122 results in English
Report on the Different Masses of Iron, Found in the Eastern Cordillera of the Andes
Mariano Eduardo de Rivero y Ustáriz (1798–1857) was a Peruvian scientist, geologist, mineralogist, chemist, archaeologist, politician, and diplomat. After schooling in Arequipa, he was sent in 1810 at age 12 to London to study mathematics, physics, and languages. In 1817 he traveled to France to the École royale des mines de Paris to study mineralogy and chemistry. In France he met Joseph Louis Proust, Gay-Lussac, and Alexander von Humboldt. The latter became his mentor and, during the course of his travels in Europe, Rivero discovered a new iron-oxalate that ...
Contributed by EAFIT University
Map of the City and Bay of Cartagena de las Indias
This hand-colored pen-and-ink manuscript map was drawn by Antonio de Ulloa (1716–95) in 1735, based on an earlier map by Juan de Herrera dating from around 1721. It shows in great detail the bay of Cartagena de Indias and the adjacent coastal area of the present-day city of Cartagena, Colombia. The territory was then part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the Spanish Empire. The map is oriented by a compass rose with north pointing to the left. Longitude is set in relation to the Royal Astronomical Observatory ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
Map of the Republic of Colombia
This 1891 map of Colombia depicts the main physical features and administrative divisions of the country. It shows national and departmental borders, the capitals of departments, other cities, villages, railroads (completed and projected), and highways. Present-day Panama, which did not become independent until 1903, is still shown as a department of Colombia. The railroad across the Isthmus of Panama, from Colón to Panama City, is indicated, but the Panama Canal has not yet been built. The eastern part of the country is shown as thinly settled and not well mapped ...
Map of the Whole of Guiana or the Savage Coast, and the Spanish West Indies at the Northern End of South America
This 18th-century Dutch map, produced in Amsterdam by the publisher Isaak Tirion (circa 1705–circa 1769), shows the northern coast of South American and its offshore islands, including Curaçao, Bonaire, and neighboring islands; Trinidad and Tobago; and Grenada. Guiana is divided, from west to east, into Spanish, Dutch, and French sections, corresponding roughly to a part of present-day Venezuela and present-day Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. The territory to the south of Guiana, in present-day Brazil, is labeled as Portuguese. Three scales are given in the main map: French and ...
A Syrian Voyage in Central and South America
Father Henri Lammens was born into a Catholic family in Ghent, Belgium, in 1862. At the age of 15 he joined the Jesuits and later settled permanently in Lebanon. He mastered Latin and Greek and taught Arabic in Beirut. His first work was an Arabic dictionary, Farā'id al-lugha (The pearls of language), dating from 1889. He also served as editor for the Jesuit newspaper of Beirut, al-Bashīr (The evangelist). He wrote many works, most notably on the history of Arabia in the pre-Islamic era, as well as on ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Course of the River of the Amazons, Based on the Account of Christopher d’Acugna
Nicolas Sanson (1600-67) is considered by many to be the founder of the French school of cartography. Originally from Abbeville, he was also known as Sanson d’Abbeville. He was trained as a military engineer but became a prolific cartographer who produced over 300 maps. Around 1643, he began publishing maps, working with publisher Pierre Mariette. This 1680 map of the Amazon most likely is a reprint by his son Guillaume (1633-1703), who carried on the family firm after Nicolas’s death. The account referred to in the title is ...
Manuscript Map of Dagua River Region, Colombia
This beautiful pen-and-ink and watercolor map shows the Dagua River and the town of Sombrerillo in what was then the Spanish Viceroyalty of New Grenada. The river empties into the Pacific Ocean near the present-day city of Buenaventura, Colombia. Sombrerillo was a “free town” populated by former slaves who had gained their freedom from the lowland mines and the highland haciendas of the region. The map is oriented with north at the bottom.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Orinoco River that Includes Visible Islands and Tributaries at the Delta of the River, 1732
This early-18th century map of the valley of the Orinoco River contains extensive information about the Indian nations bordering the river, Christian missions and other settlements, the extensive array of streams that flow into the Orinoco, and navigational hazards and islands. The map includes a keyed index and a detailed historical note on the exploration of the river from 1682 to 1732. The note records information about the martyrdom of several religious figures. As indicated in the note, much of the information for the map came from different religious sources ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Colombia and Venezuela
Chicago-based Rand McNally became a major publisher of atlases, maps, globes, and travel guides in the United States in the second half of the 19th century. This map of Colombia and Venezuela is from the 1898 edition of Rand, McNally & Cos. Indexed Atlas of the World, Containing Large Scale Maps of Every Country and Civil Division upon the Face of the Globe, together with Historical, Statistical and Descriptive Matter Relative to Each. The atlas contains two volumes, one with maps of the United States, the other maps of foreign countries ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
An Account of a Selection of Plants of America
The first world-renowned natural scientist to set foot on Colombian soil was the Dutch physician and botanist Baron Nikolaus Joseph Jacquin (1727–1817). As a young man he showed such ability in his studies in Vienna that he attracted royal patronage. Emperor Francis I commissioned him to travel to the Americas for the purpose of collecting rare and exotic plants for the imperial parks of Vienna and Schönbrunn Palace. This tour occupied him from 1755 to 1759. Jacquin was the first person to show the world the botanical treasures of ...
