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203 results
Abū Ma‘shar’s Eight Treatises Regarding the Great Conjunctions, the Annual Revolutions, and Their Origins
Ja‘far ibn Muḥammad al-Balkhī (787–886), known as Abū Ma‘shar (and as Albumasar in the Latin West), was one of the most-renowned astronomers of the Middle Ages. His fame in Europe rested upon numerous Latin translations of his astronomical works from the original Arabic. He was born in the Persian city of Balkh (present-day Afghanistan), on 20th of Ṣafar, 171 AH (August 10, 787). He most likely received his early education in Balkh prior to moving to Baghdad, as his works are often colored by a distinct Persian ...
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Qatar National Library
Collection of Persian Poetry and Prose
This manuscript in Persian is an untitled Sufi text on meditation containing both poetry and prose. It was completed in early 1520, probably in Herat (present-day Afghanistan) or Mashhad (present-day Iran). The colophon, which is in Arabic, gives the name of the scribe, Mīr 'Alī Ḥusaynī Haravī (circa 1476−1543). The manuscript is on a firm cream-colored paper inlaid into light cream (folios 1−8) or pale greenish-blue margin paper, with the writing enclosed within alternating gold and cream (or green) bands with black ruling. The margin paper is profusely ...
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Library of Congress
Memoirs of Babur
This book is a lithograph edition of the Persian translation of Bāburnāmah (Memoirs of Babur), the autobiography of Ẓahīr al-Dīn Muḥammad Bāburshāh (1483–1530), the first Mughal emperor of India. Bāburnāmah originally was written in Chagatai Turkish and was translated into Persian during the reign of the Mughal emperor Akbar. The translation was undertaken by Bairam Khan (died 1561), an Afghan bureaucrat and military commander who served under Emperor Humayun and who was briefly appointed regent over his successor, Emperor Akbar, when Akbar was a child. This book was printed ...
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Library of Congress
The War of Kabul and Kandahar
Muḥārabah-ʼi Kābul va Qandahar (The war of Kabul and Kandahar) is an account of the First Afghan War (1839–42) by Munshi ʻAbd al-Karīm, an associate of Shāh Shujāʻ, the emir of Afghanistan. Mawlawī Muḥammad ʻAbd al-Karīm was an Indo-Persian historian from Lucknow, India, who was active in the mid-19th century. He was a prolific munshi (writer, secretary, and language teacher) and translator. He rendered into Persian from Arabic such works as Tārīkh al-Khulafā (History of the Caliphs), by al-Sūyūtī (1445–1505) and a history of Egypt by Ibn Iyās ...
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Library of Congress
Book of Effects of Drugs
This work is a lithographic print of a manuscript containing a treatise on pharmacology. It was produced in Kabul, in the Royal Printing House, by Ṣāliḥ ibn Ṣāliḥ Muḥammad and Sardār Gul Muḥammad Khān. Ṣāliḥ ibn Ṣāliḥ Muḥammad was an officer and commander from the Muhammadzai clan in the Pashtun tribal confederacy that ruled Afghanistan in the Barakzai period (1826–1973) after the fall of the Durrani Dynasty in 1842. Sardār Gul Muḥammad Khān served as the chief editor of the printing press in Kabul, where his activities included publishing ...
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Library of Congress
Worthy Advice in the Affairs of the World and Religion: The Autobiography of Emir Abdur Rahman Khan
This work is an autobiography of 'Abd al-Raḥmān Khān, emir of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. It is styled, however, as a manual of advice and a mirror for princes. It is divided into 16 chapters, which are arranged according to the topics on which the author provides advice and worthy examples, in this case drawn from his own conduct. Subdivision by topic of this kind mimics the pattern of books in the advice genre. The colophon dates the work to the month of Muharram of 1303 AH (October–November ...
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Library of Congress
Collected Poems of Aisha Durrani
This work is a lithographic print, published in Kabul, of the collected poems of 'Āyisha Durrānī, an Afghan poetess from the Durrani family, who was active in the second half of the 19th century. The poems include qasidas (a lyric form) and ghazals (a metrical form expressing the pain of loss and the beauty of love), and are arranged alphabetically according to qāfiya (the effect of rhyme). The collection was compiled during the reign of 'Abd al-Raḥmān Khān, emīr of Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. The Durrani family led a ...
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Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: Sir Robert Egerton, Lieutenant Governor of Punjab
This small photograph of Sir Robert Egerton (1827–1912), lieutenant governor of Punjab, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Egerton was an aide to the previous lieutenant governor of Punjab, Sir Robert Henry Davies (1824–1902), before being appointed to the same position in 1877. During the British Raj of 1858–1947, prominent British administrators and military men were often considered as “Indian” celebrities. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what ...
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Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: General Dunham Massy
This portrait of General Dunham Massy (1838–1906) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Massy is shown standing next to his spiked pith helmet. As a lieutenant colonel, Massy successfully led a cavalry brigade at the Battle of Charasia in October 1879, but he subsequently was removed from cavalry command because of poor leadership in another engagement, the Battle of Killa Kazi, in December of the same year. He overcame this dismissal and by 1886 had risen to ...
