70 results in English
The First Russian Book Printer, 1583
This book, published in Kiev in 1895, is a short biography of Ivan Fyodorov (circa 1510–83), intended for the general reader. Along with Schweipolt Fiol and Francysk Skaryna, Fyodorov was one of the fathers of printing in the East Slavic region. He graduated from Jagiellonian University in Kraków, Poland, and later worked in Moscow, where he published liturgical works using movable type, the first books printed in Russia. He was driven from Moscow by scribes who feared competition from his innovation and fled to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ...
The Cultural and National Movement in Ukraine in the 16th and 17th Centuries
Mykhailo Hrushevs’kyi (1866–1934) was a professor of history and a leading political figure in Ukraine, who served as chairman of the Ukrainian Central Council at the time of the Russian Revolution of 1917. This work, published in 1912, is devoted to the national and cultural movement of Ukraine in the 16th and 17th centuries and the formation of a Ukrainian national consciousness. Much of the book deals with relations between Ukraine and Poland and their effect on the formation of a Ukrainian state. The author describes a decline ...
Carpathian Ruthenia
This album, probably published in about 1920, contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. The photographs depict the wooden churches that were central to the practice of Uniate Christianity (combining Roman Catholicism with the Eastern Rite), to which most Ruthenians converted from Eastern Orthodoxy ...
Compilation of Images of Ancient Objects from Private Collections in Kiev
This collection of images was put together by the Kiev amateur archaeologist Nikolaj Leopardov and numismatist Nikolaj Černev, who also collaborated in writing the introduction and explanatory texts. The images of crosses, icons, and other religious items and brief descriptions of them are included in Part I of the book. Part II contains the images of objects from the Bronze Age, mostly axes and knives, and Jewish Cabalistic amulets and coins. Part III contains the images and description of some of the thousands of medieval lead commercial seals from Drohiczyn ...
Torun'. Wooden Church
This image is part of an album probably published in about 1920 that contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. Shown here is the bell tower of the Church of Our Lady at Torun` built in 1809. The town is in Mizhhiria District, in ...
Torun'. Village
This image is part of an album probably published in about 1920 that contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. This village scene shows the town of Torun` in Mizhhiria District, in eastern Carpathian Ruthenia. Both houses and churches have steeply pitched roofs with ...
Carpathian Ruthenia. Ceramics
This image is part of an album probably published in about 1920 that contains 20 photographs of scenes in Carpathian Ruthenia, a mountainous region, most of which was part of the Austria-Hungary before World War I, but which became part of the new Czechoslovak state in 1919. Today the largest portion of it forms Zakarpattia Oblast in western Ukraine, with smaller parts in Slovakia and Poland. Ceramics have been one of the crafts of Carpathian Ruthenia for centuries, as the region has large deposits of kaolin (china clay). Decorated pottery ...
Map of Poland: Outlining Its Provinces and Voivodeships, 1772
Because the territory of present-day Belarus was part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and, since the end of the 18th century, part of the Russian Empire, the history of the mapping of the Belarusian lands is closely connected with the development of cartography in Western Europe and in Russia. Józef Aleksander Jabłonowski, governor of the town of Novogrudok (present-day Belarus), was an avid collector of cartographic works. Under Jabłonowski’s supervision and with his financial support, the Italian cartographer Giovanni Antonio Rizzi-Zannoni created the ...
Białowieża Forest
Białowieża Forest lies partly in southwest Belarus and partly in eastern Poland and is situated on the watershed of the Black Sea and the Baltic Sea. As early as the late 14th–early 15th centuries, under Jogaila, grand duke of Lithuania and king of Poland, Białowieża, which is still the largest primeval forest in Europe, became a protected natural territory. This book by Georgīĭ Kart︠s︡ov contains information about the location and size of the forest, its topography, vegetation, and the history of royal hunting from the 1500s to ...
Images of the Grand Ducal Radzivill Family from the Originals in the Treasury Collection
Icones Familiae Ducalis Radivilianae ex originalibus in Ganzophylacio ordinationis desumptae (Images of the Grand Ducal Radzivill Family from the originals in the Treasury Collection) is an album containing 165 portraits of the members of the Radzivill family from the period 1346–1780. The Radzivills produced more outstanding political, church, military, and cultural figures than any other family in the history of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. At the height of its power in the 15th century, the duchy ruled over the territory of present-day Belarus, Latvia, Lithuania, and Ukraine, and ...
Marie Curie
Marie Curie, neé Manya Sklodowska (1867–1934), was born in Warsaw. She immigrated to France in 1891 and studied at the Sorbonne. She worked with her husband, Pierre Curie (1859–1906), also a student and later professor at the Sorbonne, on magnetism and radioactivity. The Curies and French physicist Antoine Henri Becquerel (1852–1908) shared the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics for their discovery of radioactivity. After her husband’s death, Marie succeeded to his university chair. In 1911 she won a second Nobel, the prize for chemistry, for her ...