An Account of a Selection of Plants of America
The first world-renowned natural scientist to set foot on Colombian soil was the Dutch physician and botanist Baron Nikolaus Joseph Jacquin (1727–1817). As a young man he showed such ability in his studies in Vienna that he attracted royal patronage. Emperor Francis I commissioned him to travel to the Americas for the purpose of collecting rare and exotic plants for the imperial parks of Vienna and Schönbrunn Palace. This tour occupied him from 1755 to 1759. Jacquin was the first person to show the world the botanical treasures of ...
Map of the Province of Antioquia
The Colombian political figure and historian José Manuel Restrepo (1781–1863) first became known as the geographer and cartographer of the province of Antioquia in New Granada (the Spanish viceroyalty that comprised all or parts of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). In 1807, Restrepo carried out geodesic and barometric measurements in 102 towns of the province. In 1809, he completed this map of Antioquia, the first attempt to depict with precision the province’s rugged terrain. In the same year, he wrote an essay on the physical, social, and ...
The Pilgrimage of Alpha (Manuel Ancízar) in the Northern Provinces of New Granada, 1850–51
Peregrinación de Alpha (Manuel Ancízar) por las provincias del norte de la Nueva Granada, en 1850 i 51 (The pilgrimage of Alpha (Manuel Ancízar) in the northern provinces of New Granada, 1850–51) consists of articles written by Manuel Ancízar (1812–82), published in book form in 1853. Ancízar, who wrote under the pseudonym Alpha, was secretary of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission) of New Granada (the Spanish viceroyalty that comprised all or parts of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). Formed in 1849, the commission included engineers and geographers ...
Rewards for Obedience, Punishment for Disobedience
Premios de la obediencia, castigos de la inobediencia (Rewards for obedience, punishment for disobedience) by Raymundo Azero (1739–94) is one of the first books printed in New Granada (the Spanish viceroyalty that comprised all or parts of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). Azero studied at the College of San Buenaventura in Santa Fe de Bogotá and was ordained a Franciscan priest. He later served as professor of theology at the college and as its director. He was also a missionary and local administrator. Azero’s missionary experience unfolded ...
Vocabulary of the Language Used by the Indians in These Missions
This manuscript, by an unknown author probably writing at one or several Catholic missions in the 18th century, was found at the College for the Propagation of the Faith in Popayán, New Granada (the Spanish viceroyalty that comprised all or parts of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). It consists of 103 pages, most of which are taken up by a glossary of words in the Siona indigenous language with their Spanish equivalents. This part of the work is organized in columns, with the Siona words on the left and ...
Chibcha Dictionary and Grammar
This manuscript is a glossary with prayers, confessions, and sermons in the Chibcha language. It was compiled by an unknown hand, most likely in the mid-16th century (as suggested by the style of handwriting). The work was used by missionaries in the evangelization of the Muisca, the Chibcha-speaking people who lived in the central highlands of New Granada. The Spanish learned early in their colonial role that to accomplish their religious and other objectives they needed to communicate with the people in their native languages. As early as 1580 the ...
Conquest and Discovery of the New Kingdom of Granada in the West Indies of the Ocean Sea and Foundation of the City of Santa Fe de Bogotá
Little is known about Juan Rodríguez Freyle, the author of Conquista i descubrimiento del Nuevo Reino de Granada de las Indias Occidentales del Mar Océano y fundación de la ciudad de Santa Fé de Bogotá (Conquest and discovery of the New Kingdom of Granada in the West Indies of the Ocean Sea and foundation of the city of Santa Fe de Bogotá), a work commonly known as El carnero (The billygoat). He was born in April 1566 in Santa Fe de Bogotá, the first city in the Colombian part of ...
