230 results in English
To Modest Ment͡synsʹkyĭ from Prisoners of the Wetzlar Camp
This publication, dedicated to the opera tenor Modest Omeli͡anovych Ment͡synsʹkyĭ (1875–1935), was produced by the prisoners from the Wetzlar camp for whom Ment͡synsʹkyĭ gave a performance in February 1916. It contains essays and poems dedicated to Ment͡synsʹkyĭ as well as the program of his performance and the lyrics of the songs he sang, which included poems by Taras Shevchenko and Ivan Franko. During World War I, more than a million Russian army soldiers were taken prisoner, of whom several hundred thousand were ethnic Ukrainians. The ...
First World War
This photograph from the archives of the League of Nations shows a soldier killed in World War I. The war raged for more than four years, from August 1914 to November 1918, and resulted in the deaths of more than nine million combatants. As many as seven million civilians also were killed in the war or died as a consequence of it. In the hope of ensuring that such a destructive conflict would never recur, U.S. president Woodrow Wilson and other leaders established, at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference ...
General Map of the Turkish War Theater
This map, published in Berlin in July 1916, shows the Turkish theater of World War I. It is based on an 1884 map in French of the Asian provinces of the Ottoman Empire by German geographer and cartographer Heinrich Kiepert (1818–99). The map contains additional notes in German and its coverage of existing and projected railroads is updated to 1916. The Ottoman territories, shown in pink, include present-day Turkey, Cyprus, Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Israel, and Jordan, as well as Saudi Arabia. The Ottoman Empire, or Turkey as it was ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Revolt in Arabia
This historical booklet about the origins of the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire during World War I was written by Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936), a Dutch professor who specialized in oriental languages and cultures and served as a colonial official in the Dutch East Indies (present-day Indonesia). The booklet is a collection of newspaper articles by Hurgronje that appeared in the newspaper Nieuwe Rotterdamsche Courant in 1916, after Hurgronje had spent a year conducting research in Mecca and Jiddah. The articles were translated into English and published in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Anatolia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Anatolia is Number 59 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Anatolia is the peninsula jutting westward from Asia between the Black Sea and the easternmost part of the Mediterranean Sea ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Arabia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Arabia is Number 61 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Chapter I discusses physical and political geography. Chapter II covers the political history of the 12 autonomous states, which at ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Armenia and Kurdistan
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Armenia and Kurdistan is Number 62 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Armenia is defined in the study as consisting of six vilayets (provinces) of the Turkish Empire that were ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Finland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Finland is Number 47 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. Finland became a province ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Japan
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Japan is Number 73 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Written by John Harington Gubbins (1852−1929), a former British Foreign Office official and secretary of the British Legation in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Malpelo, Cocos, and Easter Islands
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Malpelo, Cocos, and Easter Islands is Number 141 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers three Pacific Ocean islands belonging to three different Latin American countries: Malpelo Island ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Galápagos and Juan Fernández Islands
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Galápagos and Juan Fernández Islands is Number 140 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book is comprised of separate studies, with separate title pages and tables of contents, of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
German Opinion on National Policy Since July 1914
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. German Opinion on National Policy Since July 1914 is Number 157 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book consists entirely of short excerpts from books, speeches, and other statements ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Manchuria
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Manchuria is Number 69 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, and economic conditions. A note indicates that the section on political ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Siam
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Siam is Number 74 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Written by Josiah Crosby, the British consul-general in Bangkok, the study is one of relatively few in the series issued ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Essays on the History of the Civil War of 1917-1920
Essays on the History of the Civil War of 1917-1920 is an early history of the civil war that followed the Bolshevik Revolution of 1917. The book was written by Anatolii Anishev, a researcher at the Tolmachev Military-Political Academy in Leningrad (present-day Saint Petersburg), and published in Leningrad in 1925. In his introduction, Anishev notes that archival sources relating to the war were in poor condition and that almost no monographs existed. This forced him to rely on articles in White Russian magazines and newspapers, which were biased and unreliable ...
