52 results in English
Feminine Elegance: Fortnightly Fashion Review, Number 1
Eleganze femminili: rivista quindicinale di mode (Feminine elegance: fortnightly fashion review) was an Italian fashion magazine, published from January to May 1911, which was sold by subscription in Italy and abroad. In addition to presenting the latest fashions by the most famous designers in Paris, London, and Vienna, Eleganze femminili reported on social occasions in high society and included articles on etiquette, women’s interests, art, and the history of fashion throughout the centuries. It also offered readers the chance to obtain muslin or paper patterns of the designs shown ...
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The Congress of Berlin, 1878
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. The Congress of Berlin, 1878 is Number 154 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Congress of Berlin was convened by the major European powers to settle or at least ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Melk Missal
This missal, which dates to the late-12th or early 13th century, was made for the Benedictine abbey of Melk (or, possibly, Seitenstetten) in Lower Austria, as indicated by the inclusion of the patron saints of Melk, Peter and Paul, and Cholomannus (folio 212 recto). The surviving volume of a multi-volume missal, the manuscript contains only the ordinary of the mass and the "summer part," with the temporale running from Holy Saturday through the Sunday after Trinity Sunday and the sanctorale beginning with the feast of Primus and Felicianus (June 9 ...
Contributed by Walters Art Museum
Collection of Texts on Mathematical Astronomy and the Natural Sciences
This manuscript is a collection of texts on mathematical astronomy and the natural sciences dating from early in the ninth century. The illuminations are mainly of astronomical content and are based on models from late antiquity. They include the occupations of the 12 months, the earliest surviving medieval illuminations of this type (folio 91 verso); an astronomical map (folio 113 verso); the constellations (folios 115 verso−121 recto); and the 12 winds (folio 139 recto). The manuscript was copied in Salzburg, apparently from a northern French exemplar, and was presumably ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Evangeliary of Michaelbeuern, Four Gospels with Illuminations of the Evangelists
The Gospel book from the Benedictine monastery at Michaelbeuern is considered a work of the Salzburg school because of its similarity to other Salzburg manuscripts. Whether it was brought to Michaelbeuern in the first half of the 11th century (when that monastery was being reestablished from Saint Peter’s in Salzburg) or later cannot be determined with certainty. Besides canon tables and lesser initials, it shows, on double leaves, which are interpolated but which always have formed part of the manuscript, four illustrations of the evangelists facing ornamental initial pages ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Pericope (Sections) from Saint Erentrud. Gospels for the Mass According to the Usual Rite, Preceding the Capitular Gospels
This book, which contains the “lessons,” or portions of scripture appointed to be read at divine service, was written around the year 1150, probably in Salzburg, a diocesan town situated near what is today the border between Bavaria and Austria. The manuscript was owned by the Benedictine convent of Saint Erentrud auf dem Nonnberg, which was founded by Saint Rupert in Salzburg in 711−12, and where Rupert’s niece Erentrud was the first abbess. With its 56 miniatures depicting scenes from the New Testament and the life of saints ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Emblems: With Many Images from Ancient Works; by Ján Sambucus of Tyrnavia in Pannonia
Emblemata: Cvm Aliqvot Nvmmis Antiqvi Operis (Emblems: with many images from ancient works) is by the notable Slovak poet, polymath, publisher, collector, and university professor Ján Sambucus (also known as János Zsámboki, 1531−84). Born in Trnava (also referred to as Tyrnavia) in western Slovakia, Sambucus was considered to be the outstanding humanistic personality of Central Europe. He maintained contacts with many European scholars, with whom he collaborated in his publishing and collecting activities and his historical research. A substantial part of his life was spent at the imperial court ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Antiphonarium Bratislaviense
This illuminated folio with Metz Gothic musical notation comes from the liturgical codex of Canon Jan Han, who was a client of the Bratislava Chapter and the purchaser of this antiphonary. The illuminated initial “S” (Sanctum) with the first two martyrs of the Christian Church, Saint Stephen and Saint Lawrence, accompanied by Saint Vitus, is supplemented by the label Illorum effusus nos in patientia firmet (Their patience enabled us to stream forth), which dates the fragment to 1487. The bottom part of the acanthus decoration on the left margin contains ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
The Younger Titurel (Fernberger-Dietrichstein Manuscript)