The Educated Vassal in the State of the New Kingdom of Granada, and His Respective Duties
El vasallo instruido (The educated vassal) was written in Cartagena by the Capuchin friar Joaquin de Finestrad. The manuscript, presented here, has two dates: 1783 on the front cover in pencil, and 1787 in the dedication to Viceroy Francisco Gil de Taboada y Lemos. The work consists of 12 unnumbered folios containing the dedication and preface, followed by the text of 505 pages originally numbered by the author. It also includes a double-sized attachment containing a comparative analysis of the tariffs of the Royal Customs of Santa Fe of December ...
A Study of the Saliba Language
This 1790 manuscript contains a grammar and partial glossary of the Saliba language, compiled by an unknown writer in San Miguel del Macuco (present-day Orocué, Colombia), and used by Jesuit missionaries. A note on the manuscript reads: “Under the Royal Order of our Catholic Monarch Charles IV, God preserve him, for demanding the greater learning and intelligence of the dictionary." The manuscript also includes a letter addressed to Charles IV by Friar Clement of Saint Xavier, in which the friar states that he has requested the Saliba language dictionary recommended ...
The Art and Vocabulary of the Achagua Language
Arte y bocabulario de la lengua achagua: Doctrina christiana, confessionario de uno y otro sexo e instrucción de cathecumenos (The art and vocabulary of the Achagua language: Christian doctrine, the confession of both sexes, and instruction in the catechism) attests to the linguistic effort undertaken by the Jesuit missionaries in the borderlands of present-day Colombia and Venezuela. As its long title explains, this small manuscript volume, written in beautiful calligraphy and now preserved in the National Library of Colombia, contains several items: a grammar of the Achagua language, an extensive ...
A Guiding Light to the Indians
Lucerna yndyca (A guiding light to the Indians) is a manuscript dating from 1715–22 containing a Castilian–Quechua dictionary and selections of the Gospels translated from Latin into Quechua, the predominant Andean language at the time of the Spanish conquest. The text is annotated with comments by the author, Esteban Sancho de Melgar y Santa Cruz. Melgar, a late-17th century academic, is known for his work Arte de la Lengua General de Inga Llamada Qquechhua (The art of the general language called Quechua) published in Lima in 1691. This ...
Manuscript of “The Vortex”
La vorágine (The vortex) is an epic novel by the poet and lawyer José Eustasio Rivera, first published in Bogotá in 1924 and set in the jungles of Colombia during the rubber boom dating from about 1880 to World War I. Rivera served as the legal secretary to a commission established to determine the border between Colombia and Venezuela. Presented here is a part of the manuscript of the novel, consisting of a notebook that Rivera kept during his travels to the interior for the commission. "This notebook,” he later ...
Sacred Images of the Indians, Province of Antioquia
The figures depicted in this watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) represent sacred symbols, probably made of gold. The province of Antioquia, Colombia, was famous for its abundance of gold, prized by both the indigenous people and the Spanish colonizers. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born in London but ...
Antique Pottery: Brazier, Pitcher, or Vessel for Offerings, Province of Antioquia
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts pottery from Colombia decorated with zoomorphic figures. The term brasero in the lower-left corner suggests that these items may have been used as braziers, but they also could have been ritual vessels for sacred offerings. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born ...
Buriticá Indian Male and Female, Province of Antioquia
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–1863) depicts an Indian man and woman from the town of Buriticá in the province of Antioquia, Colombia. The note in bottom-left margin states: “Colonel Codazzi believes that this (pure) ethnic group is almost extinct.” Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born in London ...
Santa Rosa de Osos, Province of Antioquia
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) shows a rugged landscape with the city of Santa Rosa de Osos in the background. The scene is from the province of Antioquia (present-day Department of Antioquia), Colombia. Located in the central northwestern part of the country, Antioquia is a region of mountains and valleys that lies partly in the Andes mountain range. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history ...
Confluence of the River Grande and River Chico, Province of Antioquia
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts a landscape showing the confluence of the River Grande and River Chico, in the area of Santa Rosa de Osos in the province of Antioquia (present-day Department of Antioquia), Colombia. Located in the central northwestern part of the country, Antioquia is a region of mountains and valleys that lies partly in the Andes mountain range. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural ...
Inhabitants of Antioquia
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) shows people of different social strata and occupations, gathered in a public square of the city of Antioquia, Antioquia (present-day Department of Antioquia), Colombia. Part of a church or cathedral is visible behind the figures on the left, and in the background are the Andes Mountains. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic ...
Sonsón Mountain, Province of Córdova
This sketch in pencil and watercolor wash by Henry Price (1819–63) is said to be the only work attributed to this artist that is signed – with the initials E.P. (for Enrique Price) in the lower right-hand corner. The sketch is from a lush tropical forest in the province of Córdova, Colombia, and shows three men dwarfed by the dense backdrop of trees, lianas, and thicket. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with ...
