37 results in English
Feminine Elegance: Fortnightly Fashion Review, Number 1
Eleganze femminili: rivista quindicinale di mode (Feminine elegance: fortnightly fashion review) was an Italian fashion magazine, published from January to May 1911, which was sold by subscription in Italy and abroad. In addition to presenting the latest fashions by the most famous designers in Paris, London, and Vienna, Eleganze femminili reported on social occasions in high society and included articles on etiquette, women’s interests, art, and the history of fashion throughout the centuries. It also offered readers the chance to obtain muslin or paper patterns of the designs shown ...
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Melk Missal
This missal, which dates to the late-12th or early 13th century, was made for the Benedictine abbey of Melk (or, possibly, Seitenstetten) in Lower Austria, as indicated by the inclusion of the patron saints of Melk, Peter and Paul, and Cholomannus (folio 212 recto). The surviving volume of a multi-volume missal, the manuscript contains only the ordinary of the mass and the "summer part," with the temporale running from Holy Saturday through the Sunday after Trinity Sunday and the sanctorale beginning with the feast of Primus and Felicianus (June 9 ...
Contributed by Walters Art Museum
Collection of Texts on Mathematical Astronomy and the Natural Sciences
This manuscript is a collection of texts on mathematical astronomy and the natural sciences dating from early in the ninth century. The illuminations are mainly of astronomical content and are based on models from late antiquity. They include the occupations of the 12 months, the earliest surviving medieval illuminations of this type (folio 91 verso); an astronomical map (folio 113 verso); the constellations (folios 115 verso−121 recto); and the 12 winds (folio 139 recto). The manuscript was copied in Salzburg, apparently from a northern French exemplar, and was presumably ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Evangeliary of Michaelbeuern, Four Gospels with Illuminations of the Evangelists
The Gospel book from the Benedictine monastery at Michaelbeuern is considered a work of the Salzburg school because of its similarity to other Salzburg manuscripts. Whether it was brought to Michaelbeuern in the first half of the 11th century (when that monastery was being reestablished from Saint Peter’s in Salzburg) or later cannot be determined with certainty. Besides canon tables and lesser initials, it shows, on double leaves, which are interpolated but which always have formed part of the manuscript, four illustrations of the evangelists facing ornamental initial pages ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Pericope (Sections) from Saint Erentrud. Gospels for the Mass According to the Usual Rite, Preceding the Capitular Gospels
This book, which contains the “lessons,” or portions of scripture appointed to be read at divine service, was written around the year 1150, probably in Salzburg, a diocesan town situated near what is today the border between Bavaria and Austria. The manuscript was owned by the Benedictine convent of Saint Erentrud auf dem Nonnberg, which was founded by Saint Rupert in Salzburg in 711−12, and where Rupert’s niece Erentrud was the first abbess. With its 56 miniatures depicting scenes from the New Testament and the life of saints ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Emblems: With Many Images from Ancient Works; by Ján Sambucus of Tyrnavia in Pannonia
Emblemata: Cvm Aliqvot Nvmmis Antiqvi Operis (Emblems: with many images from ancient works) is by the notable Slovak poet, polymath, publisher, collector, and university professor Ján Sambucus (also known as János Zsámboki, 1531−84). Born in Trnava (also referred to as Tyrnavia) in western Slovakia, Sambucus was considered to be the outstanding humanistic personality of Central Europe. He maintained contacts with many European scholars, with whom he collaborated in his publishing and collecting activities and his historical research. A substantial part of his life was spent at the imperial court ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Antiphonarium Bratislaviense
This illuminated folio with Metz Gothic musical notation comes from the liturgical codex of Canon Jan Han, who was a client of the Bratislava Chapter and the purchaser of this antiphonary. The illuminated initial “S” (Sanctum) with the first two martyrs of the Christian Church, Saint Stephen and Saint Lawrence, accompanied by Saint Vitus, is supplemented by the label Illorum effusus nos in patientia firmet (Their patience enabled us to stream forth), which dates the fragment to 1487. The bottom part of the acanthus decoration on the left margin contains ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
The Younger Titurel (Fernberger-Dietrichstein Manuscript)
This codex, called the Fernberger-Dietrichstein Manuscript after its later owners, contains the second part of the very lengthy chivalric legend of Arthur and the Holy Grail. It is based on the Titurel fragments by Wolfram von Eschenbach (circa 1170−circa 1220), who was considered the author of the Jüngerer Titurel (Younger Titurel), which was widely read in the Middle Ages. Recent scholarship holds that Albrecht von Scharfenberg (active 13th century) wrote this work in the style of Wolfram von Eschenbach. This manuscript is particularly important for its unusually rich illumination ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
The Consolation of Philosophy
Consolatio Philosophiae (The consolation of philosophy) is a philosophical work written by Boethius, the scion of an influential Roman family, around the year 524. It is regarded as one of the most important and influential works in the Western world. The book was composed during a yearlong period of imprisonment that Boethius served while he was awaiting trial for the crime of treason under the Ostrogothic king Theodoric the Great; he was found guilty and executed in 524. Written in the form of a dialogue between Boethius and Lady Philosophy ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Ingolstadt Gospel Book (Fragment)