New and Detailed Sketch of the Arctic Lands, by Andreas Boreus, the Swede
Andreas Bureus (1571–1646) is known as the father of Swedish cartography. He embarked upon a career in the Royal Chancellery in 1602 and was entrusted with several important missions in the service of the state. In 1628 he was assigned the task of founding what was to become the Swedish National Land Survey. In 1624 he was made a member of the Swedish nobility with the name Anders Bure. Bureus completed this map of the Nordic countries in 1626 after several years of collecting data. It was printed on ...
Danzig, Nowadays a Very Crowded Market Town for the North, the West, and the Whole World
This panoramic view of Danzig (present-day Gdańsk) in 1617 is from the collection of cityscapes and broadsheets that once belonged to the Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622−86). ‏In the upper-left corner appear the coat of arms of Poland; in the upper-right hand corner, the coat of arms of Danzig. Below is a separately printed key in both Latin and German. At the bottom of the engraving is a description of the city, addressed to the reader, printed in 13 columns, in Latin and in German ...
The European War
This print showing a battle between troops on horseback is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “A brave detachment of Cossacks destroyed German hussars near Sochaczew.” Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts, engravings, etchings, or later, by using lithography. The prints were often characterized by simple, colorful graphics depicting a narrative, and could also include text. Lubok gained popularity in Russia beginning in the late 17th century. The prints, which often depicted narratives from ...
Contributed by The British Library
The European War. The Defeat of the Germans near Warsaw
This print showing combat amongst trees and the defeat of the Germans in a battle near Warsaw is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The Siberian Corps demonstrated particular valor in the battles near Warsaw. They captured many prisoners of the 20th German Corps in the battle in the Moshidlovskii Forest. The 17th Corps delivered the main offensive in the area of Błonie and Pruszków and suffered the most. There, Siberians together with the Russian corps inflicted huge losses ...
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Russia's War with the Germans. The Battle of the Vistula River
This print showing the Battle of the Vistula River (in present-day Poland) between Russian and German forces is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “During a night-time German offensive on Warsaw, intense fighting broke out near Blonie. Fire from artillery shells and the burning of houses set on fire by the Germans lit the night. Shrapnel burst in the air in different directions, the earth was shaking from the thundering of weapons, and guns fired unceasingly. Despite the lethal ...
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Russia's War with the Germans. The Effect of Our High Explosive Shells
This print showing the devastating effect of a Russian high explosive shell on German troops is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Skillfully built enemy trenches were hard to capture with ordinary artillery fire in the battles at the Vistula River. Only well-aimed shots by high explosive shells managed to force the Germans out of their deep burrows. These high explosive shells are so terrifyingly effective that even Germany’s famous skills in the military arts proved absolutely powerless ...
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The Battle of Augustów
This print showing the Battle of Augustów (in present-day Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The Germans' attempt to cross the Neman River and enter the rear of our armies in Poland, by cutting the railroad lines from Moscow to Petrograd, ended in a great defeat. Driven from the Neman, the Germans made ​desperate attempts to slow the offensive by our troops. A particularly intense battle took place near Augustów. The Germans were defeated by our artillery ...
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The Great European War. The Battle of Augustów. German Troops Crossing the Neman
This print showing German troops crossing the Neman River at the Battle of Augustów (in present-day Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “From the report from the headquarters of the Chief of Staff. The Battle of Augustów ended with a victory on September 20. The Germans' defeat was complete, and now they are retreating to the borders of East Prussia in a disorderly manner. Our valiant troops vigorously pursued the enemy, who is leaving behind wagons, guns ...
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The Battle at Lyka
This print showing the battle at Lyka is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in the words of an army telegraph message published in the newspaper Early Morning, October 9, 1914: "At the Russian-Prussian front in the north, an especially hard battle occurred on October 4 in the vicinity of Lyka, south-west of Suwałki. It was prompted by enhanced reconnaissance, which the Germans conducted from the direction of Olecko. By the evening of October 4, our troops repelled all ...
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The Russian-Austrian War. The Battle at Lashov
This print showing the battle at Lashov (present-day Łaszczów, Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in the words of an August 20, 1914 communiqué from the headquarters of the commander in chief, Saint Petersburg: “The 15th Austrian division is completely defeated at Lashov. The Commander of the Division, Brigade Commander, and the Chief of Staff are killed. One hundred officers, 4,000 soldiers, 600 wounded, the flag of the 65th regiment and 20 guns were captured. The ...
