33 results in English
First World War
This photograph from the archives of the League of Nations shows a soldier killed in World War I. The war raged for more than four years, from August 1914 to November 1918, and resulted in the deaths of more than nine million combatants. As many as seven million civilians also were killed in the war or died as a consequence of it. In the hope of ensuring that such a destructive conflict would never recur, U.S. president Woodrow Wilson and other leaders established, at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference ...
For the Fallen, and Other Poems
Robert Laurence Binyon (1869–1943) was a poet and art historian who spent his entire career at the British Museum, where he wrote studies of Dutch, British, and Asian art. He published his first poem at the age of 16 and continued to write poetry throughout his life. On September 21, 1914, shortly after the outbreak of World War I, Binyon published, in The Times of London, what would become his most famous poem, the elegy “For the Fallen.” Prophetic of the enormous losses that Great Britain would sustain over ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Failure of the German Offensive at Kaunas
This print showing a battle scene is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in the words of a Russian reporter for the newspaper Early Morning, September 12, 1914: “Local diplomatic circles received a message relayed through Copenhagen that an attempted advance by East Prussian troops on Kaunas suffered a decisive setback. The detachments of General Rennenkampf broke the individual advancing units of the German army with powerful attacks, causing the German offensive an enormous loss. Now the Germans are ...
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The Battle at Lyka
This print showing the battle at Lyka is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in the words of an army telegraph message published in the newspaper Early Morning, October 9, 1914: "At the Russian-Prussian front in the north, an especially hard battle occurred on October 4 in the vicinity of Lyka, south-west of Suwałki. It was prompted by enhanced reconnaissance, which the Germans conducted from the direction of Olecko. By the evening of October 4, our troops repelled all ...
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The Defeat of the Turks near Sarikamish
This print showing a 1914 battle scene near Sarikamish, showing fighting between the Russians and the Turkish army, is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “After fierce battles, the main forces of the Turkish army, having been surrounded by our troops behind Sarikamish, laid down their weapons. This glorious victory of our Caucasian Army, like thunder, struck the German leaders. We defeated two Turkish corps. One of these corps was captured entirely with the corps commanders, three chiefs of ...
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The Defeat of the Germans on the River Bzura
This print showing the defeat of Germans at the river Bzura is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “In three previous battles, the defeated German army was unable to conduct a full and broad offensive against our invincible army along the front line at ​​the river Bzura. The Germans were limited to separate attacks, and as a result, their hordes remained on the left bank of the Bzura. The sacrifices made by the Germans on the Bzura are enormous ...
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The Russian-Turkish War. The Defeat of the Turkish Army at Sarikamish
This print showing an explosion amidst the Turkish army at Sarikamish is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our glorious Caucasian troops defeated two Turkish corps at Sarikamish. The Ninth Turkish corps is destroyed. The commander of the corps, Iskhan Pasha, chiefs of the 17th, 28th, and 29th divisions, their staff, and more than 100 officers were taken prisoner. The Turks' losses in dead and wounded are enormous.” Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts ...
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The Capture of Yaroslav
This print showing a vast battle scene and the capture of Yaroslav (present-day Jarosław, Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Several battles in early September ended with a capture of the Sandomierz-Radomyśl Wielki area. Here, the San River merges with the Vistula River. The enemy wanted to escape from pursuit behind the San River and so assumed a heavily fortified position at Przheshov. A terrible battle followed. On September 3, our troops captured bridgeheads and crossings, crossed ...
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Russian Ships Shot down the German Cruiser "Magdeburg"
This print showing a ship in flames at sea is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “On the night of August 13, the German cruiser Magdeburg got stranded in dense fog in the shallow water of the Gulf of Finland. Attempts to move away from the shoal were unsuccessful despite assistance from German destroyers that arrived at the accident site. By morning, the fog lifted, and two of our cruisers opened fire on the Magdeburg. The Magdeburg fired back ...
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The Capture of Yaroslav
This print showing a battle outside the walls of Yaroslav (present-day Jarosław, Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in words directly from the headquarters of the Russian General Staff: “Our troops stormed the fortifications on the right bank in Yaroslav, captured 20 guns, and continued the offensive. The enemy tried in vain to stop us by exploding the bridge over the river San. Soon our troops captured Yaroslav, creating a heavy influx of prisoners and captured guns ...
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A Battle at the Austrian Border
This print showing a battle near the village Gopka at the Austrian border is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains, in the words of a report from Odessa: “Our troops reached Gopka on August 13 at night; an intense firing of weapons began. A fierce battle began before dawn and lasted for 18 hours. The battle ended with the defeat of the Austrians, who abandoned many guns. The number of dead and wounded Austrians is 2,000, with 4 ...
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Turks Storm Russian Positions at the Koprukoy Heights
This print showing an explosion and fleeing soldiers is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Turks stormed Russian positions at the Koprukoy heights in August 1914. The Turkish attacks were successfully repelled by us and we took the offensive, making the Turks flee in panic.” Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts, engravings, etchings, or later, by using lithography. The prints were often characterized by simple, colorful graphics depicting a narrative, and could also include ...
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Russia's War with Germany and Austria-Hungary
This print showing a clash between the infantry and cavalry of two opposing forces is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains that the image depicts the capture of Yaroslav (present-day Jarosław, Poland) by the Russian Army. Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts, engravings, etchings, or later, by using lithography. The prints were often characterized by simple, colorful graphics depicting a narrative, and could also include text. Lubok gained popularity in Russia beginning in the ...
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The Germans' Retreat in East Prussia
This print showing German soldiers retreating from advancing Russians is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our troops captured Bakałarzewo and seized large quantities of weapons, equipment, and ammunition. Some of the weapons were seized in the aslant position. On the left bank of the Vistula River, the Germans hastily continue moving to the border. A sharp turn is evident on the East Prussian front since October 21. The enemy, who took the defensive along the entire front line ...
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А Battle of Ivangorod
This print showing a battle between Germans and Russians at Ivangorod (present-day Deblin, Poland) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The enemy concentrated enormous forces in the vicinity of Ivangorod. For more than a week, our troops continued fierce attacks on the Germans, who outnumbered us. On October 2 we transported the weapons that had been mounted against the Germans’ right wing to the left bank of the Vistula River. At the same time, a strong flank of ...
Contributed by The British Library
А Battle Near Borzhimov
This print showing an intense close-combat battle surrounding a large artillery gun near Borzymów, Poland is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Starting December 20, the enemy launched a strong offensive along the Borzhimov-Bolimov line, concentrating considerable forces on the right bank of the Ravka River. In a series of attacks, the Germans tried to dislodge our troops from their positions. On the night of December 20, after fierce and persistent artillery firing throughout the day, dense columns of ...
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The Great European War
This print showing a Russian advance is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “During the second invasion of the Kingdom of Poland by the Germans, fighting began near Łódź on November 3, and continued on November 11, 12, and 13. The army of General Hindenburg was surrounded by our glorious heroes from all sides. The Germans were trapped as if in a bag. Our attacks now, and as always, cause terrible damage to the Germans. Their losses numbered in ...
Contributed by The British Library
Defeat of the German Troops at Gumbinnen
This print showing a cavalry battle at Gumbinnen (present-day Gusev, Russia) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “In East Prussia on August 4, 5, 6, and 7, 1914, a fierce battle was fought. It culminated in a brilliant victory of the Russian troops on the banks of the Rominte River. German forces consisted of 100,000 men and 384 guns, but our army rapidly took the offensive. After a fierce fight on August 7, we captured Gumbinnen despite ...
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The Battle with the Germans Near Lipsko
This print showing a battle between Germans and Russians near Lipsko, Poland is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “While our valiant troops were destroying the Austro-German army under [General Moritz von] Auffenberg and driving it away from the city of Lublin beyond the San River, a German unit consisting of three divisions rushed to the rescue in the direction of Kielce toward the left bank of the Vistula River. Met by our troops on the Izit River near ...
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A Battle near L'viv. A Skirmish with Our Vanguard near L'viv
This print showing a battle scene with combat in the foreground and explosions in the background is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “On August 21, at 11:00 a.m., the victorious army of General Nikolai Ruzsky captured L’viv, the capital of Galicia [in present-day Ukraine]. The capture of the city was preceded by eight days of incessant battles, during which we took 4,000 Austrian prisoners, a few banners, machine guns, and 150 weapons. General Ruzsky ...
