33 results in English
A Collection of Songs of the Bukovina People
Bukovina is a region in southeastern Europe that is today partly in Ukraine and partly in Romania. Between 1775 and 1918 it was ruled by the Austrian Empire. It was annexed by Romania after World War I and divided between the Soviet Union and Romania after World War II. This book is a collection of song lyrics, gathered in the second half of the 19th century by the Bukovina journalist, anthropologist, and public figure Hryhoriĭ Kupchanko (1849–1902) for the Southwestern Department of the Imperial Russian Geographic Society. The selection ...
A Handbook on Theoretical and Practical Music
This 1825 manuscript, prepared for a print edition, is a handbook on theoretical and practical music, written in Katharevousa, a purist form of Modern Greek developed in the early 19th century and at that time widely used for literary and official purposes. The work is an introduction to the Byzantine notation for the liturgical chant used in the Greek Orthodox Church that most likely was intended for students of Byzantine ecclesiastical music. The text probably was written by a scribe named Basileios Nikolaḯdes Byzantios. On the first page, which is ...
Béla Bartók
Composer, pianist, and ethnomusicologist Béla Bartók (1881–1945) was born in Nagyszentmiklós, Hungary (present-day Sânnicolau Mare, Romania). He studied music in Pressburg (present-day Bratislava, Slovakia) and at the Budapest Academy of Music. In 1904 he began collecting folksongs, which he recorded and classified. Between 1907 and 1934 he was professor of piano at the Budapest academy. His compositions include an opera, two ballets, orchestral music, chamber music, and folksong arrangements. This photograph of Bartók is from the archives of the League of Nations. In 1931 Bartók was invited to join ...
Southeast Europe and the Mediterranean Sea
This map of southeastern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean was made early in World War II by Fremde Heere Ost (Foreign Armies East), a unit of the German army general staff responsible for intelligence about the armies of the Soviet Union, Scandinavia, certain Balkan countries, Africa, and the Far East. The map shows country boundaries in bold, dark purple. Also shown are oil pipelines, wells and other sources of water, and important roads, railroads, and canals. Many of the countries of this region were involved in the war. Italian and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Near and Middle East: Balkan Peninsula
This map of the Near and Middle East was compiled in 1940 by the Geographical Section of the General Staff of the British Army and published by the War Office of the British government in 1941. The map shows topographic relief by gradient tints and indicates railroads, principal roads, secondary roads, caravan routes and tracks, the names and boundaries of provinces and districts, and deserts, rivers, swamps, and other topographic features. Towns and cities are classified and shown by categories, from first (capitals) to fifth in importance. Also shown are ...
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The Empire and Expeditions of Alexander the Great
This 1833 map in Latin shows the conquests of Alexander the Great (356–323 BC), whose empire stretched from present-day Greece through Turkey and the Middle East to Afghanistan. In 326 BC Alexander set out to conquer India, but he was stymied when his exhausted armies mutinied on the banks of the Hyphasis River (now known as the Beas River) in northern India. The map shows the cities that Alexander founded and named after himself, including Alexandria Arachosia (Kandahar, Afghanistan), Alexandria Ariana (Herat, Afghanistan), Alexandria, Egypt, and many others. Place-names ...
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Kingdoms of the Successors of Alexander: After the Battle of Ipsus, B.C. 301
Alexander the Great (356–323 BC) died suddenly at the age of 32, leaving no apparent heir or appointed successor. Some 40 years of internecine conflict followed his death, as leading generals and members of Alexander’s family vied to control different parts of the vast empire he had built. The Battle of Ipsus, fought in Phrygia, Asia Minor (present-day Turkey) in 301 BC between rival successors, resulted in the empire’s irrevocable dissolution. This late-19th century map in Latin shows the four main kingdoms that emerged after the battle ...