This codex, called the Fernberger-Dietrichstein Manuscript after its later owners, contains the second part of the very lengthy chivalric legend of Arthur and the Holy Grail. It is based on the Titurel fragments by Wolfram von Eschenbach (circa 1170−circa 1220), who was considered the author of the Jüngerer Titurel (Younger Titurel), which was widely read in the Middle Ages. Recent scholarship holds that Albrecht von Scharfenberg (active 13th century) wrote this work in the style of Wolfram von Eschenbach. This manuscript is particularly important for its unusually rich illumination ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
The Consolation of Philosophy
Consolatio Philosophiae (The consolation of philosophy) is a philosophical work written by Boethius, the scion of an influential Roman family, around the year 524. It is regarded as one of the most important and influential works in the Western world. The book was composed during a yearlong period of imprisonment that Boethius served while he was awaiting trial for the crime of treason under the Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great; he was found guilty and executed in 524. Written in the form of a dialogue between Boethius and Lady Philosophy ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Ingolstadt Gospel Book (Fragment)
The so-called Ingolstadt Gospel Book shares the fate of many other liturgical manuscripts, which over time gradually lost their status as religious objects and came to be reused for profane purposes. Only a fraction of the formerly 260−80 folios of this sumptuous manuscript from the middle of the ninth century have survived. Most of its pages were used in bindings of account books in the 17th and 19th centuries. One double leaf was in the possession of the German painter Carl Spitzweg in the 19th century. When and why ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Literal Commentary on Genesis
De Genesi ad litteram (Literal commentary on Genesis) is an exegetical text on the first book of the Bible by Saint Augustine (354–430). This manuscript of Augustine’s commentary dating from between 1147 and 1164 was written and decorated in the diocesan town of Salzburg. In 1122 the earlier Salzburg cathedral chapter was replaced by a chapter regulated by Augustinian Canons, which may explain why in the following decade works by Saint Augustine were often copied in Salzburg. The manuscript is remarkable for its pen drawings, among them a ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
"Death Valley." The Battle of Mykhaylivka Village
This print showing a battle at the village of Mykhaylivka where the Russians defeated the Austrians is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Under a torrent of Austrian shrapnel and machine guns, our offensive columns quickly gained advanced positions and forced the enemy units into the ravine. Meanwhile our defensive columns were able to reach the opposite hills, and then enclose the enemy division pushed into the ravine. After a few well-aimed shots from the Russian batteries, the enemy ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle Near Vladimir-Volynsk
This print showing a battle near Volodymyr-Volynsky (present-day Ukraine) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Enemy artillery, firing over its own cavalry, shelled the trenches in front of the city occupied by our troops. The Austrians were quickly approaching. A terrible moment arrived. Hungarian cavalry, arrayed in a wide semi-circle in front of the city, bravely raced forward. It seemed that after a few minutes they would enter the city. But loud sounds and strange crackling were heard ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Defeat of the Austrian Army Near L'viv
This print showing a battle between the Russian and Austrian armies near L’viv (in present-day Ukraine; at that time the city of Lemberg in Austria-Hungary) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “According to the headquarters of the commander in chief, after a seven day battle, our army took advanced and heavily fortified positions near L’viv, 15–20 versts east of the city, and approached the main L’viv forts. After very heavy fighting on August 19 ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Heroic Feat by Non-commissioned Officer Avvakum Volkov, Who Captured the Austrian Flag
This print showing Russian troops fighting Austrians is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Avvakum Volkov, a volunteer non-commissioned officer, Full Cavalier of Saint George, was brought to one of the Moscow military hospitals. For his outstanding bravery he was granted a promotion and a reward of 500 rubles. Volkov earned his last two honors in battles against the Austrians. Accompanied by seven soldiers, Volkov went on a reconnaissance mission and soon encountered Austrian dragoons, nine enlisted men, one ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. A Heroic Feat and Death of the Famous Pilot Staff Captain P. N. Nesterov
This print showing the collision of two planes in mid-air and honoring the Russian pilot Staff Captain P.N. Nesterov is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Staff Captain P.N. Nesterov recently saw an Austrian airplane flying over the location of our troops near Zhovkva that was about to drop a bomb. Nesterov got in his airplane, attacked the enemy and, ramming the Austrian airplane, destroyed it and thus prevented casualties to our troops from the bomb. Nesterov ...
