- 1950 CE - 2010 CE (5)
- 500 CE - 1499 CE (4)
- 1700 CE - 1799 CE (3)
- 1850 CE - 1899 CE (3)
- 1800 CE - 1849 CE (2)
- 1900 CE - 1949 CE (2)
- 1500 CE - 1699 CE (1)
- History & geography (6)
- Religion (3)
- Science (2)
- Arts & recreation (2)
- Literature (2)
- Philosophy & psychology (1)
- Social sciences (1)
- Technology (1)
- Arabic manuscripts (3)
- Africa, West (2)
- Arabic calligraphy (2)
- Islamic manuscripts (2)
- Mathematics, Arab (2)
- Arabic literature (1)
- Arabic poetry (1)
- Brass instruments (1)
- Codex (1)
- Government buildings (1)
- Hayy ibn Yaqdhan (1)
- Houses (1)
- Ibn Ghāzī, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad, 1437 or 8-1513 (1)
- Ibn al-Bannāʼ, Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad, 1256?-1321? (1)
- Ibn Ṭufayl, Muḥammad ibn ʻAbd al-Malik, died 1185 (1)
- Illuminations (1)
- Islamic calligraphy (1)
- Islamic law (1)
- Islamic philosophy (1)
- Koran (1)
- Moroccans (1)
- Mosques (1)
- Musicians (1)
- Panoramic photographs (1)
- Poetry (1)
- Public squares (1)
- Sahara (1)
- Slavery (1)
- Timbuktu manuscripts (1)
- Trumpet (1)
- Trumpet players (1)
Type of Item
Minaret of Jamaa el Kebir (the Great Mosque) of Tetouan
This photograph by the Junta de Andalucia shows the Great Mosque of Tetouan, Morocco, the largest mosque in the medina of Tetouan and one of the city's most beautiful historical monuments. The Great Mosque was built in the early 19th century, near the city's old Jewish quarter, which was moved to its present location at the other end of the medina. An entire 19th-century quarter bearing the mosque's name developed around the mosque. The mosque's minaret was constructed as the highest point in the medina, and ...
The Lifting of the Veil in the Operations of Calculation
The establishment of the Berber-Muslim dynasty of the Almohads in North Africa and Andalusia in the 12th century coincided with the decline in scientific advances in many fields of knowledge, including medicine. This was not the case with mathematics, and the treatise preserved in this manuscript together with other works by the same author stand as clear proof of the liveliness of this field under the rule of the Almohads and of the Marinid dynasty that followed. Abū ‛Abbās Ahmad Ibn al-Bannā was born in the second half of the ...
The Desire of the Students for an Explanation of the Calculator's Craving
This manuscript offers a clear example of the liveliness of the North African mathematical tradition under the Muslim-Berber dynasties that ruled over the Islamic West from the 12th century to the first half of the 17th century. They were the Almohads (12th–13th centuries), the Marinids (13th–15th centuries), the Wattasids (15th–16th centuries), and the Saadis (16th–17th centuries). While there was little scientific advance in other fields in this period, the mathematical sciences kept on developing, as reflected both in the composition of original works and in commentaries ...
Map of the Western Sahara
This map by Ernest George Ravenstein (1834-1913) appeared in the London Geographical Magazine in 1876. Ravenstein was a British geographer and fellow of the Royal Geographical Society. He is best remembered for his pioneering Laws of Migration, published in 1885, which provided the theoretical underpinning for much subsequent scientific work on migration. This map shows the Sahara Desert, from present-day eastern Mali to the Atlantic Ocean. Shown in red are the tracks of the important 19th-century explorers who crossed the desert, including the Frenchman René-Auguste Callié (1799-1838), who in 1827-28 ...
Travel Views of Morocco
Arnold Genthe (1869-1942) was a German-born immigrant to America whose work included notable and historically important photographs of San Francisco’s Chinatown and its residents, portraits of presidents and society figures, and images of Anna Pavlova and other dancers. Genthe traveled to Morocco in 1904 to attend to the affairs of his brother Siegfried, who had been murdered there. Although he wrote at the time that he “was not in a frame of mind to appreciate the rich possibilities this North African country offered to [his] camera,” he managed to ...
Palace of Justice, Tangier, Morocco
This photomechanical print shows the Palace of Justice, inside the Tangier Kasbah, as it appeared in the last decade of the 19th century. At the time the photo was taken, Tangier was the capital of Morocco. Located on a bay of the Strait of Gibraltar across from the southern tip of Spain, Tangier was home to Arabs, Jews, and many Westerners, including artists and writers. The African-American artist Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859-1937) painted the same building in around 1912-13. The painting can be seen in the Smithsonian American Art Museum ...