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The Historical Theater in the Year 400 AD, in Which Both Romans and Barbarians Resided Side by Side in the Eastern Part of the Roman Empire
This map in Latin by the great French mapmaker Guillaume de L’Isle (1675–1726) shows the eastern parts of the Roman Empire circa 400 AD and the territory of adjacent tribes and kingdoms not under Rome’s control. The latter include the Sarmatians and the Scythians, peoples that the Romans regarded as barbarians. Arabia is shown divided into its three traditional divisions, Arabia Petrea, Arabia Felix, and Arabia Deserta. Qatar is indicated as “Catarei.” The eastern part of the map shows the empire of Alexander the Great, including Persia ...
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The Kingdom of Serbia, Otherwise Called Rascia
The note in Italian in the cartouche in the lower left-hand corner of this map states that it was “described on the basis of the most exact maps and with the direction of the most recent news by Giacomo Cantelli da Vignola, subject and geographer of the Most Serene Master the Duke of Modena and published by Giovanni Giacomo de Rossi in his printing house at the [Via della] Pace with the authorization of the Pope. Year 1689.” Giacomo Cantelli da Vignola (1643−95) was an Italian geographer and cartographer ...
Wallachia, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania
Gerard Mercator (1512–94) was born in Rupelmonde in Flanders (Belgium). His given name was Gerard de Kremer or Cremer. “Mercator,” meaning “merchant,” is a Latinized version of his Flemish last name. He studied philosophy and theology at the University of Leuven, and developed an interest in astronomy and mathematics. He produced his first map, of Palestine, in 1537. He went on to create numerous maps and globes in the course of his long career and is best known for his invention of the Mercator map projection. In 1554 he ...
European Turkey and Part of Asian Turkey, Divided into Large Provinces and Governorships
This mid-18th century French map shows the Balkan Peninsula, most of Anatolia (present-day Turkey), and the Mediterranean islands of Cyprus and Crete. The map bears the inscription “Sr. Janvier” (“Le Sieur Janvier”), a designation that refers to a cartographer active in Paris between 1746 and 1776 whose name was either Jean or Robert Janvier. The map offers a striking view of the European territories of the Ottoman Empire. Although past the peak of its power, the empire still controlled Albania, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Greece, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia. The borders of ...
General Map of European Turkey, Greece and the Ionian Islands
Adrien-Hubert Brué (1786−1832) was a French geographer and cartographer who as a young man accompanied the explorer Nicolas Baudin on his 1800−1803 voyage to New Holland (Australia). Brué returned to France to become an important geographer, associated with the Institut Geographique de Paris and geographer to the king. His Grand atlas universel (Large universal atlas) was first published in 1816 and issued in revised and updated editions in 1825, 1830, and 1838. Shown here is Brué’s map of the Ottoman Empire in Europe, Greece, and the Ionian ...
European Turkey as the Theater of War between the Turks and the Russians
This map shows southeastern Europe during the Crimean War (1853−56) that pitted Russia against the Ottoman Empire (Turkey) and its allies Britain, France, and Sardinia. The western European powers backed the Turks in order to block Russia’s expansion into the Black Sea region, which they believed threatened their positions in the Middle East and the Mediterranean. Many of the war’s major battles were fought on the Crimean Peninsula in southern Russia, which, ironically, is not shown on this early map of the “theater of war.” The conflict ...