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The Defeat of the Germans on the River Bzura
This print showing the defeat of Germans at the river Bzura is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “In three previous battles, the defeated German army was unable to conduct a full and broad offensive against our invincible army along the front line at ​​the river Bzura. The Germans were limited to separate attacks, and as a result, their hordes remained on the left bank of the Bzura. The sacrifices made by the Germans on the Bzura are enormous ...
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The Capture of Yaroslav
This print showing a vast battle scene and the capture of Yaroslav (present-day Jarosław, Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Several battles in early September ended with a capture of the Sandomierz-Radomyśl Wielki area. Here, the San River merges with the Vistula River. The enemy wanted to escape from pursuit behind the San River and so assumed a heavily fortified position at Przheshov. A terrible battle followed. On September 3, our troops captured bridgeheads and crossings, crossed ...
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A Battle at Gorodok
This print showing a battle with cavalry at Gorodok (present-day Horodok, Ukraine) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in the words of an August 6 report from the General Staff at Saint Petersburg: “At noon on August 4, an Austrian division approached the line at Gorodok-Kuzmin. Our cavalrymen initiated a fight with the enemy at Gorodok, which lasted for five hours. Our fire and cavalry attacks inflicted losses on the enemy. The whole field is covered with the ...
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The Capture of Yaroslav
This print showing a battle outside the walls of Yaroslav (present-day Jarosław, Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in words directly from the headquarters of the Russian General Staff: “Our troops stormed the fortifications on the right bank in Yaroslav, captured 20 guns, and continued the offensive. The enemy tried in vain to stop us by exploding the bridge over the river San. Soon our troops captured Yaroslav, creating a heavy influx of prisoners and captured guns ...
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The Great Patriotic War of 1914. Battles on the Vistula River at Ivangorod
This print showing a battle scene on the Vistula River at Ivangorod is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in words directly from a report from the headquarters of the Russian commander in chief: “The battle at Ivangorod ended in our total victory. The defeat of the Germans is complete and they are currently retreating to the border of East Prussia in a disorderly manner. Our valiant troops vigorously pursue the enemy, who leaves behind wagons, guns and ammunition ...
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Russia's War with the Germans. The Heroic Feat of Lieutenant Smirnov
This print showing cavalry racing into a lake is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “During the bloody fighting at the Masurian Lakes, a battery, commanded by Lieutenant Smirnov, was surrounded by German troops. The only way out was into the lake. Not wanting to be captured, the battery, on the order of Smirnov, gripped the caissons and pushed them into the lake, thereby not allowing the enemy to take possession of any of our guns. Smirnov and the ...
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The Germans' Retreat in East Prussia
This print showing German soldiers retreating from advancing Russians is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our troops captured Bakałarzewo and seized large quantities of weapons, equipment, and ammunition. Some of the weapons were seized in the aslant position. On the left bank of the Vistula River, the Germans hastily continue moving to the border. A sharp turn is evident on the East Prussian front since October 21. The enemy, who took the defensive along the entire front line ...
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А Battle of Ivangorod
This print showing a battle between Germans and Russians at Ivangorod (present-day Deblin, Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The enemy concentrated enormous forces in the vicinity of Ivangorod. For more than a week, our troops continued fierce attacks on the Germans, who outnumbered us. On October 2 we transported the weapons that had been mounted against the Germans’ right wing to the left bank of the Vistula River. At the same time, a strong flank of ...
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А Battle Near Borzhimov
This print showing an intense close-combat battle surrounding a large artillery gun near Borzymów, Poland is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Starting December 20, the enemy launched a strong offensive along the Borzhimov-Bolimov line, concentrating considerable forces on the right bank of the Ravka River. In a series of attacks, the Germans tried to dislodge our troops from their positions. On the night of December 20, after fierce and persistent artillery firing throughout the day, dense columns of ...
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The Great European War
This print showing a Russian advance is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “During the second invasion of the Kingdom of Poland by the Germans, fighting began near Łódź on November 3, and continued on November 11, 12, and 13. The army of General Hindenburg was surrounded by our glorious heroes from all sides. The Germans were trapped as if in a bag. Our attacks now, and as always, cause terrible damage to the Germans. Their losses numbered in ...
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The Battle with the Germans Near Lipsko
This print showing a battle between Germans and Russians near Lipsko, Poland is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “While our valiant troops were destroying the Austro-German army under [General Moritz von] Auffenberg and driving it away from the city of Lublin beyond the San River, a German unit consisting of three divisions rushed to the rescue in the direction of Kielce toward the left bank of the Vistula River. Met by our troops on the Izit River near ...
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A Battle with the Germans on the Bzura River
This print showing a battle taking place on the Bzura River is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The second onslaught of the German troops on Warsaw and the Vistula River was stopped along the line of the Bzura River and its tributary, the Rawka River. Further to the south, the line of defense continued along the rivers Pilica and Neda, to the confluence of the latter with the Vistula. The Russian army stood there like an impenetrable wall ...