Contributed by The British Library
Great European War. Russian Troops Capture Galich Under the Command of Lieutenant General A. A. Brusilov, Who Was Awarded the Cross of Saint George of 4th Class for This Operation
This print showing Russian troops capturing the area of Galich (in present-day Ukraine) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “As reported from the Commander in Chief's Headquarters, our left wing covered 220 versts from August 4 to 21, while being engaged from August 7 to 21 in a continuous battle with the enemy. The main forces of the enemy had established strong positions between Kamenka and Galich, where they were destroyed on August 18 and 19. In ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Russian-Austrian War. The Battle at Lashov
This print showing the battle at Lashov (present-day Łaszczów, Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in the words of an August 20, 1914 communiqué from the headquarters of the commander in chief, Saint Petersburg: “The 15th Austrian division is completely defeated at Lashov. The Commander of the Division, Brigade Commander, and the Chief of Staff are killed. One hundred officers, 4,000 soldiers, 600 wounded, the flag of the 65th regiment and 20 guns were captured. The ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Capture of Yaroslav
This print showing a vast battle scene and the capture of Yaroslav (present-day Jarosław, Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Several battles in early September ended with a capture of the Sandomierz-Radomyśl Wielki area. Here, the San River merges with the Vistula River. The enemy wanted to escape from pursuit behind the San River and so assumed a heavily fortified position at Przheshov. A terrible battle followed. On September 3, our troops captured bridgeheads and crossings, crossed ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle at Gorodok
This print showing a battle with cavalry at Gorodok (present-day Horodok, Ukraine) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in the words of an August 6 report from the General Staff at Saint Petersburg: “At noon on August 4, an Austrian division approached the line at Gorodok-Kuzmin. Our cavalrymen initiated a fight with the enemy at Gorodok, which lasted for five hours. Our fire and cavalry attacks inflicted losses on the enemy. The whole field is covered with the ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Capture of Yaroslav
This print showing a battle outside the walls of Yaroslav (present-day Jarosław, Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in words directly from the headquarters of the Russian General Staff: “Our troops stormed the fortifications on the right bank in Yaroslav, captured 20 guns, and continued the offensive. The enemy tried in vain to stop us by exploding the bridge over the river San. Soon our troops captured Yaroslav, creating a heavy influx of prisoners and captured guns ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle at the Austrian Border
This print showing a battle near the village Gopka at the Austrian border is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in the words of a report from Odessa: “Our troops reached Gopka on August 13 at night; an intense firing of weapons began. A fierce battle began before dawn and lasted for 18 hours. The battle ended with the defeat of the Austrians, who abandoned many guns. The number of dead and wounded Austrians is 2,000, with 4 ...