The Uganda Journal, Volume 30, Part 2, 1966
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
Lest Liberty Perish from the Face of the Earth - Buy Bonds
In 1917 the United States entered the Great War, as World War I was known at the time. A national propaganda campaign was started to convince Americans to support the war effort. Some of the images used in this campaign have become a permanent part of American cultural iconography, notably J.M. Flagg’s famed 1917 poster of Uncle Sam declaring, “I want YOU.” In addition to recruiting troops to fight, the U.S. government issued “Liberty Bonds” to help finance the war effort. Artists helped the cause by making ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Marjory Stoneman Douglas World War I Service Card
Marjory Stoneman Douglas, best known as an environmentalist and author of The River of Grass (1947), served in the United States Navy during World War I, from April 1917 to May 1918. Frank Bryant Stoneman, Marjory’s father and editor-in-chief of the Miami Herald, sent his daughter to cover the story of the first woman in the Miami area to enlist in the armed forces during World War I. Douglas was the first to arrive at the recruiting office, and became the very woman she was sent to report on ...
A Song of Blood
Krvavé sonety (A song of blood) is a collection of 32 sonnets by Pavol Országh Hviezdoslav (1849−1921), the pseudonym of the Slovak poet, writer, and lawyer Pavol Országh. Hviezdoslav was an important writer and one of the leading personalities in Slovak literature and culture at the end of the 19th century and the early 20th century. This cycle of poems is the poet’s protest against World War I. The book is a strong reaction to what Hviezdoslav saw as the oppression and humiliation of humanity brought about by ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
The Cradle of the War: The Near East and Pan-Germanism
The Cradle of the War: The Near East and Pan-Germanism is a study of the origins of World War I. The author, Henry Charles Woods (1881−1939), argues that the main cause of the conflict was “the Pan-German desire for domination from Hamburg to the Persian Gulf.” The book offers an overview of political and military developments in the Near East (defined as the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor), with chapters on Serbia and Montenegro, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Albania. Later chapters cover military highways in the Balkans, the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Women of the Empire in War Time: In Honour of their Great Devotion and Self-Sacrifice
This book was published in London in 1916 by the Dominion of Canada News Company to celebrate the contributions and sacrifice of the women of the British Empire in support of the Allies during World War I. Among the individuals extolled is Edith Cavell, a British nurse working in Brussels, who saved both German and Belgian lives and who was executed in 1915 by German authorities for helping Allied soldiers escape to the Netherlands, a neutral country. Different articles express admiration for the women of the Canadian Red Cross Society ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Dome Hospital
This is a photograph of the interior of the Dome Hospital in Brighton, on the south coast of Britain. Several buildings in Brighton were converted into hospitals during the First World War to treat the thousands of Indian soldiers who were wounded while fighting in France. The most spectacular of these was the converted Royal Pavilion in Brighton, originally built in the “oriental” style for King George IV in the early 1800s. There were over 680 beds for wounded Indian soldiers in this hospital, and it was “fitted with every ...
Contributed by The British Library
Garvin Papers. Bound Notebook
In April 1915 Second Lieutenant Roland Gerard Garvin of the British Army enrolled in a course of instruction at Staff College in Camberley, Surrey, England. There he attended lectures on tactical instruction, topography, field engineering, administration, organization, military law, and hygiene. One of his lecturers was Major Hubert Conway Rees, who had commanded a battalion during the retreat from Mons in 1914. These notes and drawings by Garvin are from a tour of field works that he made as part of the course and that was led by Major Rees ...
Contributed by The British Library
Map Showing Wet Areas on Passchendaele Front
Overprinted in color in the field, this World War I map shows the Allied front line at the Ypres Salient on December 2, 1917. The notorious Battle of Passchendaele (also seen as Passendale) began in July 1917 and culminated in the capture by British and Canadian forces of the village of Passchendaele (West Flanders, Belgium) on November 6. Even though the battle had ended some weeks earlier, an action took place on the night of December 1−2 in the areas to the north and east of Passchendaele village shown ...
