in Bratislava at the request of Ľudovít Kirkay, the superior of the local Franciscan convent, who most probably was inspired by a model of the Historia Domus protocol of the Bratislava convent dated 1709. The coats of ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Five Books of Poems by the Hungarian Royal Poet Laureate Master Ján Bocatius
M. Ioannis Bocatii Poëtӕ Laureati Cӕʃarei Hvngaridos Libri Poematvm V (Five books of poems by the Hungarian Royal Poet Laureate Master Ján Bocatius) is a collection of occasional poems in Latin by the historian, diplomat, and poet Ioannes, or Ján, Bocatius (1568–1621). The five books in the work are (1) martial and war poems; (2) encomiastic poems (poems of praise); (3) nuptial poems; (4) miscellaneous poems; and (5) funerary poems. Bocatius was a Lusitanian Serb (i.e., Sorb) who, after completing his studies at the end of the 16th ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Passional of the Venerable Lord for the Convent of Žilina (The Passional of Žilina)
Passionale Domini Venerabilis Conventvs Solnensis (Passional of the venerable lord for the Convent of Žilina), commonly known as the Passional of Žilina, contains a number of manuscript musical works. Included here are two compendia. In the first, Harmonia pastoralis (Shepherd's harmony), are two Latin-Slovak Christmas masses with Slovak folk pastorales and carols, and the Latin antiphon "Tota pulchra" (All beautiful). In the second, Prosae pastorales (Pastor's songs), are carols and pastorales for Christmas, New Year, and Epiphany, including the well-known carol “Do lesa, do hory valasi” (Into the ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Catechism, that is: A Brief Overview and an Exposition of the Foremost Articles of Faith and the Christian Religion, Which Catechumens, and Especially Children in Schools, Learn Initially. D. Martin Luther
Katechysmus, To geʃt: Kratičke obʃazenij a wyklad přednich Cžlankůw Wyrij a Náboženʃtwij Křestianského čemuž ʃe Lidé Křestianʃʃtij a zwlaʃʃte Dijtky w Sʃkolách počátečné wyvčugij (Catechism, that is: a brief overview and an exposition of the foremost articles of faith and the Christian religion, which catechumens, and especially children in schools, learn initially), published in 1581, is the first work printed in the territory of Slovakia in the Slovak language. It is the famous “small catechism” by Martin Luther (1483−1546), the great leader of the Protestant Reformation in Germany. The ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
A Song of Blood
Krvavé sonety (A song of blood) is a collection of 32 sonnets by Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav (1849−1921), the pseudonym of the Slovak poet, writer, and lawyer Pavol Országh. Hviezdoslav was an important writer and one of the leading personalities in Slovak literature and culture at the end of the 19th century and the early 20th century. This cycle of poems is the poet’s protest against World War I. The book is a strong reaction to what Hviezdoslav saw as the oppression and humiliation of humanity brought about by ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Portrait of Milan Rastislav Štefánik
Shown here is a portrait of the young Milan Rastislav Štefánik (1880–1919), a Slovak politician, astronomer, and general of the French army. Together with the Czech political leaders Tomáš G. Masaryk (1850−1937) and Eduard Beneš (1884−1948), Štefánik founded, in Paris in 1916, the Czechoslovak National Council, the supreme authority of the Czechoslovakian exiles during the World War I. The present-day Czech Republic and the Republic of Slovakia were at that time part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and many exiles sought to advance the cause of an independent ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Shorthand Notes and Excerpts of Martin Kukučín
These shorthand notes and excerpts are in the hand of Martin Kukučín, pseudonym of Matej Bencúr (1860−1928), an important representative of Slovak literary realism. Kukučín worked as a physician in Prague, Croatia, and later in South America. In his literary estate are found, in addition to his original manuscript works in Slovak, records in shorthand script. Kukučín used several different types of shorthand fonts which he enriched with his own shorthand characters. His notes thus were incomprehensible to other readers. In 1943, cryptographer and librarian Ladislav Lorenc undertook to ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Passbook of Martin Kukučín
Presented here is the bank passbook of Martin Kukučín (1860–1928), the most distinguished representative of modern Slovak realist literature. Kukučín worked as a physician in Prague, on the island of Brač (Croatia), and in Chile and Argentina, all of which are reflected in his literary work. The passbook, containing the record of the royalties Kukučín earned for his literary work, was opened for him on December 31, 1910. At that time Kukučín was living in South America and did not even possess Hungarian citizenship. Kukučín’s real name was ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Pressburg, Posonium, or Pisonium, a Hungarian City as Depicted by Wolfgang Lazius
This colored copperplate view of Bratislava (Posonium in Latin, known as Pressburg during the period of the Austrian and Austro-Hungarian Empire) is the oldest and best-known popular depiction of the city. The creator of this edited copy of the print was the German master Franz Hogenberg (1535−90). At the time the print was made, Bratislava was the capital of Hungary and was also a coronation city of the Habsburg rulers. The view depicts the Danube River, dominated by Bratislava Castle, which was a seat of the Hungarian part of ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
National War Relief Exhibition
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster, published in Pozsony (present-day Bratislava, Slovakia) in 1917, shows a disabled veteran with a prosthetic arm using a scythe to harvest wheat. The text announces the National War Relief Exhibition in Pozsony. The poster was created by Pal Sujan, a popular artist whose portraits and other paintings were widely shown in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Sujan was born in Budapest in 1880, studied art, and worked as an art teacher in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Memoirs and Travels of Mauritius Augustus Count de Benyowsky: Consisting of His Military Operations in Poland, His Exile into Kamchatka, His Escape and Voyage from that Peninsula through the Northern Pacific Ocean, Touching at Japan and Formosa, to Canton in China, with an Account of the French Settlement He Was Appointed to Form upon the Island of Madagascar
Maurice Benyowsky (1741 or 1746-1786) was born near Trnava in present-day Slovakia, at the time part of Hungary and the Austrian Empire. After service in the Austrian Army, he joined a Polish nationalist movement fighting for freedom against Russia. He was arrested and exiled to Kamchatka in the Russian Far East. He escaped captivity and undertook an expedition to explore Kamchatka and the North Pacific. In 1772, he made his way to France, where he secured permission from King Louis XV to establish trading posts on Madagascar. In Paris, he ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Now Slovakia Arises. It's Pulling off Its Shackles
This World War I poster showing soldiers and the Slovak coat of arms is one of a series by Czech artist Vojtěch Preissig (1873–1944) urging Czech and Slovak volunteers living in the United States to fight with the Czechoslovak Legion against Germany and Austria-Hungary. The Czech lands and Slovakia were at that time part of Austria-Hungary and leaders of the national independence movement believed that the cause of an independent Czechoslovak state could be furthered by fighting on the Allied side. In December 1917, the government of France approved ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Devin and the Danube River, Southwest Slovakia, near Austrian Border, Austro-Hungary
This photochrome print is from “Views of the Austro-Hungarian Empire,” a selection of photographs of late 19th-century tourist sites in Eastern and Central Europe (formerly known as the Austro-Hungarian Empire) that was part of the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It depicts Devín Castle, located on a bluff in southwestern Slovakia, at the confluence of the Morava and Danube rivers. The castle was an important military fortress of Great Moravia, a Slavic state that in the first half of the 8th century covered parts of present-day Moravia, western Slovakia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
God Strikes at an Injustice with a Thunderbolt, and a Young Man with Bullets
This World War I poster showing a man with an axe and a rifle joining a battle is one of a series by the Czech artist Vojtěch Preissig (1873–1944) that encouraged Czech and Slovak volunteers living in the United States to join the Czechoslovak Legion to fight against Austria-Hungary and Germany. The Czech lands and Slovakia were at that time part of Austria-Hungary and leaders of the national independence movement believed that the cause of an independent Czechoslovak state could be furthered by fighting on the Allied side. Preissig ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
For Czech Independence, the Czech National Association
This World War I poster is one of a series by the Czech artist Vojtech Preissig (1873–1944) produced to promote the creation of an independent Czechoslovak state after the war. The poster shows doubled-headed eagles nailed to crosses. The eagles are a symbol of the Austrian monarchy, and bear medallions around their necks labeled “FJI,” an abbreviation that stands for the emperor, Franz Joseph I. On the crosses are signs airing Czech grievances against the Austrian monarchy, including:  “Za třistaletý útisk” (For 300 years of oppression), and “Z Kramáře ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
For Our Independence! Get the Killer! For Democracy! The Czechoslovak Army
This World War I poster is one of a series by the Czech artist Vojtěch Preissig (1873–1944) that encouraged Czech and Slovak volunteers living in the United States to fight with the Czechoslovak Legion against Austria-Hungary and Germany to further the cause of an independent Czechoslovakia. The poster shows two soldiers engaged in hand-to-hand combat, and the text reads, in Czech: “Down with the murderers! Up with Democracy!” Preissig was born in the Czech-speaking part of Austria-Hungary. From 1892 to 1896 he studied in Prague at the School of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Those Who are God’s Warriors. The Czechoslovak Army in France
This World War I poster is one of a series by Czech artist Vojtěch Preissig (1873–1944) urging Czech and Slovak volunteers living in the United States to join the Czechoslovak Legion to fight against Germany and Austria-Hungary. It shows a soldier on horseback carrying the flag of the Hussites, followers of the Czech religious reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415). The Czech lands and Slovakia were part of Austria-Hungary and leaders of the national independence movement believed that the cause of an independent Czechoslovak state could be furthered by ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Slovakia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Slovakia is Number 3 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Slovakia was at this time part of Hungary, which in turn was part of the empire of Austria-Hungary. The book ...
Contributed by Library of Congress