Contributed by The British Library
Russia's War with Germany and Austria-Hungary
This print showing a clash between the infantry and cavalry of two opposing forces is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains that the image depicts the capture of Yaroslav (present-day Jarosław, Poland) by the Russian Army. Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts, engravings, etchings, or later, by using lithography. The prints were often characterized by simple, colorful graphics depicting a narrative, and could also include text. Lubok gained popularity in Russia beginning in the ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Capture of an Austrian Airship
This print showing Russians firing on an Austrian airship is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “An Austrian airship heading toward Russia was spotted near the Russian-Austrian border. Our troops, despite their fierce fight with the enemy, saw the airship and fired at it forcefully. The airship was forced to land in an area occupied by our troops, and we captured it along with the military pilots. On August 8 the airship was placed on three cargo platforms that ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. On the Austrian Front. A Campaign in Hungary
This print showing a battle scene in a valley with a town and hills rising in the distance is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our troops descended into the Nagyag Valley in the Carpathian Mountains. The Austrian detachment positioned at Mikulice was thrown back and lost machine guns and other weapons. On September 18, our cavalry had some impressive gains in the Carpathian Mountains: it attacked the enemy trenches, captured them, smashed the enemy infantry, and caused the ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great War. A Skirmish between the Cossacks and the Austrians during the Capture of Galich
This print showing a scene of close combat involving infantry, cavalry, and explosions during the capture of Galich (in present-day Ukraine), is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “From the headquarters of the Commander in Chief. From August 4 to 21, our left flank covered 220 versts, while on August 7 it was engaged in a continuous battle with the enemy. The main forces of the enemy established a strong position at Kamenka-Galich, where they were completely destroyed on ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War
This print showing Russian troops surging forward is from the collection of World War I lubok  posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “A counter-attack of the Russian troops against the Austro-Germans in the Šiauliai region.” This picture, like many others in the collection, was printed in the Moscow printing house of Ivan Sytin (1851–1934). By the 1880s, Sytin was the most popular and successful publisher of lubok pictures in Russia. He also published cheap popular books for workers and peasants, textbooks, and literature for children. The ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. Heroic Guards
This print showing two men firing on approaching soldiers is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The newspaper Kievlianin published an article based on a story told by Kozin, a member of the Volynskyi zemstvo [local government]. Kozin said that his estate, located near the Austrian border, was guarded by two men: Zontiev, an Ossetian, and Goi-Murza-Biev, a Circassian. When Kozin left his estate, he gave each of these men a Browning firearm. On July 27, the guards spotted ...
Contributed by The British Library
Destruction of the Austrian Squad by Shrapnel Fire During the Capture of the Kyrle Baba Pass in the Carpathian Mountains
This print showing a battle scene with explosions is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “As soon as it was detected by us, the Austrian battery using heavy artillery against Tarnow was silenced by our artillery with shrapnel fire. In Bukovina our advanced units captured the Kyrle Baba Pass, in a battle located on the border with Transylvania and on the highway leading from Cîmpulung to Sighetu Marmaţiei and Dej [present-day Romania].” This picture, like many others in the ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Battle of Przemyśl
This print showing a clash between Austrian and Russian troops is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The battle, which began on October 1 between our troops and the Austrians on the Galician front, continued with great tenacity on October 4, 5, and 6. The Austrians conducted a particularly intense attack along the front line of Sanok/Stare Miasto-Stryi, south of Przemyśl. Bayonets were used often. On the night of October 4 to October 5, in the vicinity of ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Austrian Circle
The Holy Roman Empire (962-1806) was organized, beginning in the early 1500s, into ten Imperial Circles, each of which had its own diet or parliament, and which had certain responsibilities with regard to defense, tax collection, and other functions. (Some territories of the empire, for example, Bohemia and parts of Italy, were not grouped in circles.) This late-18th century French map shows the Austrian Circle, which largely coincided with those lands ruled by the House of Habsburg from Vienna. In addition to Austria proper, the Austrian Circle included parts of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Subscribe to the 8th War Loan
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster, published in Vienna in 1918, shows a little girl reaching through a number "8" to deposit a coin into a pile below, an advertisement for the eighth war loan being raised by Austria-Hungary, Germany’s chief ally in the war. The artist who designed the poster was Alfred Offner. Born in Czernowitz in 1879, Offner was a painter and graphic artist who was associated with the Vienna Secession, a group ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Union Bank, 8th War Loan; Peace Through Victory
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster, published in Vienna in 1918, is an advertisement for the eighth war loan being raised by Austria-Hungary, Germany’s chief ally in the war. It shows a young woman offering a bowl of coins at an altar decorated with the Austrian coat of arms. The artist was Thomas Fasche, who created several other World War I posters, but about whom little is known.