Maps of the Middle East and the Near East
Shown here is a large folding map produced by the General Staff of the German Army during World War II. Notes on the map indicate that it was solely for use within the army and that reproduction was prohibited. One side is a large map of the region stretching from the Balkan Peninsula to the eastern part of Iran. Shown are towns and cities by population size, international borders, the borders of republics and provinces within the Soviet Union, major and secondary roads, roads under construction, oil pipelines, mountain passes ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Expeditions of Alexander: Made for “Histoire Ancienne” by Mr. Rollin
This map shows the expeditions of Alexander the Great (356–323 BC) from the Hellespont, the strait (later called the Dardanelles) that separates Europe from Asia in present-day Turkey, through Turkey, the Levant, Egypt, Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq), Persia (Iran), and Afghanistan. Alexander reached as far as the banks of the Hyphasis River (now known as the Beas River) in northern India, where the conqueror’s exhausted armies finally mutinied. Shown are cities that Alexander founded and named “Alexandria” in honor of himself. Two distance scales are given, the ancient measure ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ethnic and Language Map of the Near East
This map, produced in 1943 by the Geographic Service of the Auswärtiges Amt (Foreign Office) of Germany, shows the ethnic, linguistic, and religious makeup of the Middle East. Included are the Caucasus and other parts of the Soviet Union, Afghanistan, and parts of present-day Pakistan and India. The map and the explanatory text reflect the Nazi-era obsession with race and ethnicity. The long note at the top of the key states that the map "endeavors to show the Lebensraum [living space] of those oriental peoples located in Europe’s area ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Near East
German geographer and cartographer Heinrich Kiepert (1818–99) is generally regarded as one of the most important scholarly cartographers of the second half of the 19th century. He was head of the Geographical Institute in Weimar between 1845 and 1852 and professor at the University of Berlin from 1852 until his death. Shown here is Kiepert’s 1855 map of the Near East, which appeared in the Kiepert’s Neuer Hand-Atlas über alle Teile der Erde (Kiepert’s new portable atlas of all parts of the world), published by Dietrich ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Marittima Italiana: Bombay Line
Marittima Italiana was an Italian shipping company, established in 1936 as an offshoot of the long-established firm of Lloyd-Triestino, which in the late 1930s operated shipping lines between Italy and east Africa, southern Africa, Asia, and Australia. Shown here is a map of Marittima Italiana’s line from Genoa to Bombay (Mumbai), India. Distances are given for the different sections of the route: from Genoa to Naples, Naples to Port Said, Port Said to Aden, and Aden to Bombay. Inset maps show these five ports and the Suez Canal, with ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Cradle of the War: The Near East and Pan-Germanism
The Cradle of the War: The Near East and Pan-Germanism is a study of the origins of World War I. The author, Henry Charles Woods (1881−1939), argues that the main cause of the conflict was “the Pan-German desire for domination from Hamburg to the Persian Gulf.” The book offers an overview of political and military developments in the Near East (defined as the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor), with chapters on Serbia and Montenegro, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Albania. Later chapters cover military highways in the Balkans, the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Maps of the Danube Delta and Comparative Maps of the Mouth and Fluvial Sections of the Soulina Branch Indicating the Latest Constructions Completed There.
The European Commission of the Danube was an early experiment in international organization. It was established in 1856, after the Crimean War, by agreement among Britain, Austria, France, Prussia, Russia, Sardinia, and Turkey. The Danube River rises in the Black Forest of Germany and travels some 3,000 kilometers before reaching the Black Sea. The commission was charged with overseeing projects to improve navigation on the river, one of which was the construction, in 1880-1902, of the Sulina Canal. The headquarters of the commission was established at Galatz (Galaţi), Romania ...
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Album of a Journey through Southern Russia and the Crimea, by Way of Hungary, Wallachia, and Moldova
This four-volume work documents the expedition undertaken in 1837 by the Russian industrialist and philanthropist Anatolii Demidov (1812-70) through southeastern Europe and the southern parts of the Russian Empire. Demidov was accompanied by a team of French scientists, engineers, and artists. The expedition gathered a wealth of information about the geography, history, archaeology, and peoples and cultures of a region still largely unknown to the rest of the world. Denis Auguste Marie Raffet (1804-60), the staff artist of the expedition, produced 64 lithographed plates for the volumes, along with many ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Hutsul Wedding
This pen-and-ink drawing of a late-19th-century Hutsul wedding is by Thaddäus Rybkowski (1848–1926), a Polish artist whose work featured scenes of rural life in Galicia and Poland. Born in Russian Poland, Rybkowski was educated at the Krakow School of Art. He later came to Vienna, where he studied in the studio of Professor Leopold Löffler-Radymno. The Hutsuls are a seminomadic ethno-cultural group that for centuries has inhabited the region of the Carpathian Mountains. The Hutsul language is considered to be a dialect of Ukrainian, strongly influenced by Polish and ...
