- 1500 CE - 1699 CE (5)
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- History & geography (12)
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- Parades and processions (5)
- Indigenous peoples (4)
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- Description and travel (2)
- Fasts and feasts (2)
- Indians of South America (2)
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Type of Item
Paraguay, or the Province of the Rio de la Plata, with the Adjacent Regions Tucamen and Santa Cruz de la Sierra
This map of Paraguay and the Rio de la Plata basin is the work of Willem Blaeu (1571-1638), the founder of a famous Dutch mapmaking dynasty. Blaeu studied astronomy, mathematics, and globe-making with the Danish scholar Tycho Brahe before establishing his mapmaking studio in Amsterdam. In 1633, he was appointed mapmaker of the Dutch East India Company. In 1635, together with his sons Joan and Cornelis, Blaeu published the Atlas Novus (New atlas), an 11-volume work consisting of 594 maps.
Colton’s Peru and Bolivia
This 1855 map of Peru and Bolivia shows topographical features, cities, towns, forts, rapids, and rivers. National and regional boundaries are marked in pink, green, yellow, and blue. An inset map of Lima, the capital of Peru, appears in the lower-left-hand corner. In the upper right are the River Madeira, forming part of the border between Peru and Brazil, and the Amazon, the upper parts of which are known in Peru as the Marañón and in Brazil as the Solimões. A note indicates the navigability of the River Ucayali up ...
The Course of the River of the Amazons, Based on the Account of Christopher d’Acugna
Nicolas Sanson (1600-67) is considered by many to be the founder of the French school of cartography. Originally from Abbeville, he was also known as Sanson d’Abbeville. He was trained as a military engineer but became a prolific cartographer who produced over 300 maps. Around 1643, he began publishing maps, working with publisher Pierre Mariette. This 1680 map of the Amazon most likely is a reprint by his son Guillaume (1633-1703), who carried on the family firm after Nicolas’s death. The account referred to in the title is ...
New and Precise Depiction of the Southern Part of America, Which Includes: Brazil, the Carribean, the New Kingdom of Guiana, Castilia del Oro, Nicaragua, the Antilles, and Peru: And Beneath the Tropic of Capricorn, Chile, the Rio de la Plato, Patagonia & the Straits of Magellan
This folding map of South America and the West Indies, printed on two separate sheets, with uncut margins, was engraved for the second edition of the fourth part of Hulsius' collection of voyages, which consists altogether of 26 parts. The "Vierte Schiffart" (Fourth voyage) is an account of Ulrich Schmidel's voyage to Brazil and the Rio de la Plata from 1534 to 1554. In this second edition of the map, three islands have been inserted below the bottom border of the lower map, with the name "Francisci Draco Ins ...
An Account of a Voyage up the River de la Plata, and Thence over Land to Peru: With Observations on the Inhabitants, as Well as Indians and Spaniards, the Cities, Commerce, Fertility, and Riches of That Part of America
Acarete du Biscay was a Frenchman, possibly of Basque origin, about whom very little is known. In December 1657 he embarked from Cádiz, Spain for the Plate River region of South America, posing as the nephew of a Spanish gentleman to circumvent a ban by Spain on visits by foreigners to its New World possessions. In 1658 he traveled overland across the Argentine pampas to the silver mines of Potosí, located in present-day Bolivia. In 1672, Acarete published an account of this trip in his native French. A later version ...
A Current Description of the Province of the Society of Jesus in Paraguay with Neighboring Areas
Between 1609 and 1780, the Roman Catholic Society of Jesus (the Jesuits) established an autonomous Christian Indian state on the territory of present-day Paraguay, Uruguay, and parts of Argentina and Brazil. After unsuccessful efforts to Christianize the warlike Guaycurú Indians of northeastern Paraguay, the Jesuits concentrated on organizing the Guaraní Indians into a series of reducciones (reductions or townships), in which a kind of communal living was practiced. The system of reductions was an attempt to correct earlier abuses, in which the Paraguayan Indians were transformed into virtual slaves who ...
Corpus Christi Parade, Cuzco, Peru
This photograph from the Corpus Christi festival in Cuzco, Peru, shows indigenous peoples carrying religious artifacts. The festival begins 60 days after Easter. Representatives from nearby churches take part in the main day procession, bearing statues of their patron saints in a procession to the city’s main cathedral. On the eve of the procession, it is customary to prepare 12 traditional dishes, including cuy chiriuchu (guinea pig), cornbread, beer, and chicha (fermented corn beverage). The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of ...
“Bury dance” Carnival, Peru
This photograph of a carnival scene in Cuzco, Peru, shows a group of indigenous men, women, and children in ethnic costume performing a dance. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were taken by prominent photographers on OAS missions to member countries. The OAS was established in April 1948 when 21 countries of the western hemisphere adopted the OAS Charter, in which ...