Contributed by Library of Congress
National War Relief Exhibition
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster, published in Pozsony (present-day Bratislava, Slovakia) in 1917, shows a disabled veteran with a prosthetic arm using a scythe to harvest wheat. The text announces the National War Relief Exhibition in Pozsony. The poster was created by Pal Sujan, a popular artist whose portraits and other paintings were widely shown in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Sujan was born in Budapest in 1880, studied art, and worked as an art teacher in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Austria-Hungary
The Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867-1918) was a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual empire governed by a dual monarchy that exercised Habsburg rule across Europe’s second largest sovereign territory. Although considered a Great Power in the concert of European nations, the empire was internally divided by internecine quarrels among its national minorities and ultimately broke up under the strains of World War I. This 1906 Rand McNally map shows the empire in the decade before its dissolution. William Rand founded the company that became Rand McNally in Chicago in 1856, initially to print guidebooks ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Grand Theater of the War in Italy
Pierre Mortier (1661-1711) was a Dutch publisher of atlases, maps, and charts. The grandson of religious refugees from France who settled in Leiden about 1625, Mortier grew up in Amsterdam, which at the time was the center of the international book trade. As a young man, he spent several years in Paris, where he got to know French maps and publishers. Returning to Amsterdam about 1685, he established himself as a publisher of high quality maps, including reprints of works by Alexis-Hubert Jaillot, Nicolas Sanson, and the other great French ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Introduction to a Systematic History of Shelled Animals
Joachim Johann Nepomuk Anton Spalowsky (1752–97) was a veritable polymath in the Austrian Empire of the late 18th century. Little is known of his life, but it is thought that he was of Polish Silesian ancestry. He was a surgeon attached to the civic regiments of Vienna and a member of the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences in Prague. His erudition is evidenced by the range of his publications. His 1777 inaugural dissertation treated poisonous plants and related topics. He went on to write works on shells, birds, and ...
Contributed by Smithsonian Institution
Vienna 1, Parliament
Rudolf von Alt (1812–1905) was an Austrian painter, draughtsman, and printmaker known for his city scenes, landscapes, and interiors. Shown here is Alt’s ink drawing with white heightening of the parliament building in Vienna, signed and dated 1885 in the lower right-hand corner. Located in the Innere Stadt (Inner City), or the first district of Vienna (“Vienna 1”), the neoclassical structure was built in 1874–83 by Danish architect Baron Theophil Edvard von Hansen (1813–91). It served as the meeting place of the two chambers of the ...
Contributed by Austrian National Library
Opening Proclamation from University Authorities Prior to an Academic Term
The University of Vienna was founded by Duke Rudolph IV of Austria in 1365 and is the oldest university in the German-speaking world. As at other European universities, the primary language of scholarship was Latin. This proclamation in Latin is by Petrus Muchitsch, a classical philologist and theologian who twice served as rector of the university, in 1577–78 and again in 1578. In this greeting, Petrus invites the students of the university to resume their studies following the end of the 1578 epidemic of plague in Vienna. Printed in ...
Contributed by Austrian National Library
Exlibris
Wolfgangus Lazius is the Latinized name of Wolfgang Laz (1514–65), an Austrian humanist, historian, cartographer, and physician who produced the first set of maps of the hereditary lands of the Austrian crown. Lazius was professor of medicine on the faculty of the University of Vienna, where he was several times dean and rector. Emperor Ferdinand I appointed him his personal physician, historiographer, and adviser, as well as curator of the imperial collections. Like many 16th century scholars trained in the sciences, Lazius was drawn to the emerging art of ...
Contributed by Austrian National Library
Historical Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans
This poster by the Hungarian designer and graphic artist Josef von Divéky (1887–1951) advertises a January 1918 concert for the benefit of the widows and orphans of Austro-Hungarian soldiers killed in World War I. It shows five military musicians in uniforms from different historical periods; the coat of arms of Austria-Hungary is at the top. The emperor and empress of the Austro-Hungarian Empire are listed as patrons of the concert, which was organized with the support of the Ministry of War. Austria-Hungary suffered an estimated 1,100,000 killed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress