22 results in English
Summary of Petition of Railroad Workers of Hungarian Origin and Protection of Minorities in Czechoslovakia
After World War I, the states of central and southeastern Europe were compelled by the victorious Allied and Associated Powers to sign agreements guaranteeing religious, social, and political equality to their minority populations. The states covered were Austria, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Groups or individuals who believed they had been discriminated against for ethnic or linguistic reasons could petition the League of Nations for redress by the Council. The Minority Section within the League Secretariat was responsible for screening incoming petitions, requesting responses from the accused ...
Petition of Railroad Workers of Hungarian Origin, Draft Reply, Legal Arguments
After World War I, the states of central and southeastern Europe were compelled by the victorious Allied and Associated Powers to sign agreements guaranteeing religious, social, and political equality to their minority populations. The states covered were Austria, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Greece, Hungary, Poland, Romania, and Yugoslavia. Groups or individuals who believed they had been discriminated against for ethnic or linguistic reasons could petition the League of Nations for redress by the Council. The Minority Section within the League Secretariat was responsible for screening incoming petitions, requesting responses from the accused ...
Horologium Olomoucense
Horologium Olomoucense is a collectarium (liturgical book of collects or prayers) that is recited during the Divine Office at horae (specific times) during the day. The manuscript was written for the cathedral chapter in Olomouc in the southern part of the present-day Czech Republic before the year 1150. A famous image depicting Pope Gregory I (circa 540–604) is found at the beginning of the liturgical texts. The pope is on a throne and dictating to his friend and pupil, Petrus Diaconus, who is sitting at his feet. He is ...
Essays on the History of the Civil War of 1917-1920
Essays on the History of the Civil War of 1917-1920 is an early history of the civil war that followed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. The book was written by Anatolii Anishev, a researcher at the Tolmachev Military-Political Academy in Leningrad (present-day Saint Petersburg), and published in Leningrad in 1925. In his introduction, Anishev notes that archival sources relating to the war were in poor condition and that almost no monographs existed. This forced him to rely on articles in White Russian magazines and newspapers, which were biased and unreliable ...
The Krtíš Glagolitic Fragment
This manuscript fragment contains part of an explanation of an unknown gospel. It was at one time bound into a Glagolitic copy of the manuscript book Historia Scholastica by Peter Comestor. The text of the fragment was written in the angular Glagolitic script invented during the ninth century by Saints Cyril and Methodius to translate the Bible and other ecclesiastical works into the language of the Great Moravia region. Around 1633 the folio was used to fill the book binding of the Czech translation of Pastorale Lutheri (The pastoral of ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
On Time; On Divine Ideas; On Matter and Form; Reply on the Universals; On Universals
This codex contains four philosophical treatises by the English theologian and reformer John Wycliffe (also seen as John Wyclif,) (circa 1330−84). The works are The works are De tempore (also called De individuatio temporis) (On time); De ydeis [De ideis] (On divine ideas); De materia et forma (On matter and form); and De universalibus (On universals); as well as a work by an unidentified author entitled Replicacio de universalibus (Reply on the universals). According to the colophon, the manuscript was written by Jan Hus, an early proponent of ecclesiastical ...
Manifesto to the Czechoslovak People in America
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. “'Manifest k Ceskoslovenskému lidu v Americe!" (Manifesto to the Czechoslovak people in America) is one of a series of posters created by Vojtech Preissig (1873-1944) that encouraged Czech and Slovak volunteers to fight with the Czechoslovak Legion against Austria-Hungary and Germany to further the cause of an independent Czechoslovakia. Preissig was a Czech artist living in the United States. The poster was designed and printed at the Wentworth Institute in Boston and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Now Slovakia Arises. It's Pulling off Its Shackles
This World War I poster showing soldiers and the Slovak coat of arms is one of a series by Czech artist Vojtěch Preissig (1873–1944) urging Czech and Slovak volunteers living in the United States to fight with the Czechoslovak Legion against Germany and Austria-Hungary. The Czech lands and Slovakia were at that time part of Austria-Hungary and leaders of the national independence movement believed that the cause of an independent Czechoslovak state could be furthered by fighting on the Allied side. In December 1917, the government of France approved ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Entrance to Castle, Prague, Bohemia, Austro-Hungary
Prague Castle is the largest medieval castle complex in Europe and the historic seat of kings, emperors, and presidents going back to the ninth century. This photochrome print shows the castle as it appeared in the last decade of the 19th century. In addition to the castle itself, the complex includes St. Vitus’ Cathedral, several palaces, a monastery, Golden Lane (once home to writer Franz Kafka), and St. George’s Basilica.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Museum, Prague, Bohemia, Austro-Hungary
The National Museum of what is now the Czech Republic was founded in 1818 by Count Kašpar Maria Sternberg (1761-1838), an early scholar in the field of paleontology. The museum’s collections include millions of objects in the fields of natural history, history, art, and music. The main building, pictured here, was completed in 1891. It is located at the upper end of Wenceslas Square, one of the main squares in the city of Prague. The square is named for Saint Wenceslas, the patron saint of Bohemia.