Contributed by Austrian National Library
Peace on the Enemy's Terms
This World War I poster from France shows Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany pointing a dagger at a woman (representing Romania), while he shows her the Traité de Paix (peace treaty) and simultaneously steps on a man (representing Russia). In late 1917, after the Russian army had all but collapsed and the communists had taken power, the new Russian government signed an armistice favorable to Germany. Defeated and isolated on the eastern front, Russia’s erstwhile ally Romania had no choice but to conclude a similar armistice with the Germans ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Rumania's Day
This World War I poster, published in London by the Central Committee for National Patriotic Organisations, shows Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and King Ferdinand I of Romania arguing while examining a map. The caption reads: “The two forces. Kaiser: ‘So you, too, are against me! Remember, Hindenburg fights on my side.’ King of Roumania: ‘Yes, but freedom and justice fight on mine.’” Romania was at first a neutral non-belligerent, but on August 27, 1916, it declared war on Germany’s main ally, Austria-Hungary. Under a secret treaty signed earlier ...
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An Earthen Hell. The Women Dressed in Rags Stand All Day in Hot Oil Shoveling up the Refuse to a Terrace above Them and Thence into Cars So That Not a Speck of Oil Is Wasted...
This 1923 photograph depicting a scene from the early history of the petroleum industry in Romania is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Zero Job! Shoveling Out Refuse from the Hot Pools of Oil That Comes up from a Spouting Well
This 1923 photograph depicting a scene from the early history of the petroleum industry in Romania is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Roumanian Question: The Roumanians and their Lands
Romania was formed in 1861 by the union of the provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia, which had been ruled by the Ottoman Turks for centuries. At the 1878 Congress of Berlin, the major European powers recognized the full independence of Romania. In World War I, Romania fought on the side of France, Britain, and the other Allied powers against Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria, chiefly with the aim of gaining territories traditionally inhabited by ethnic Romanians but under the control of Austria-Hungary and other neighboring countries. Published in Pittsburgh in 1919 ...
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The Divan or the Quarrel of the Wise Man with the World or the Judgment Between the Soul and the Body
Dimitrie Cantemir (1673–1723), prince of Moldavia, was a philosopher, historian, composer, and man of letters. His father was a mercenary of peasant origin who rose to become the voivode (prince) of Bogdan, the Turkish name for Moldavia. As a boy, Cantemir pursued studies in Greek, Latin, Slavonic, and other subjects. At age 14, he replaced his brother as a hostage of the Ottomans in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul), serving as a guarantee of his father’s loyalty to the Sublime Porte. There he continued his education, studying Turkish, Arabic, Persian ...
Contributed by Romanian Academy Library
Ornaments of Domestic Industry: Ruthenian Peasant Metalwork
Vzory promyslu domashnogo vyroby metalevi selian na Rusi (Ornaments of domestic industry: Ruthenian peasant metalwork) is one of a series of books published by the Industrial Museum in L’viv (present-day Ukraine), this one appearing in 1882. The explanatory text appears in Polish, Ruthenian (a predecessor of modern Ukrainian), German, and French, and it highlights the art and aesthetic taste shown in everyday objects. The book’s focus is the Hutsuls, a people of the Carpathian Mountains, mainly in western and southwestern Ukraine, but also northern Romania and eastern Poland ...
Hungarian Ruthenia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Hungarian Ruthenia is Number 7 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Hungarian Ruthenia is defined in the book as the counties of Maramaros, Bereg, and Ugocsa, located on the southern ...
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Bukovina
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Bukovina is Number 5 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Bukovina, a region in southeastern Europe that is today partly in Ukraine and partly in Romania, was, at the time ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Rumania
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Rumania is Number 23 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book includes sections on physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. Long under ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Transylvania and the Banat
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Transylvania and the Banat is Number 6 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Transylvania consisted of 15 counties in the southeastern part of the Kingdom of Hungary, which in turn ...
Contributed by Library of Congress