Contributed by The British Library
British Battles During 1918 (8th August to 11th November 1918)
This colorful map was produced by the Geographical Section of the General Staff of the UK War Office, printed by Waterlow & Sons, and made available for public sale shortly after the end of World War I. It provides a summary of the Hundred Days offensive by British, American, and British Empire troops that led to the German surrender on November 11, 1918. It shows the Allied advance as distinctly ordered phases, colored first yellow, then green, red, and blue. Diagonal stripes in these same colors show German withdrawals. The numbers ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Bad Child's Book of A.D.C's
The Bad Child’s Book of A.D.C’s is a short manuscript book of ink drawings and verse, probably produced by a British officer working at the General Head Quarters of the British Army in Montreuil Sur Mer, France, in 1917, during World War I. The subjects of the poems and drawings are the aides de camp working at the Allied General Staff. An aide de camp is a military officer who works as personal assistant or secretary to senior army or naval personnel. Among those caricatured was ...
Contributed by The British Library
Chronicles of Cliveden, Volume 1, Issue 1
Chronicles of Cliveden was a journal produced during World War I by the patients at the Duchess of Connaught Canadian Military Hospital in the United Kingdom. The hospital was located at Cliveden, a grand country estate that was the home of Waldorf Astor, the second Viscount Astor, and his wife Nancy. When the war broke out, the Astors offered part of the estate to the Canadian Red Cross, which established the hospital to treat injured Allied soldiers. In the foreword to the first issue of the journal, Colonel W. Langmuir ...
Contributed by The British Library
For the Fallen, and Other Poems
Robert Laurence Binyon (1869–1943) was a poet and art historian who spent his entire career at the British Museum, where he wrote studies of Dutch, British, and Asian art. He published his first poem at the age of 16 and continued to write poetry throughout his life. On September 21, 1914, shortly after the outbreak of World War I, Binyon published, in The Times of London, what would become his most famous poem, the elegy “For the Fallen.” Prophetic of the enormous losses that Great Britain would sustain over ...
Contributed by The British Library
Swollen-headed William: Painful Stories and Funny Pictures after the German!
At the time of the First World War, the children’s book Struwwelpeter (Shock-headed Peter) was a familiar nursery classic in both Germany and Britain. In this British wartime parody, the original cautionary tales of naughty children and their fates are all turned against Kaiser Wilhelm of Germany. The “shock-headed Peter” of the title poem becomes “swollen-headed William,” while “fidgety Phil,” whose dinnertime antics knock over the table and ruin the food, becomes “fidgety Will,” who destroys his country’s prosperity. The last poem departs more from the original tale ...
Contributed by The British Library
The European War
This print showing a battle between troops on horseback is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “A brave detachment of Cossacks destroyed German hussars near Sochaczew.” Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts, engravings, etchings, or later, by using lithography. The prints were often characterized by simple, colorful graphics depicting a narrative, and could also include text. Lubok gained popularity in Russia beginning in the late 17th century. The prints, which often depicted narratives from ...
Contributed by The British Library
Belgians Flooding Germans
This print showing German troops struggling in an unexpected flood in Belgium is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “A heroic feat by small Belgium caused admiration from the whole world. Highly cultured Belgium, outraged by Germany's barbarian attacks, decided to take extreme measures to save the country. The whole of northern Belgium is located in the lowlands, some of which are below sea level. That part does not get flooded only because it is surrounded by dunes ...
Contributed by The British Library
The European War. The Defeat of the Germans near Warsaw
This print showing combat amongst trees and the defeat of the Germans in a battle near Warsaw is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The Siberian Corps demonstrated particular valor in the battles near Warsaw. They captured many prisoners of the 20th German Corps in the battle in the Moshidlovskii Forest. The 17th Corps delivered the main offensive in the area of Błonie and Pruszków and suffered the most. There, Siberians together with the Russian corps inflicted huge losses ...
Contributed by The British Library
The European War. The Belgians Explode their Own Dams and Defeat of German Units near Mechelen
This print showing German troops caught in an unexpected flood in Belgium is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “As German units were bypassing Antwerp in the direction of Dendermonde near Mechelen, they were caught off guard by a flood caused by the blowing up of the dams by the Belgians. The whole area was flooded. While the Germans were trying to rescue their weapons, the Belgians opened fire on them from the Antwerp forts. Meanwhile the water level ...
Contributed by The British Library
"Death Valley." The Battle of Mykhaylivka Village
This print showing a battle at the village of Mykhaylivka where the Russians defeated the Austrians is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Under a torrent of Austrian shrapnel and machine guns, our offensive columns quickly gained advanced positions and forced the enemy units into the ravine. Meanwhile our defensive columns were able to reach the opposite hills, and then enclose the enemy division pushed into the ravine. After a few well-aimed shots from the Russian batteries, the enemy ...
Contributed by The British Library
A Battle Near Vladimir-Volynsk
This print showing a battle near Volodymyr-Volynsky (present-day Ukraine) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Enemy artillery, firing over its own cavalry, shelled the trenches in front of the city occupied by our troops. The Austrians were quickly approaching. A terrible moment arrived. Hungarian cavalry, arrayed in a wide semi-circle in front of the city, bravely raced forward. It seemed that after a few minutes they would enter the city. But loud sounds and strange crackling were heard ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Russian-Turkish War. The Defeat of the Turks at Sarikamish
This print showing the defeat of the Turks by the Russians at a battle at Sarikamish on the Russian-Turkish border is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “During the Battle of Sarikamish, despite the severe cold and a blizzard, our gallant troops chased the Turks out from their strong positions with amazing tenacity. When the Turkish troops were defeated and began to retreat, leaving their weapons and the wounded behind, our brave soldiers vigorously pursued them. Оne Turkish corps ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Russian-Turkish War. Sinking Four Turkish Cargo Ships
This print showing the sinking of four Turkish cargo ships is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “After a heavy bombardment of the Turkish port of Zonguldak in the Black Sea, our detachment noticed an enemy unit at sea. It consisted of a few warships and four cargo ships carrying troops and supplies. After sinking the cargo ships by artillery fire and causing some damage to the other vessels that managed to escape, our detachment returned to Sevastopol safely ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Russian-Turkish War. The Capture оf Bayazid
This print showing the capture of the fortress of Bayazid (located in what was then Turkish Armenia) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our gallant Caucasian army, advancing on the fortress of Bayazid in order to capture it, attacked the heavily fortified Turkish positions at Bazyrgan and, having destroyed them, put the Turks to flight. As they fled, the enemy left behind their weapons and dispersed into the villages. On October 21, our troops triumphantly entered Bayazid. This ...
Contributed by The British Library
Russia's War with the Germans. The Battle of the Vistula River
This print showing the Battle of the Vistula River (in present-day Poland) between Russian and German forces is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “During a night-time German offensive on Warsaw, intense fighting broke out near Blonie. Fire from artillery shells and the burning of houses set on fire by the Germans lit the night. Shrapnel burst in the air in different directions, the earth was shaking from the thundering of weapons, and guns fired unceasingly. Despite the lethal ...
Contributed by The British Library
Russia's War with the Germans. The Effect of Our High Explosive Shells
This print showing the devastating effect of a Russian high explosive shell on German troops is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Skillfully built enemy trenches were hard to capture with ordinary artillery fire in the battles at the Vistula River. Only well-aimed shots by high explosive shells managed to force the Germans out of their deep burrows. These high explosive shells are so terrifyingly effective that even Germany’s famous skills in the military arts proved absolutely powerless ...
Contributed by The British Library
Russia's War with the Germans. Russian Troops Crossing the Carpathian Mountains
This print showing Russian troops crossing the Carpathian Mountains is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The Uzhoksky Pass in the Carpathian Mountains is witness to the heroic deeds of the Russian troops. On September 11, after a fierce battle, the pass was taken by us with heavy losses to the enemy. A legend about the impassability of the eastern Carpathian Mountains was dispelled when our gallant army passed them, opening a broad path to Hungary.” Lubok is a ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War
This print showing Russian and German troops engaged in battle is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Brave Russian soldiers attacking the enemy with bayonets on the German front.” Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts, engravings, etchings, or later, by using lithography. The prints were often characterized by simple, colorful graphics depicting a narrative, and could also include text. Lubok gained popularity in Russia beginning in the late 17th century. The prints, which often ...
Contributed by The British Library