Rocky Mountain of Entrerríos, Province of Córdova
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) shows a large rocky structure against the background of a mountainous landscape. The small figures on the trail in the lower right emphasize the scale of the rock. The scene is from an area close to the present-day town of Entrerríos in Antioquia (present-day Department of Antioquia), Colombia. Price made several paintings of these conspicuous natural landmarks. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography ...
Inhabitants of Ríonegro, Province of Córdova
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) focuses, as do many of his works, on the common people of a particular region of Colombia, in this case the province of Córdova (present-day Department of Antioquia). Antioquia lies in the north of the country and its inhabitants included descendants of the Spanish colonists, indigenous Zenue, black Africans whose ancestors were brought to Colombia as slaves, and Arab immigrants. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with ...
Maize Harvesters in Ríonegro, Province of Córdova
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts maize harvesters from Ríonegro in the province of Córdova (present-day Department of Antioquia). Antioquia lies in the north of the country and its inhabitants included descendants of the Spanish colonists, indigenous Zenue, black Africans whose ancestors were brought to Colombia as slaves, and Arab immigrants. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic ...
The Plateau of Herveo, Ruiz, Tolima, Santa Isabel, and Great Crater, Province of Córdova
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts a plateau and volcanic mountains, with Nevado del Ruiz, also known as the Mesa de Herveo, on the right, and Tolima and Santa Isabel seen in the distance. Men in colorful ponchos are surveying the area. Price labels the scene as located in the province of Córdova; other sources identify it as in the province of Mariquita, about 130 kilometers west of Bogotá. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission ...
The Rock of Guatapé, Province of Córdova
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts a large rock formation near Medellín (present-day Antioquia Department), Colombia. The annotation in the lower left gives the height, width, and circumference of the formation and indicates that the measurements were needed by Colonel Codazzi for mapmaking. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He ...
People of Manizales, Province of Córdova
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts a scene in Manizales, province of Córdova (present-day Department of Caldas), Colombia. Four people who presumably have just ascended from the steep ravine in the background are shown, including two women and a porter and his passenger. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He ...
Goddess in Gold, from a Grave or Tomb of the Indians, near Neira, Province of Córdova
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts a goddess, probably made of gold. The annotation at the bottom indicates that it was found at an Indian burial site near Neira (present-day Caldas Department), Colombia. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born in London but moved to New York with ...
Gold Washing in the Río Guadalupe, Province of Medellín
This watercolor shows women panning for gold in the Guadalupe River, north of the city of Medellín, province of Medellín (present-day Antioquia Department), Colombia. The extraction of gold was one of the main economic activities in this area. The illustration is by Henry Price (1819–63), a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). Price was ...
A Gathering of Laborers in Angostura de la Candelaria, Río Guadalupe, Province of Medellín
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) depicts men performing a cuelga, a gathering in which men provide work in exchange for food. The men are shown fishing in the Guadalupe River, north of the city of Medellín (present-day Antioquia), Colombia. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born in London ...
Typical Inhabitants of the Province of Medellín
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) portrays five people of the province of Medellín (present-day Antioquia Department), Colombia. The dress and facial characteristics of the individuals shown are intended to represent the main ethnic and racial groups among the inhabitants of the province, which included people of indigenous, Spanish colonial, mestizo, and Afro-Colombian origin. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of ...
Inhabitants of Medellín, Capital of the Province of Antioquia
This watercolor of a domestic scene by Henry Price (1819–63) portrays an elegant upper-class couple in Medellín, the provincial capital of Antioquia, Colombia. The couple are clearly of European descent, and their stylish attire and the furnishings in their home reflect their high social status. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama ...
The Guadalupe Waterfall, Province of Medellín
This striking watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) shows the waterfall on the Guadalupe River, northeast of Medellín, Colombia. In the lower right are seen the figures of a surveying team at work, their small sizes pointing up the enormity of the falls. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born ...
A Miner and Shopkeeper, Province of Medellín
This watercolor by Henry Price (1819–63) shows a miner and a shopkeeper in the province of Medellín (present-day Antioquia Department), Colombia, completing a transaction. As in many of Price’s works, people of different ethnic origins and status in life are depicted. Price was a British painter and musician who was one of the draftsmen of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission), a body tasked with studying the geography, natural resources, natural history, regional culture, and agriculture of the Republic of New Granada (present-day Colombia and Panama). He was born ...