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The Great European War. On the Austrian Front. A Campaign in Hungary
This print showing a battle scene in a valley with a town and hills rising in the distance is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our troops descended into the Nagyag Valley in the Carpathian Mountains. The Austrian detachment positioned at Mikulice was thrown back and lost machine guns and other weapons. On September 18, our cavalry had some impressive gains in the Carpathian Mountains: it attacked the enemy trenches, captured them, smashed the enemy infantry, and caused the ...
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Extermination of the German Artillery Battery
This print showing an artillery blast amidst cavalry is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “From November 17 to November 19, along the line of the Masurian Lakes, our troops, having come very close to the artificial barriers installed by the Germans, rained fierce artillery fire upon the enemy in the passages between the lakes. After a series of attacks, they captured some areas, which led to the complete destruction of the enemy batteries. We captured ammunition, a few ...
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Our Siberian Detachment Captures German Positions
This print showing Russian soldiers charging up a hill is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “On the left bank of the Vistula River, during the night of December 29 and the next day, the Germans attempted to attack separate areas of our forces, which they had also attempted to attack during the previous few days. However, all of these attempts were repelled by our valiant Siberian heroes who used not only rifle and artillery fire, but even more ...
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A Skirmish between Our Unit and the Germans Near Ilow and Lowicz
This print showing Russians and Germans engaged in close, hand-to-hand combat is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “At the end of November, the Germans fiercely attacked our positions for two days. Our troops were able to repel all of the attacks along the entire front. We responded with counterattacks using bayonets. In the end, we launched a general offensive and made the enemy flee. We captured four guns, seven machine guns, and many prisoners.” This picture, like many ...
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The Battle of Przemyśl
This print showing a clash between Austrian and Russian troops is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The battle, which began on October 1 between our troops and the Austrians on the Galician front, continued with great tenacity on October 4, 5, and 6. The Austrians conducted a particularly intense attack along the front line of Sanok/Stare Miasto-Stryi, south of Przemyśl. Bayonets were used often. On the night of October 4 to October 5, in the vicinity of ...
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Memoirs and Travels of Mauritius Augustus Count de Benyowsky: Consisting of His Military Operations in Poland, His Exile into Kamchatka, His Escape and Voyage from that Peninsula through the Northern Pacific Ocean, Touching at Japan and Formosa, to Canton in China, with an Account of the French Settlement He Was Appointed to Form upon the Island of Madagascar
Maurice Benyowsky (1741 or 1746-1786) was born near Trnava in present-day Slovakia, at the time part of Hungary and the Austrian Empire. After service in the Austrian Army, he joined a Polish nationalist movement fighting for freedom against Russia. He was arrested and exiled to Kamchatka in the Russian Far East. He escaped captivity and undertook an expedition to explore Kamchatka and the North Pacific. In 1772, he made his way to France, where he secured permission from King Louis XV to establish trading posts on Madagascar. In Paris, he ...
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Modern Geographic Table of Geography
Antoine du Pérac Lafréry (1512-77) was a French engraver who settled in Rome, probably in the early 1540s, where he became a celebrated publisher of maps. Lafréry assembled and bound collections of maps from various sources, which he sold under the title Tavole moderne di geografia...di diversi autori raccolte et messe secondo l’ordine di Tolemeo (Modern geographical maps...from various authors, collected and organized according to Ptolemy’s geographical order). This work dates from around 1575, a few years after Abraham Ortelius, working in Antwerp, published the first ...
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General Map of the Russian Empire and the Neighboring Polish Empire and Grand Duchy of Finland: With the Distance in Versts on Postal Roads Between Provincial Cities; and in Boundary Provinces from the Provincial City
This 1827 map of the Russian Empire is from a larger work, Geographical Atlas of the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Poland, and the Grand Duchy of Finland (Geograficheskii atlas Rossiiskoi imperii, tsarstva Pol'skogo i velikogo kniazhestva Finliandskogo), containing 61 maps of the Russian Empire. Compiled and engraved by Colonel V.P. Piadyshev, it reflects the detailed mapping carried out by Russian military cartographers in the first quarter of the 19th century. The map shows population centers (five gradations by size), fortresses, redoubts, plants and factories, roads (four types ...
On the Revolutions of the Celestial Spheres
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the revolutions of the heavenly spheres), written by Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543) and published just before his death, placed the sun at the center of the universe and argued that the Earth moved across the heavens as one of the planets. Copernicus anticipated his ideas would be controversial and waited more than 30 years to publish his book. De Revolutionibus opens with a brief argument for the heliocentric universe and follows with an extensive set of mathematical proofs and astronomical tables. Copernicus was ...
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