32 results in English
The Holy Roman Empires Duchy of Antwerp and the Dominium of Malines: With the Eastern Flemish Areas and the Boundaries of Brabant Following from These
This late-17th century map shows the Duchy of Brabant, including the cities of Antwerp and Mechelen. The duchy consisted of the modern-day Belgian provinces of Flemish Brabant, Walloon Brabant, Antwerp, and Brussels, as well as the province of North Brabant in the present-day Netherlands. The map was published in Amsterdam by Karel Allard (1648-1706) who, with his brother Abraham, had taken over the business of their father, the Amsterdam map publisher Hugo Allard. The Allard family was known more for publishing atlases of maps by others than for original cartography.
The Dutch Republic, Enlarged and Edited: Produced with the Care and Work of Matthaeus Seutter
This map of the United Provinces of the Netherlands was engraved by Matthaeus Seutter (1678-1757), an engraver and publisher from Augsburg, Germany. Seutter studied printing in Nuremburg and in Augsburg, as an apprentice to Jeremias Wolff, before setting up his own printing house in 1710. Seutter generally enlarged and engraved the work of others but did very little drawing of original maps. This map was printed by Tobias Conrad Lotter (1717-77), Seutter’s son-in-law, who took over the business after Seutter’s death.
Map of Holland: According to Astronomical Observations, Measurements of Schnellius & c. and the Superiorly Redesigned Special Maps of F. L. Güssefeld
This map of the Netherlands coast is the work of Prussian cartographer Franz Ludwig Güssefeld (1744-1807). It was drawn based on the calculations of the renowned Dutch mathematician Willebrord Snellius (1580-1626), a professor of mathematics at the University of Leiden, who conceived the idea of measuring the earth using triangulation. Snellius’s discoveries helped to determine the radius of the earth as well as led to more accurate ways of measuring the distance between two cities.
Holland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Holland is Number 25 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Holland, or the Kingdom of the Netherlands as it was formally known, remained neutral during the war. The book covers ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Belgium
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Belgium is Number 26 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. The section on geography ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Discoveries and Acquisitions in the Pacific
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Discoveries and Acquisitions in the Pacific is Number 139 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study is largely historical, and has three sections: “The Great Age of Exploration (To ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Brussels, Important City in the Netherlands, Capital of the Duchy of Brabant
This late-18th century French map shows Brussels, at that time an important city in the Spanish Netherlands and the capital of the Duchy of Brabant. The map shows the borders of the city and the Senne River. The location of the city on the river made it an important commercial center for trade between France and the Germanic states. In 1695, Brussels was attacked by the army of Louis XIV, and suffered heavy damage. It remained under siege off and on until it was captured by the French in 1746 ...
Loftie Hours
This mid-15th-century illuminated book of hours is written entirely in Dutch on fine parchment and is remarkable for its 18 grisaille miniatures. This technique, wherein the figures are modeled primarily in a gray wash, became a favorite in the Netherlands. The hand behind the miniatures in this manuscript has been identified with one of a group of artists known as the Masters of the Delft Grisailles. The manuscript has been grouped with more than a dozen related works, including New York, Morgan Library Ms. M.349; London, Victoria and Albert ...
Contributed by Walters Art Museum
Duke Albrecht's Table of Christian Faith (Winter Part)
This manuscript is a document of the first importance in the history of Dutch manuscript illumination and contains an important medieval Dutch devotional text. The Tafel van den Kersten ghelove (Table of Christian faith) is a compendium of Christian knowledge written by a learned Dominican, Dirc van Delf. The text is in two parts, one for winter, another for summer. This manuscript is of the winter part and is incomplete, omitting the prologue and chapters 13, 14, and 35−57; chapters 23−24 are in inverse order. The arms of ...
Contributed by Walters Art Museum
Prayer Book
This illuminated prayer book, made in the Netherlands in the early 16th century, contains Latin prayers and passages from the Gospels. Although small in scale, it is notable for its abundance of illuminations, with nearly 60 extant small miniatures. Full-color portraits embellish the prayers to the Virgin and suffrages, while the images within the Gospel narrative are rendered primarily in grisaille, a nearly entirely gray monochrome technique. The last folios include a trompe-l'oeil foliate margin and a Crucifixion that seems to be a later addition. Throughout the book, gold ...
Contributed by Walters Art Museum
Report of What Happened to the Royal Navy of the Philippines, and the Victory Achieved Against the Dutch, Who Had Besieged the City of Manila for Six Months
Relacion del svceso dela armada real de Philipinas, y vitoria que alcanço delos Olandeʃes, que tuuieron ʃitiada ʃeys meʃes ala Ciudad de Manila se publicó (Report of what happened to the royal navy of the Philippines, and the victory achieved against the Dutch, who had besieged the city of Manila for six months) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1619. The book deals with the events of October 1616−April 1617, when a fleet of Dutch ships blockaded the entrance to Manila Bay, before being driven off by a Spanish ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Bird’s-Eye View of Amsterdam, 1597
This bird’s-eye view of Amsterdam in 1597 is from the collection of cityscapes and broadsheets that once belonged to the Swedish statesman Count Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie (1622−86). In the upper right is a key, in Dutch, listing important landmarks in the city, including churches, city hall, and bridges. The map is by Pieter Bast (circa 1570−1605), a Dutch cartographer and engraver, who specialized in cityscapes. The Magnus Gabriel De la Gardie Collection consists of 187 engravings from the late 1500s and early 1600s. The prints ...