Fiesta “Huayno,” a Folk Dance
This photograph shows a group of indigenous dancers in Peru performing a folk dance. The huayno is the most representative folk dance of the Andes. It combines pre-Colombian origins with later European influences, and encompasses dozens of regional variations. The dance is performed by couples who perform turns and movements featuring hops and a tap-like zapateo to mark time. The instruments used to accompany the huayno include the quena, charango, harp, and violin. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States ...
Devil Dancer Mask
This photograph shows a scary mask used in the Festival of the Virgin of Carmen that takes place in the Peruvian town of Paucartambo every July. The Virgin is the patron saint of the mestizo peoples, and the costumes worn at the festival represent the demons that the Virgin is credited with driving away. The photograph is from the collection of the Columbus Memorial Library of the Organization of American States (OAS), which includes 45,000 photographs illustrative of life and culture in the Americas. Many of the photographs were ...
Religious Parade, Santa Rosa de Lima
This photograph shows a procession in honor of Saint Rose of Lima, the first Catholic saint in the New World and the patroness of the Americas and the Philippines. On August 30, the feast day of the saint, the faithful from throughout Peru visit her sanctuary in Lima, as well as the town of Santa Rosa de Quives, where she spent her teenage years. Saint Rose was born in Lima on April 20, 1586, and died there on August 24, 1617. Known for her extreme piety, she was canonized in ...
“Pragmatica” on the Ten Days of the Year
This work is the first known South American imprint. It consists of a four-page edict, issued by King Philip II of Spain, decreeing the change from the Julian to the Gregorian calendar. In order to bring the calendar back into line with the seasons, in February 1582 Pope Gregory XIII deleted ten days from the year 1582, so that October 4, 1582, of the Julian calendar was followed immediately by October 15, 1582, in the new Gregorian calendar. This work was produced in 1584 by Antonio Ricardo, an Italian typographer ...
A Voyage Round the World, Including an Embassy to Muscat and Siam in 1835, 1836, and 1837
In 1832, U.S. president Andrew Jackson, acting on the advice of Secretary of the Navy Levi Woodbury, dispatched Edmund Roberts as a “special agent of the government,” empowered to negotiate treaties of amity and commerce with countries in Asia. The objective was to expand trade between these countries and the United States. Between early 1832 and May 1834, Roberts circumnavigated the globe. In the course of his journey, he negotiated treaties with the Sultan of Muscat (Oman) and the King of Siam (Thailand). Following his return to the United ...
View of Arequipa and Mountian Misti, Peru
This photograph of a scene in Peru is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film negatives ...
Cathedral in the Plaza De Armas, Lima, Peru
This photograph of Lima’s cathedral is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film negatives. This ...
This panoramic photograph of Lima, Peru, taken by an unknown photographer, probably dates from the 1870s. “Panoramic” photographs employ a variety of techniques to create a wide angle of view. This panoramic view is comprised of five photographs spliced together to provide a broader image than would be practical with a single photograph. Lima was founded by the Spanish explorer Francisco Pizarro in 1535. In the 16th and 17th centuries, it was the center of Spanish rule in South America. Today it is the largest city and capital of Peru.
Brazil, Bolivia and Peru
This hand-colored map of the northern part of South America originally appeared in A New General Atlas Exhibiting The Five Great Divisions of the Globe, published by John Grigg (1792-1864) in Philadelphia in 1829. It shows the still somewhat vague demarcation of the borders between countries in the interior of the continent. Grigg’s atlas was based on the work of Conrad Malte-Brun (1755-1826), a Danish geographer who emigrated to France in 1799, where in 1803-07 he produced the six-volume Géographie mathématique, physique et politique de toutes les parties du ...
Original Unpublished Collection of Maps Relating to the Episcopate of Peru; Portraits of Archbishops, Viceroys, and Other Characters of Peru in Color and Gold; City Plans; Tables on Indigenous Languages: The Codex Trujillo del Perú. Volume I
Baltasar Jaime Martínez Compañón (circa 1735–97) was a Spanish-born priest who in 1767 was sent by King Charles III to serve in the Viceroyalty of Peru, initially as choirmaster of Lima Cathedral. He was named bishop of Trujillo in 1778. He remained in Peru until 1791, when he was appointed archbishop of Bogotá. Known for founding towns, building schools, and his efforts to educate the Indians of Trujillo, Martínez Compañón also was responsible for the Codex Trujillo del Perú, a nine-volume compilation of more than 1,400 illustrations and ...
A Guiding Light to the Indians
Lucerna yndyca (A guiding light to the Indians) is a manuscript dating from 1715–22 containing a Castilian–Quechua dictionary and selections of the Gospels translated from Latin into Quechua, the predominant Andean language at the time of the Spanish conquest. The text is annotated with comments by the author, Esteban Sancho de Melgar y Santa Cruz. Melgar, a late-17th century academic, is known for his work Arte de la Lengua General de Inga Llamada Qquechhua (The art of the general language called Quechua) published in Lima in 1691. This ...