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Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: Sir Donald Stewart
This three-quarter-view portrait of Sir Donald Stewart (1824–1900) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Stewart commanded the Kandahar Field Force (also known as the Quetta Army) in October 1878 and, after arduous marching across harsh terrain and several cavalry battles against Afghan forces, successfully occupied Kandahar in January 1879. He was promoted to commander in chief in India in April 1881 and to field marshal in 1894. He is shown here in the uniform of a lieutenant ...
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Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: Babu Khan
This photograph of Babu Khan, probably a tribal Pashtun leader judging from his typical Afghan longi (turban), is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. During the British Raj of 1858–1947, prominent British administrators and military men, as well as Indian princely rulers and tribal chiefs, were often considered as “Indian” celebrities. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what it saw as growing Russian influence in Afghanistan, invaded the country from British ...
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Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: Amir Abd al-Raḥmān
This photograph of the Afghan amir, Abd al-Raḥmān Khān (circa 1844–1901), is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Abd al-Raḥmān Khān was known as the “Iron Amir” because of his skill and forcefulness in suppressing rebellions against his authority. He is credited with creating a centralized state in the aftermath of the war, based on a cabinet called the Supreme Council, a general assembly called the Loya Jirgah, and the army. His achievements included the introduction of some ...
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Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: Mustanfi Habibulah Khan
This photograph of Mustanfi Habibullah Khan is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Mustanfi (also seen as mostufi and mustaofi, the latter being the Arabic origin of the title) was a title approximating to state treasurer, the most powerful position in the government of Afghanistan after that of Amir Yakub Khan. Mustanfis were not elected, but subject to the ruler’s approval. They had full authority over all financial affairs, including hiring and dismissal of government personnel. Habibullah Khan ...
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Library of Congress
Sir Alfred Lyall
This photograph of Sir Alfred Lyall (1835–1911) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Lyall was an administrator in the Indian Civil Service, a poet and Tennyson scholar, and the author of several works on the expansion of British power in India. He served as the foreign secretary to the government of India during the war and helped broker the 1880 peace treaty with the Afghan ruler, Amir Abd al-Raḥmān Khān (circa 1844–1901). The Second Anglo-Afghan War ...
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Library of Congress
Sir Ashley Eden, Lieutenant Governor of Bengal
This portrait of Sir Ashley Eden (1831–87), lieutenant governor of Bengal, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Eden became the first civilian governor of Burma after his success as a special envoy to the Himalayan hill state of Sikkim in 1861. He was appointed lieutenant governor of Bengal in 1877 and promoted major public works in the state, such as hospitals, schools, canals, and railroads. Eden’s efforts were praised by both Europeans and Bengalis. The Second ...
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Library of Congress
Sir William Muir
This photograph of Sir William Muir (1819–1905) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Muir entered the Bengal Civil Service in 1837 but served in the North-Western Provinces for most of his career. After the 1857 Indian Rebellion, the North-Western Provinces were ruled by a lieutenant governor who reported directly to the British government; Muir served in that position from 1868–74. He became famous because of his extensive and controversial scholarship on Islam and the early Muslim ...
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Library of Congress
Sir Richard Meade
This photograph of Sir Richard Meade (1821–94) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Meade, who is smartly dressed with his military honors across his chest, served as the British resident at the Indian princely (nominally sovereign) state of Hyderabad in 1875–81. He tutored and protected Maḥbūb ʻAlī Khān (1866–1911), the underage nizam (ruler). Meade’s biographer, Thomas Henry Thornton (1832–1913), author of General Sir Richard Meade and the Feudatory States of Central and Southern ...
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Library of Congress
Sir George Colley
This photograph of Sir George Colley (1835–81), likely taken within three years of his death, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Colley served nearly all of his military and administrative career in British South Africa, but he played a significant part in the Afghan War as military secretary and then private secretary to the governor-general of India, Lord Lytton (1831–91). After the war Colley returned to South Africa, became high commissioner for South Eastern Africa in ...
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Library of Congress
Sir Peter Lumsden
This military portrait of Sir Peter Lumsden (1829–1918) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Lumsden’s first posting in the region was in the North-West Frontier of British India in the 1850s, where as an ensign in the 60th Bengal Native Infantry he participated in the suppression of rebellions by several Pashtun tribes. He also served in the Second Opium War and the Bhutan War. He was adjutant general of the Indian army 1874–79 and then ...
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Library of Congress
Sir James Fergusson, Governor of Bombay
This portrait of Sir James Fergusson (1832–1907), governor of Bombay, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Fergusson briefly served as undersecretary of state for India in 1866–67, but otherwise his career in British India began late in life. His direct involvement in the war was brief. He was appointed as the governor of the Bombay Presidency in 1880. In this position, Fergusson was able to exercise as much power within Bombay as the viceroy wielded in ...
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Library of Congress
Sir Frederick Haines
This photograph of Sir Frederick Haines (1819–1909) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Haines served as commander in chief in India (the highest-ranking military officer in the British Raj) throughout the war. His authority was subject only to the viceroy, Lord Lytton (1831–91). Haines and Lytton repeatedly clashed over British war strategy. At the start of the war, for example, Haines favored a significantly larger troop commitment than Lytton, but he was partially overruled by the ...
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Library of Congress