The so-called Ingolstadt Gospel Book shares the fate of many other liturgical manuscripts, which over time gradually lost their status as religious objects and came to be reused for profane purposes. Only a fraction of the formerly 260−80 folios of this sumptuous manuscript from the middle of the ninth century have survived. Most of its pages were used in bindings of account books in the 17th and 19th centuries. One double leaf was in the possession of the German painter Carl Spitzweg in the 19th century. When and why ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
"Death Valley." The Battle of Mykhaylivka Village
This print showing a battle at the village of Mykhaylivka where the Russians defeated the Austrians is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Under a torrent of Austrian shrapnel and machine guns, our offensive columns quickly gained advanced positions and forced the enemy units into the ravine. Meanwhile our defensive columns were able to reach the opposite hills, and then enclose the enemy division pushed into the ravine. After a few well-aimed shots from the Russian batteries, the enemy ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle Near Vladimir-Volynsk
This print showing a battle near Volodymyr-Volynsky (present-day Ukraine) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Enemy artillery, firing over its own cavalry, shelled the trenches in front of the city occupied by our troops. The Austrians were quickly approaching. A terrible moment arrived. Hungarian cavalry, arrayed in a wide semi-circle in front of the city, bravely raced forward. It seemed that after a few minutes they would enter the city. But loud sounds and strange crackling were heard ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Defeat of the Austrian Army Near L'viv
This print showing a battle between the Russian and Austrian armies near L’viv (in present-day Ukraine; at that time the city of Lemberg in Austria-Hungary) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “According to the headquarters of the commander in chief, after a seven day battle, our army took advanced and heavily fortified positions near L’viv, 15–20 versts east of the city, and approached the main L’viv forts. After very heavy fighting on August 19 ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Heroic Feat by Non-commissioned Officer Avvakum Volkov, Who Captured the Austrian Flag
This print showing Russian troops fighting Austrians is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Avvakum Volkov, a volunteer non-commissioned officer, Full Cavalier of Saint George, was brought to one of the Moscow military hospitals. For his outstanding bravery he was granted a promotion and a reward of 500 rubles. Volkov earned his last two honors in battles against the Austrians. Accompanied by seven soldiers, Volkov went on a reconnaissance mission and soon encountered Austrian dragoons, nine enlisted men, one ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. A Heroic Feat and Death of the Famous Pilot Staff Captain P. N. Nesterov
This print showing the collision of two planes in mid-air and honoring the Russian pilot Staff Captain P.N. Nesterov is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Staff Captain P.N. Nesterov recently saw an Austrian airplane flying over the location of our troops near Zhovkva that was about to drop a bomb. Nesterov got in his airplane, attacked the enemy and, ramming the Austrian airplane, destroyed it and thus prevented casualties to our troops from the bomb. Nesterov ...
Contributed by The British Library
Great European War. Russian Troops Capture Galich Under the Command of Lieutenant General A. A. Brusilov, Who Was Awarded the Cross of Saint George of 4th Class for This Operation
This print showing Russian troops capturing the area of Galich (in present-day Ukraine) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “As reported from the Commander in Chief's Headquarters, our left wing covered 220 versts from August 4 to 21, while being engaged from August 7 to 21 in a continuous battle with the enemy. The main forces of the enemy had established strong positions between Kamenka and Galich, where they were destroyed on August 18 and 19. In ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Austrian Circle
The Holy Roman Empire (962-1806) was organized, beginning in the early 1500s, into ten Imperial Circles, each of which had its own diet or parliament, and which had certain responsibilities with regard to defense, tax collection, and other functions. (Some territories of the empire, for example, Bohemia and parts of Italy, were not grouped in circles.) This late-18th century French map shows the Austrian Circle, which largely coincided with those lands ruled by the House of Habsburg from Vienna. In addition to Austria proper, the Austrian Circle included parts of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Subscribe to the 8th War Loan
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster, published in Vienna in 1918, shows a little girl reaching through a number "8" to deposit a coin into a pile below, an advertisement for the eighth war loan being raised by Austria-Hungary, Germany’s chief ally in the war. The artist who designed the poster was Alfred Offner. Born in Czernowitz in 1879, Offner was a painter and graphic artist who was associated with the Vienna Secession, a group ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Union Bank, 8th War Loan; Peace Through Victory
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster, published in Vienna in 1918, is an advertisement for the eighth war loan being raised by Austria-Hungary, Germany’s chief ally in the war. It shows a young woman offering a bowl of coins at an altar decorated with the Austrian coat of arms. The artist was Thomas Fasche, who created several other World War I posters, but about whom little is known.
Contributed by Library of Congress
National War Relief Exhibition
In World War I, all sides used posters as tools to mobilize their populations for the war effort. This poster, published in Pozsony (present-day Bratislava, Slovakia) in 1917, shows a disabled veteran with a prosthetic arm using a scythe to harvest wheat. The text announces the National War Relief Exhibition in Pozsony. The poster was created by Pal Sujan, a popular artist whose portraits and other paintings were widely shown in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Sujan was born in Budapest in 1880, studied art, and worked as an art teacher in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Austria-Hungary
The Austro-Hungarian Empire (1867-1918) was a multi-ethnic, multi-lingual empire governed by a dual monarchy that exercised Habsburg rule across Europe’s second largest sovereign territory. Although considered a Great Power in the concert of European nations, the empire was internally divided by internecine quarrels among its national minorities and ultimately broke up under the strains of World War I. This 1906 Rand McNally map shows the empire in the decade before its dissolution. William Rand founded the company that became Rand McNally in Chicago in 1856, initially to print guidebooks ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Grand Theater of the War in Italy
Pierre Mortier (1661-1711) was a Dutch publisher of atlases, maps, and charts. The grandson of religious refugees from France who settled in Leiden about 1625, Mortier grew up in Amsterdam, which at the time was the center of the international book trade. As a young man, he spent several years in Paris, where he got to know French maps and publishers. Returning to Amsterdam about 1685, he established himself as a publisher of high quality maps, including reprints of works by Alexis-Hubert Jaillot, Nicolas Sanson, and the other great French ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Introduction to a Systematic History of Shelled Animals
Joachim Johann Nepomuk Anton Spalowsky (1752–97) was a veritable polymath in the Austrian Empire of the late 18th century. Little is known of his life, but it is thought that he was of Polish Silesian ancestry. He was a surgeon attached to the civic regiments of Vienna and a member of the Royal Bohemian Society of Sciences in Prague. His erudition is evidenced by the range of his publications. His 1777 inaugural dissertation treated poisonous plants and related topics. He went on to write works on shells, birds, and ...
Contributed by Smithsonian Institution
Vienna 1, Parliament
Rudolf von Alt (1812–1905) was an Austrian painter, draughtsman, and printmaker known for his city scenes, landscapes, and interiors. Shown here is Alt’s ink drawing with white heightening of the parliament building in Vienna, signed and dated 1885 in the lower right-hand corner. Located in the Innere Stadt (Inner City), or the first district of Vienna (“Vienna 1”), the neoclassical structure was built in 1874–83 by Danish architect Baron Theophil Edvard von Hansen (1813–91). It served as the meeting place of the two chambers of the ...
Contributed by Austrian National Library
Opening Proclamation from University Authorities Prior to an Academic Term
The University of Vienna was founded by Duke Rudolph IV of Austria in 1365 and is the oldest university in the German-speaking world. As at other European universities, the primary language of scholarship was Latin. This proclamation in Latin is by Petrus Muchitsch, a classical philologist and theologian who twice served as rector of the university, in 1577–78 and again in 1578. In this greeting, Petrus invites the students of the university to resume their studies following the end of the 1578 epidemic of plague in Vienna. Printed in ...
Contributed by Austrian National Library
Exlibris
Wolfgangus Lazius is the Latinized name of Wolfgang Laz (1514–65), an Austrian humanist, historian, cartographer, and physician who produced the first set of maps of the hereditary lands of the Austrian crown. Lazius was professor of medicine on the faculty of the University of Vienna, where he was several times dean and rector. Emperor Ferdinand I appointed him his personal physician, historiographer, and adviser, as well as curator of the imperial collections. Like many 16th century scholars trained in the sciences, Lazius was drawn to the emerging art of ...