Quadruple Spectacle of Wonders
Admirandorum Quadruplex Spectaculum (Quadruple spectacle of wonders) is a book of cityscapes and landscapes by Jan van Call (1656−1703), an engraver and draftsman from the Dutch city of Nijmegen. Produced circa 1700, the book is one of the earliest experiments involving multicolor printing. Van Call had undertaken a long journey to Rome, in the course of which he traveled up the Rhine from Amsterdam to Schaffhausen, Switzerland. He made drawings of landscapes and cityscapes, which attracted the attention of Amsterdam-based publisher and engraver Pieter Schenk (1660−1718). Schenk selected ...
Book of Hours of Simon de Varie. Part 2
Books of hours are prayer books for the personal use of laymen, often beautifully illuminated, dating from the late-medieval period. The National Library of the Netherlands has a large collection of these works, one of the most beautiful of which is the Book of Hours of Simon de Varie. The illuminations in the manuscript are largely by artists whose identity is unknown and who therefore are referred to by a name derived from their work. The Book of Hours of Simon de Varie contains illuminations by the Master of Jean ...
Book of Hours of Simon de Varie. Part 1
Books of hours are prayer books for the personal use of laymen, often beautifully illuminated, dating from the late-medieval period. The National Library of the Netherlands has a large collection of these works, one of the most beautiful of which is the Book of Hours of Simon de Varie. The illuminations in the manuscript are largely by artists whose identity is unknown, and who therefore are referred to by a name that is derived from their work. The Book of Hours of Simon de Varie contains illuminations by the Master ...
The Flower of Nature
Jacob van Maerlant (circa 1235−1300) was arguably the most important Dutch poet of the 13th century. He produced a verse translation of the Bible (the Rijmbijbel) and an adaptation, Spiegel historiael, of the Speculum historiale by Vincent of Beauvais (died 1264), a history of the world to the year 1250. The manuscript shown here, Der naturen bloeme (The flower of nature), is an adaptation of De natura rerum (The nature of things) by the philosopher and theologian Thomas of Cantimpré (circa 1200−circa 1270). De natura rerum ultimately derives ...
Armorial of Cornelis van Aeken, or Beyeren Armorial
The Beyeren Armorial, also known as the Armorial of Cornelis van Aeken, was compiled by Claes Heynenzoon (also known as the Gelre Herald, circa 1345−1414), who was Ruwieren King of Arms, the chief herald of the Netherlands, around 1400.  Heraldry had steadily increased in importance throughout the Middle Ages. In tournaments and on the battlefield, knights were unrecognizable once they donned their helmet and armor, unless they used a coat of arms as an identifying symbol. The coats of arms also were used to indicate the noble lord to ...
A.B.C. For Soldiers on Leave
A.B.C. For Soldiers on Leave was written by Max Lowland (pseudonym for Max Schuchart, 1920−2005) and illustrated by Jos Ruting (pseudonym for Josef Bernard, 1908−87) as a humorous guide for Allied soldiers stationed in or visiting the Netherlands in the period after World War II. It was produced by Joh. M. Allis, a Dutch publisher of picture and children’s books. The book appealed to large numbers of Canadian soldiers engaged in the liberation of the Netherlands who were unable to return home straight away after ...
Adriaen Coenen’s “Fish Book”
In 1577, at the age of 63, Adriaen Coenen, from the Dutch fishing port of Scheveningen, started his Visboek (Fish book). Over a period of three years he collected all kinds of information about the sea, coasts and coastal waters, fishing grounds, and marine animals, in all producing 410 expert pages. Throughout his life Coenen had earned his living from the sea, as a fisherman, salvage master, and from 1574 as official fish auctioneer at Scheveningen. Coenen made nearly every page into a miniature work of art by framing his ...
The Album Amicorum of Jacob Heyblocq
In the days of Jacob Heyblocq (1623−90), friendship books (referred to by their Latin name, alba amicorum) were popular among students who traveled from university to university. Traveling scholars took the books with them on their university tours. When they met notable figures they wanted to remember, they asked these people to write a brief inscription in their book. The inscriptions usually consisted of short quotations and expressions of friendship, along with the date and a signature. Sometimes students had their portraits or their family coat of arms drawn ...
Lectures Notes on Natural Law, International Law, Constitutional Law, Political Economy, and Statistics
In 1853, after the arrival of Commodore Matthew C. Perry (1794–1858), there was an urgent need to introduce Western learning and technology in Japan. The Bakufu (shogunate) therefore devised a plan to acquire Western ships and to send Japanese to study abroad. At first Japan considered the United States as the best country from which to order warships and to send students, but it was unable to do so because of the American Civil War. The Bakufu therefore approached Holland and negotiated and finalized with the Dutch an order ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Choral Collection with Masses from the Josquin des Prez Period
This choir book with masses from the Low Countries and Burgundy—including a mass by Josquin des Prez (circa 1440−1521)—was made for the Count Palatine, later Elector Palatine, Ottheinrich. The contents are a selection from the repertoire of the Munich court music under its first great music director and reorganizer, Ludwig Senfl (circa 1486−1542 or 43), a pupil of Heinrich Isaak. On folio 1 are the arms of Ottheinrich; on folios 2 verso and 124 verso are initials with portraits of the count and his wife Susanna ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Map of France’s Post Offices
Drawn by Alexis-Hubert Jaillot (circa 1632−1712) in 1690, the Carte particulière des postes de France (Particular map of the post offices of France) was preceded by the work of geographer Nicolas Sanson (1600–67), including his 1632 Carte géographique des Postes qui traversent la France (Geographical map of post offices throughout France). The evolution of the mapping of the postal network sheds light on various territorial choices stemming from political or economic requirements. This postal network was the first exchange system managed by the French monarchy within the boundaries ...
Belgium as a Lion
In the 16th and 17th centuries, maps of the Low Countries frequently were drawn in the form of a lion, known by its Latin designation, Leo Belgicus. The “Belgian” lion usually included all of the 17 provinces variously referred to as the Netherlands or the Low Countries, even though the seven provinces of the north broke away in 1581 to form the Dutch Republic. Symbols of Dutch patriotism, these maps often appeared in 17th-century Dutch paintings, hanging on the walls of inns or private homes, as in Jan Vermeer’s ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Get Out! The Indies Must be Liberated
This 1945 recruiting poster by the Dutch artist Nico Broekman shows a Japanese soldier being booted from the island of Bali, and the caption, “Get Out! The Indies Must Be Liberated.” During World War II, Japan occupied the Dutch East Indies in early 1942. After the surrender, a large number of Dutch submarines and some aircraft escaped to Australia and continued to fight as part of Australian units. In the course of the war, Indonesian nationalists supported by the Japanese took over parts of the country. Allied troops invaded Borneo ...
Gustaaf Willem Baron van Imhoff, Governor General of the Dutch East India Company
This engraving depicts Gustaaf Willem Baron van Imhoff (1705-50), who served as governor general of the Dutch East India Company from 1743 to 1750. Imhoff began working for the company in 1725, and held important posts in both Ceylon (present-day Sri Lanka) and the Dutch East Indies. He attempted to institute some progressive policies in the East Indies, such as establishing a school, post office, hospital, and newspaper. The engraving is from the collections of the KITLV/Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies in Leiden.
Charter Given by the High and Mighty Lords of the States General on the Date of June the Third, 1621
On June 3, 1621, the States-General, the governing body of the United Provinces of the Netherlands, issued a charter to a group of Dutch merchants to establish the Dutch West India Company. Similar to the Dutch East India Company, which was founded in 1602 in order to promote trade with Asia, the West India Company was granted a 24-year monopoly on all trade by Dutch merchants and inhabitants in a region that included the Americas and West Africa. The text of the charter, published in this 1623 pamphlet, contained 45 ...
The System of Saturn
Christiaan Huygens (1629–95) was born in The Hague, the Netherlands, into a prominent Dutch family. Unlike his grandfather, father, and brother who all served as secretaries and diplomats to the ruling house of Orange, Huygens dedicated himself to science and mathematics. He published three mathematical books, produced a manuscript on hydrostatics, wrote a work on the collision of elastic bodies, did research on centrifugal force, and invented the pendulum clock. Huygens was especially intrigued by the planet Saturn, whose protruding “handles” were visible through the telescopes of the day ...
Contributed by Smithsonian Institution
Mirror of the Cruel and Horrible Spanish Tyranny Perpetrated in the Netherlands, by the Tyrant, the Duke of Alba, and Other Commanders of King Philip II
This volume, published in the Netherlands in 1620, contains French translations of two earlier works detailing Spanish crimes and atrocities in both Europe and the New World. The first part is an abridged version of Oorsprong en voortgang der Nederlandtscher beroerten (Origin and progress of the disturbances in the Netherlands) by Johannes Gysius (died 1652), first published anonymously in 1616. The second part is a translation of Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias (A short account of the destruction of the Indies), written by Bartolomé de las Casas ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Students Studying in the Netherlands at the End of the Edo Period
This photograph of Japanese students in the Netherlands was taken in 1865. After the arrival in Japan of Commodore Mathew C. Perry and the opening of Japanese ports to international trade, the acquisition of Western science and technology became an urgent priority for Japan. The shogunate government drew up a plan to dispatch students to Western countries. The government initially planned to purchase its first warship from the United States and send its first students there, but the outbreak of the U.S. Civil War forced it to drop those ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Luxemburg and Limburg
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Luxemburg and Limburg is Number 27 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The first part of the study covers the political history of and social and political conditions in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Question of the Scheldt
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Question of the Scheldt is Number 28 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study provides a history of the international legal arrangements governing the Western Scheldt, the waterway giving ...
Contributed by Library of Congress