Souk el Hout Square (Fish Square)
This photograph by the Tetouan-Asmir Association shows Souk el Hout Square (Fish Square), one of the most charming public squares in the medina of Tetouan, Morocco. Mountaineers from the surrounding tribes come to the square to present their colorful, hand-woven woolen objects for sale. This square was built just outside the city wall. Ali Al-Mandari, the city’s founder, built the wall with its brick towers and kasaba (fortress) in the late 15th and early 16th centuries. Tetouan has been called the daughter of Granada, and the kasaba reflects the ...
Panoramic View of Tetouan
This panoramic photograph of Tetouan, Morocco, by the Tetouan-Asmir Association shows the five century-old medina, the early 20th century Spanish colonial city (or Ensanche) on the edge of Mount Dersa, as well as newly urbanized areas that stretch ten kilometers eastwards towards some of the most beautiful beaches on the Mediterranean. The medina's whitewashed walls, which have earned the city the title of “the White Dove,” and the city’s mountains and beaches reflect the combination of man-made and natural beauty for which Tetouan is known. Located on the ...
This photograph by the Junta de Andalucia shows a house of the prestigious Torres family in the medina of Tetouan, Morocco. One of the medina’s most impressive private houses, the house was built during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, and is an example of Tetouan's Andalusian architecture at its peak. Its features include a courtyard, a wall fountain supplied by water from a natural underground spring, typical Tetouani tiles (known as zellij), carved wooden doors, and beautifully furnished sitting rooms. Located on the Mediterranean Sea east ...
Bab el Okla
This photograph by the Tetouan-Asmir Association shows Bab el Okla, one the historical seven gates of Tetoaun, Morocco. Bab el Okla is more recent than the other city gates, and is among the busiest. It consists of the main gate and a secondary entrance on the side. The fountain just inside the gate stands out for its typical Tetouani tiles and 18th-century inscriptions of verses praising the city's ruler, Omar Luqash. Located on the Mediterranean Sea east of Tangier, Tetouan served for centuries as a major point of contact ...
This manuscript is a fragment of the Qur'an, consisting of chapters 19 (Sūrat Maryam) through 23 (Sūrat al-mu’minūn). It was produced in the Maghreb and dates from the 12th century AH (18th century AD). The text is written in a large Maghrebī script, with vocalization in red, green, and yellow ink on Italian paper. The codex opens with an illuminated chapter heading for chapter 19 written in the New Abbasid (broken cursive) style (folio 1b) in gold ink within a decorative headpiece. The titles of other chapters are ...
The Philosophy of ibn Tufail and His Treatise the Self-Taught Philosopher
Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Tufail (also known by a Latinized version of his name, Abubacer Aben Tofail, 1105–85 AD) was an Andalusian Muslim polymath who was born near Granada, Spain, and died in Morocco. Apart from fragments of poetry, Hayy ibn Yaqzan (Alive, son of awake), also called Philosophus Autodidactus (The self-taught philosopher), is his only surviving work. Considered the first philosophical novel, it is often seen as an earlier Arabic version of Daniel Defoe’s Robinson Crusoe. The book had much influence in the West. It takes place ...
Moroccan State Trumpeters, 1864
This original gouache painting of 1864 is by the celebrated British artist, Sir John Gilbert (1817–97). It originally was thought to depict Moroccan state trumpeters, but many of Gilbert’s paintings are indistinct in terms of time and place and their exact subjects difficult to determine. Gilbert never traveled beyond Europe, but like many Victorian painters he was attracted to exoticism and to tales from Arabia, such as the story of Aladdin, and this piece reflects this interest in the exotic. One of the most prolific painters of his ...
The Ladder of Ascent in Obtaining the Procurements of the Sudan: Ahmad Baba Answers a Moroccan’s Questions about Slavery
Timbuktu (present-day Tombouctou in Mali), founded around 1100 as a commercial center for trade across the Sahara Desert, was also an important seat of Islamic learning from the 14th century onward. The libraries there contain many important manuscripts, in different styles of Arabic scripts, which were written and copied by Timbuktu’s scribes and scholars. These works constitute the city’s most famous and long-lasting contribution to Islamic and world civilization. Ahmad Baba ibn Ahmad ibn Umar ibn Muhammad Aqit al-Tumbukti discusses slavery as it existed in West Africa during ...