Contributed by Austrian National Library
Historical Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans
This poster by the Hungarian designer and graphic artist Josef von Divéky (1887–1951) advertises a January 1918 concert for the benefit of the widows and orphans of Austro-Hungarian soldiers killed in World War I. It shows five military musicians in uniforms from different historical periods; the coat of arms of Austria-Hungary is at the top. The emperor and empress of the Austro-Hungarian Empire are listed as patrons of the concert, which was organized with the support of the Ministry of War. Austria-Hungary suffered an estimated 1,100,000 killed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
For Czech Independence, the Czech National Association
This World War I poster is one of a series by the Czech artist Vojtech Preissig (1873–1944) produced to promote the creation of an independent Czechoslovak state after the war. The poster shows doubled-headed eagles nailed to crosses. The eagles are a symbol of the Austrian monarchy, and bear medallions around their necks labeled “FJI,” an abbreviation that stands for the emperor, Franz Joseph I. On the crosses are signs airing Czech grievances against the Austrian monarchy, including:  “Za třistaletý útisk” (For 300 years of oppression), and “Z Kramáře ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Subscribe to the 7th War Loan
This World War I poster, published in 1917, urges citizens of Austria-Hungary to subscribe to the latest war bond. It depicts a woman, representing the Austro-Hungarian Empire, holding a flag. The name of the sponsoring bank is given at the bottom. Like the other belligerents, Austria-Hungary relied heavily on the sale of bonds to its citizens to finance its participation in the war. The country issued its first war bond in November 1914, at a five percent rate of return with a five-year maturity. Thereafter bonds were issued at six-month ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Subscribe to the 8th War Loan
Like the other powers that fought in World War I, Austria-Hungary financed its war effort by borrowing heavily from its own citizens. This was done through the issuance of loans at semiannual intervals, every November and May, beginning in November 1914. This 1918 war poster is an appeal to citizens to subscribe to the eighth war loan, issued that year. The poster shows a winged goddess driving a chariot pulled by four horses. She holds a laurel wreath as she crushes three dragons, symbols of Austria-Hungary’s enemies. The poster ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Magic Flute
Die Zauberflöte (The magic flute) is among the best known of the 22 operas written by the Austrian composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756–91). Mozart composed the opera in the spring and summer of 1791, with the exception of the Overture and the March of the Priests at the beginning of Act II. These parts were completed only a few days before the premiere on September 30 of that year. Shown here is Mozart’s original manuscript score. During the initial phase of work, Mozart normally wrote only the melody ...
The Salzburg Missal
The five volumes of the monumental feast missal of the Salzburg basilica, now in the Bavarian State Library, is among the most lavishly ornate, and probably the most costly, medieval missals in the world. Commissioned by the Salzburg Prince-Archbishop Bernhard of Rohr (1418–87, reigned 1466–82), an art lover and bibliophile, the manuscript was completed by 1494 under the rule of his successors. It contains 22 liturgical texts for the most important religious feasts to be celebrated in the Salzburg basilica. In the late 1450s, the Salzburg painter Ulrich ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Austria, Hungary, Foreign Policy of Austria-Hungary
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Austria, Hungary, Foreign Policy of Austria-Hungary is Number 1 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book is in three parts. The first is an overview of the political history ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Carniola, Carinthia and Styria
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Carniola, Carinthia and Styria is Number 9 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Carniola, Carinthia, and Styria were provinces of the former Austro-Hungarian Empire, which came under Habsburg control as ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Austrians Surrendered Lvov to the Russians, Like Rabbits Defeated by Lions
This World War I propaganda poster, created by Aristarkh Lentulov (1882–1943), depicts Austrian soldiers defeated by the Russian army in September 1914 fleeing from the city of Lvov (present-day L’viv, Ukraine). The Russian horsemen, long spears raised, charge the enemy as the Austrians panic and run away. Lvov is depicted in the center of the picture with simple geometrical shapes and strong colors. In the early stages of the war, a number of Russian avant-garde artists, including Lentulov, Vladimir Mayakovsky, and Kazimir Malevich, formed the group Segodnyashnii Lubok ...
The Austrians Cursed Loudly near the Carpathian Mountains
This World War I propaganda poster, created by Vladimir Mayakovsky (1893–1930), depicts Austrian soldiers retreating from the 1914 Russian invasion of Galicia, near the Carpathian Mountains. The terrified Austrians are pursued by the victorious Russian cavalry. With limited colors and basic contour drawing the artist achieves a simple and comical picture. The strength of the Russians is emphasized by a long file of mounted soldiers, their commander boldly charging the enemy and brandishing his saber. In the early stages of the war, a number of Russian avant-garde artists, including ...
Book of the Holy Gospel of Our Lord and God Jesus Christ
The first printing of the Syriac New Testament appeared thanks to the patronage of Ferdinand I, to whom a long preface is dedicated to begin the book. Johann Albrecht Widmanstetter (1506-1557) and Moses of Mardin, on whose handwriting the Syriac type for the book was based, were the forces behind the work. This Syriac type was produced by Kaspar Kraft under the direction of the French Orientalist Guillaume Postel (1510-1581). This edition of the New Testament has James, 1 Peter, and 1 John, but not the other General Epistles or ...