Contributed by Library of Congress
National Theatre, Prague, Bohemia, Austro-Hungary
This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of the Austro-Hungarian Empire” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It shows the National Theater in Prague or, as it was known at that time, the Bohemian National Theater. The building was designed in a Neo-Renaissance style by Josef von Zitek (1832-1909), professor of civil engineering at the technical college in Prague. Construction began in 1868 and was completed in 1881. Shortly after the grand opening, a fire destroyed much of the building, but the theater was rebuilt in less ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Radetzky Memorial, Prague, Bohemia, Austro-Hungary
This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of the Austro-Hungarian Empire” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It shows the bronze monument to Field Marshal Radetzky, who stands on a shield borne by eight soldiers, holding his baton and a flag. Joseph, Count Radetzky (1766-1858), was a soldier of Czech origin who led many victorious campaigns in the service of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The monument was erected in 1858, the year of Radetzky’s death. The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Spindelmuhl, Riesengebirge, Germany (i.e.,Špindlerův Mlýn, Czech Republic)
This late-19th century photochrome print is from “Views of Germany” in the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company. It shows the village of Spindelmühl (present-day Špindlerův Mlýn) in what is now the Czech Republic. Baedeker’s Northern Germany: As Far as the Bavarian and Austrian Frontiers (1897) described Spindelmühl as a favorite summer resort, located at an altitude of 2,600 feet (792 meters) in the Giant Mountains (Riesengebirge). The Detroit Photographic Company was launched as a photographic publishing firm in the late 1890s by Detroit businessman and publisher William ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Prebischthor, Saxony, Germany
Pravčická brána (Prebischthor, in German) is the largest natural stone bridge in Europe. It is located in a part of the present-day Czech Republic known as “Czech Switzerland,” a well-known tourist region close to the border with present-day Germany. The building shown in this photochrome print is known as the Falcon's Nest (Sokolí hnízdo, in Czech). It was built in 1881 by the Clary-Aldringen family, to accommodate important guests. This area was part of the Sudetenland, which was ceded by Czechoslovakia to Germany in 1938, but restored to Czechoslovakia ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Devil's Bible
The Codex Gigas (or Devil´s Bible) is a large 13th-century manuscript from Bohemia, one of the historical Czech lands. Renowned for its size and its striking full-page rendition of the devil (found on page 577), it contains a number of parts: the Old and New testaments, two works of Josephus Flavius, Isidore of Seville´s Etymologies, the standard textbook for teaching medicine in the Middle Ages known as Ars medicinae (The art of medicine), the 12th-century Chronica Boëmorum (Chronicle of the Bohemians) of Cosmas of Prague, and a calendar ...
God Strikes at an Injustice with a Thunderbolt, and a Young Man with Bullets
This World War I poster showing a man with an axe and a rifle joining a battle is one of a series by the Czech artist Vojtěch Preissig (1873–1944) that encouraged Czech and Slovak volunteers living in the United States to join the Czechoslovak Legion to fight against Austria-Hungary and Germany. The Czech lands and Slovakia were at that time part of Austria-Hungary and leaders of the national independence movement believed that the cause of an independent Czechoslovak state could be furthered by fighting on the Allied side. Preissig ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
For Czech Independence, the Czech National Association
This World War I poster is one of a series by the Czech artist Vojtech Preissig (1873–1944) produced to promote the creation of an independent Czechoslovak state after the war. The poster shows doubled-headed eagles nailed to crosses. The eagles are a symbol of the Austrian monarchy, and bear medallions around their necks labeled “FJI,” an abbreviation that stands for the emperor, Franz Joseph I. On the crosses are signs airing Czech grievances against the Austrian monarchy, including:  “Za třistaletý útisk” (For 300 years of oppression), and “Z Kramáře ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
For Our Independence! Get the Killer! For Democracy! The Czechoslovak Army
This World War I poster is one of a series by the Czech artist Vojtěch Preissig (1873–1944) that encouraged Czech and Slovak volunteers living in the United States to fight with the Czechoslovak Legion against Austria-Hungary and Germany to further the cause of an independent Czechoslovakia. The poster shows two soldiers engaged in hand-to-hand combat, and the text reads, in Czech: “Down with the murderers! Up with Democracy!” Preissig was born in the Czech-speaking part of Austria-Hungary. From 1892 to 1896 he studied in Prague at the School of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Those Who are God’s Warriors. The Czechoslovak Army in France
This World War I poster is one of a series by Czech artist Vojtěch Preissig (1873–1944) urging Czech and Slovak volunteers living in the United States to join the Czechoslovak Legion to fight against Germany and Austria-Hungary. It shows a soldier on horseback carrying the flag of the Hussites, followers of the Czech religious reformer Jan Hus (circa 1369–1415). The Czech lands and Slovakia were part of Austria-Hungary and leaders of the national independence movement believed that the cause of an independent Czechoslovak state could be furthered by ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Austrian Silesia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Austrian Silesia is Number 4 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The duchy of Austrian Silesia consisted of the two Silesian districts of Troppau and Teschen that remained under Austrian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bohemia and Moravia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Bohemia and Moravia is Number 2 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Once a powerful kingdom within the Holy Roman Empire, Bohemia came under the control of the Hapsburgs in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Upper Silesia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Upper Silesia is Number 40 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Upper Silesia, also known as Oppeln, was one of three government districts in the Prussian province of Silesia, the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress