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The Independence of the Republic of Congo: Texts of the Speeches Given at the Official Session of the National Assembly and During the Public Proclamation of Independence
This booklet, issued by the Ministry of Information of the Republic of the Congo, is a collection of speeches given by high-ranking Congolese and French politicians at a special session of the Congolese National Assembly on August 14-15, 1960, convened to mark the country’s independence from France, which took effect on August 15, 1960. Included are speeches by the first president of the Republic of the Congo, Fulbert Youlou (1917-72), a speech by André Malraux, and a message from French President Charles de Gaulle read by Malraux. Youlou was ...
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Respect for Human Dignity: an Inaugural Address
This pamphlet contains the text of the speech given by Nigerian independence leader Nnamdi Azikiwe (1904-96) on the day he became the first indigenous governor-general of Nigeria and the first Nigerian to be named to the Privy Council of Queen Elizabeth II. Nigeria became an independent state within the British Commonwealth on October 1, 1960. In the speech, Azikiwe discusses the changed role of the governor-general as a result of independence and, as in many of his speeches and writings from the period, the importance of the rule of law ...
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Message from Mister Leopold Sedar Senghor, President of the Republic, to the Senegalese People
This speech to the people of Senegal by Léopold Sédar Senghor (1906-2001) was delivered the day after his election as the first president of the newly independent republic. Senghor was born in what was then French West Africa. He was sent at a young age to a Catholic mission school, where he embraced French and European culture, but also felt the loss of his mother tongue and the pain of being torn from his African roots. He won a scholarship to pursue literary studies in France, beginning in 1928. In ...
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Constitution of the Republic of Togo, May 5, 1963
Togo (officially known as the Togolese Republic) became a German protectorate in 1884 and a German colony in 1905. After World War I, it was made a French protectorate under a League of Nations mandate. The country gained its independence from France in 1960 under the leadership of Sylvanus Olympio (1902-63), a business leader who had studied at the London School of Economics and was employed by the United Africa Company. Olympio was assassinated on January 13, 1963, in what is considered the first coup d’état of the post-colonial ...
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Speech Delivered by Mister Houphouet-Boigny, Minister of State at the Geo-Andre Stadium in Abidjan on September 7, 1958
Félix Houphouët-Boigny (1905-93) was the first president of Côte d’Ivoire. He gave this speech shortly before a September 1958 referendum on the future of French West Africa. Houphouët-Boigny outlined the country's path to independence, but also called for the preservation of strong ties with France, within a new French Community. Côte d’Ivoire became a de facto French protectorate under a series of treaties concluded in 1843-44, and a French colony in 1893. From 1904 to 1958, Côte d’Ivoire was part of the federation of French West ...
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Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda
This document is the first Constitution of the Republic of Rwanda, proclaimed in November 1962. From 1890 to 1916, Rwanda was part of German East Africa. In 1916, during World War I, it was occupied by Belgian troops from the neighboring Belgian Congo. After the war, it was joined with Burundi to become a Belgian League of Nations mandate, under the name Ruanda-Urundi. On July 1, 1962, the union of Ruanda-Urundi was dissolved and the Republic of Rwanda and the Republic of Burundi became separate, independent states. The leading political ...
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Position of the UPC vis-à-vis Cameroon's Independence
This eight-page manifesto, issued by an outlawed Cameroonian political party, the Union des Populations du Cameroun (Union of the Peoples of Cameroon [UPC]), outlines the party's position vis-à-vis the independence of Cameroon. The manifesto was written in December 1959 and was signed by the party’s president, Félix-Roland Moumié. Cameroon is the only African country that, in the course of its history, was ruled by three different European colonial powers: Britain, France, and Germany. It became a German colony in 1884. After World War I, a League of Nations ...
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Message from President Hassan Gouled Aptidon to the Nation on the Occasion of May 8th, 1977: Peace-Unity-Fraternity
This booklet, published in Paris in March 1977, contains text excerpted from a declaration, signed by Hassan Gouled Aptidon (1916-2006), president of Djibouti’s leading political movement, the Ligue populaire africaine pour l'Indépendance (Popular African League for Independence). The declaration was aimed at the people of Djibouti on the eve of the historic referendum for independence from France, which took place in May 1977. Hassan Gouled Aptidon was one of Djibouti’s chief negotiators for independence during roundtable talks in Paris in 1977. He became the country’s first ...
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Ghana’s Policy at Home and Abroad: Text of Speech Given in the Ghana Parliament, August 29, 1957
On March 6, 1957, Ghana became the first country in sub-Saharan Africa to achieve independence from a European colonial power. The new state was made up of the former British colony of the Gold Coast and the Trusteeship Territory of Togoland. The country’s first prime minister (and later president) was Kwame Nkrumah (1909-72), a U.S.-educated political activist who led the fight for independence from Britain. In this speech, delivered to the parliament of Ghana and circulated internationally by the country’s newly-established embassies, Nkrumah gave a progress ...
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Republic of Malawi, July 4-7 1966, Souvenir Programme
This 1966 souvenir program celebrates the declaration of Malawi as a republic. Malawi (formerly Nyasaland) became an independent member of the British Commonwealth on July 6, 1964, and adopted a republican constitution two years later. The move to the republican form of government was primarily the work of Hastings Kamuzu Banda (1896?-1997), who served as prime minister in 1964-66 and as the country’s first president from 1966 until 1994. Banda was trained as a doctor in the United States and the United Kingdom and practiced medicine in London ...
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