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10 results
The Light of the Glitter in Mathematics
This work is a versified treatise on arithmetic (‘ilam al ḥisāb), and specifically the art of dividing inheritance (farā’iḍ), which has application in Islamic law. After a standard expression of praise for the Prophet, his companions, and later followers, the text introduces the system of place values and explains multiplication of multidigit whole numbers and simple and compound fractions. The text presents multiple examples that are described in verbal terms. As noted at the end of the manuscript, which was completed on Monday, 20 Rabī‘ I of the year ...


Commentary by Islam's Sheikh Zakariyya alAnsari on Ibn alHā’im's Poem on the Science of Algebra and Balancing Called the Creator's Epiphany in Explaining the Cogent
This work is a commentary on a versified, 59line introduction to algebra, entitled AlMuqni‘ fī aljabr wa almuqābila, by the prolific and influential mathematician, jurist, and man of letters Abū al‘Abbās Shihāb alDīn Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad ibn ‘Alī alMaqdisī alShāfi‘ī, known as Ibn alHā’im (circa 13561412 [circa 753815 AH]). It clarifies the nomenclature and explains the basic concepts of algebra, and provides succinct examples. The manuscript, completed on Thursday night, 8 Sha‘bān 1305 AH (March 21, 1888), is in the hand of Tāhā ibn Yūsuf.


The Commentary on “The Little Sparkles on the Science of Calculation”
The treatise in this manuscript is a commentary on a mathematical treatise by Šihāb alDīn Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Ibn alHā’im (circa 1355–1412). Ibn alHā’im taught mathematics and Islamic jurisprudence, subjects on which he wrote extensively. The erudite Badr alDīn Muhammad Sibt alMāridīnī (circa 1423–1506), who was at the time working as muwaqqit (timekeeper) at the AlAzhar mosque in Cairo, composed this short commentary less then 60 years after the death of Ibn alHā’im. Following widespread tradition in Islamic lands, Sibt alMāridīnī included in the title ...


The Abridged Amusement of the Calculator from "The Guide"
Much traditional scholarship holds that the period after about 1250 saw a decline in the production of scientific and philosophical works in the Arab world. This view is challenged by the impressive number of manuscripts written after that date in different Arabicspeaking countries that contain original treatises and commentaries. The work preserved in this manuscript, Nuzhat alHussāb alMuhtasara min alMuršida (The abridged amusement of the calculator from The guide), is a shorter version of Muršida fī Sina’at alGubar (The guide to the art of the numerals), an extensive treatise ...


The Little Sparkles on the Science of Calculation
The treatise preserved in this manuscript, AlLuma‘alyasīra fī ‘ilm alhisāb (The little sparkles on the science of calculation), deals with Muslim inheritance. Of the social innovations that came with the Islamic conquest, the introduction of the system of fara'id (shares) for inheritances was one of the most radical and socially advanced. The fourth surah of the Qur'an, verses 11–12, criticizes the traditional preIslamic system of agnatic succession, under which only men could inherit property, and provides for a proportional division among all the heirs, women included ...


Commentary on "The Little Sparkles on the Science of Calculation"
The system of fara'iḍ (shares) for inheritances is considered to be one of the most advanced innovations introduced by Muslim conquerors in Middle Eastern and North African societies. The exact calculation of shares of inheritance is a complex chapter in Islamic law, and it is not surprising that Muslim intellectuals and scientists developed a system of mathematical tools in order to master "the science of the shares" (‘ilm alfara'iḍ). An important contribution to this field can be found in the work of Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad Ibn ...


The Book of the Explanation of the Excursion in the Science of Calculus
This 18thcentury manuscript offers a clear example of the continued use in the Islamic world of the scientific commentary well after the end of Middle Ages, the period most associated with Arabic scientific achievement and this literary form. In this case, the treatise commented upon is the Nuzhat alnuẓẓār fī ‘ilm alghubār (The excursion of the observer in the science of numerals), which was itself an abridgment by Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad alFarāḍī ibn alHā'im (around 13561412) of his own mathematical treatise entitled Murshid alṭālib ilā asnā' almaṭālib (A student ...


The Book of the Explanation of the Excursion in the Science of Calculus
The present manuscript preserves a copy of Aḥmad ibn Qāsim alShāfi‘ī alĠhazzī's Kitāb sharḥ alnuzha fī ‘ilm alḥisāb (The book of the explanation of the excursion in the science of calculus), a work that exemplifies the lively interest in the mathematical sciences that persisted in the Islamic world well after the end of the "classical" period that saw the flowering of Arabic sciences. Kitāb sharḥ alnuzha fī ‘ilm alḥisāb is technically a supercommentary. AlĠhazzī ’s work is an explanation of Nuzhat alnuẓẓār fī ‘ilm alghubār (The excursion ...


The Commentary of the Šayḫ, the Head, the Extremely Knowledgeable Aḥmad alŠāfiʻī alJanājī alMālikī on the Commentary of the Šayḫ alIslām Zakarīyā alAnṣārī on the Compendium on the Science of Algebra and Equations by Ibn alHāʼim
The Arabic mathematical tradition, which flourished during the Middle Ages, transmitted and enriched the knowledge derived from Greek and Indian sources. Arabic mathematicians further developed these studies, seeking to answer theoretical as well as practical problems. Medieval Arabic mathematical treatises were extensively copied, studied, and commented upon in subsequent centuries, as exemplified in this manuscript. This supercommentary (commentary on a commentary) by Aḥmad Muhammad alŠāfiʻī alJanājī alMālikī elucidates an earlier commentary by Zakarīyā ibn Muḥammad alAnṣārī (circa 1420–1519) on a work by Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad alFarāḍī ibn alHāʼim (circa ...


The Excursion of Calculus
This manuscript is an 18thcentury copy of Nuzhat alḥisāb (The excursion of calculus) by mathematician Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad alFarāḍī ibn alHā'im (around 1356–1412). The copyist of this brief but densely written codex provided his name and the date of the completion of his work in the colophon: at the bottom of the last page of the manuscript is stated that Aḥmad ibn Qāsim ibn Aḥmad ibn Muḥammad alHanbalī finished this copy in the year 1185 AH (1772). The Nuzhat alḥisāb is an abridgment by Ibn alHā'im of ...