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The Great European War. On the Austrian Front. A Campaign in Hungary
This print showing a battle scene in a valley with a town and hills rising in the distance is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Our troops descended into the Nagyag Valley in the Carpathian Mountains. The Austrian detachment positioned at Mikulice was thrown back and lost machine guns and other weapons. On September 18, our cavalry had some impressive gains in the Carpathian Mountains: it attacked the enemy trenches, captured them, smashed the enemy infantry, and caused the ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great War. A Skirmish between the Cossacks and the Austrians during the Capture of Galich
This print showing a scene of close combat involving infantry, cavalry, and explosions during the capture of Galich (in present-day Ukraine), is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “From the headquarters of the Commander in Chief. From August 4 to 21, our left flank covered 220 versts, while on August 7 it was engaged in a continuous battle with the enemy. The main forces of the enemy established a strong position at Kamenka-Galich, where they were completely destroyed on ...
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Extermination of the German Artillery Battery
This print showing an artillery blast amidst cavalry is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “From November 17 to November 19, along the line of the Masurian Lakes, our troops, having come very close to the artificial barriers installed by the Germans, rained fierce artillery fire upon the enemy in the passages between the lakes. After a series of attacks, they captured some areas, which led to the complete destruction of the enemy batteries. We captured ammunition, a few ...
Contributed by The British Library
Destruction of the Austrian Squad by Shrapnel Fire During the Capture of the Kyrle Baba Pass in the Carpathian Mountains
This print showing a battle scene with explosions is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “As soon as it was detected by us, the Austrian battery using heavy artillery against Tarnow was silenced by our artillery with shrapnel fire. In Bukovina our advanced units captured the Kyrle Baba Pass, in a battle located on the border with Transylvania and on the highway leading from Cîmpulung to Sighetu Marmaţiei and Dej [present-day Romania].” This picture, like many others in the ...
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The Battle of Przemyśl
This print showing a clash between Austrian and Russian troops is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “The battle, which began on October 1 between our troops and the Austrians on the Galician front, continued with great tenacity on October 4, 5, and 6. The Austrians conducted a particularly intense attack along the front line of Sanok/Stare Miasto-Stryi, south of Przemyśl. Bayonets were used often. On the night of October 4 to October 5, in the vicinity of ...
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A Heroic Feat of a Nurse
This print showing a nurse helping a wounded Russian from a battlefield is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “After a brutal attack in a bloody battle, and despite the fierce resistance of the Germans, our wonderful heroes used bayonets to capture a German battery. After that, the Germans began an offensive using dense columns of soldiers, attempting to take the battery back, but they were again overpowered. Orderlies worked fearlessly in the heat of battle, and one of ...
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For the Country, My Eyes. For Peace, Your Money
This World War I poster, published in Turin, shows a blinded Italian soldier with bloodstained bandages wrapped around his eyes. Like most belligerents in World War I, Italy had to raise funds to support its war effort by issuing war bonds, which were essentially interest-bearing loans that citizens made to the government. The appeals to patriotism and to the sacrifices by the soldiers at the front are typical of war bond posters produced in Italy and other countries. This poster was created by artist Alfredo Ortelli and advertises the Consolidated ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Woman Stands Disconsolate, as Another Bends over a Dead Soldier; A House Burns in the Background
This 1915 poster by Welsh artist Gerald Spencer Pryse (1882–1956) depicts a disconsolate woman, a second woman bending over a dead soldier, and a house burning in the background, all before a colorless, empty sky. Pryse created many lithographic posters based on his experiences in the British army in France and Belgium during World War I, where he served as a dispatch rider and became a decorated British officer. He later gained an official appointment as a war artist, although he had been producing lithographs all along. Pryse witnessed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Historical Concert for the Benefit of Widows and Orphans
This poster by the Hungarian designer and graphic artist Josef von Divéky (1887–1951) advertises a January 1918 concert for the benefit of the widows and orphans of Austro-Hungarian soldiers killed in World War I. It shows five military musicians in uniforms from different historical periods; the coat of arms of Austria-Hungary is at the top. The emperor and empress of the Austro-Hungarian Empire are listed as patrons of the concert, which was organized with the support of the Ministry of War. Austria-Hungary suffered an estimated 1,100,000 killed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Learn to Adjust Your Respirator Correct and Quick. Don't Breathe While Doing It, and This Won't Happen to You
One of the most gruesome aspects of World War I was the use of poison gas as a weapon, which the German army first introduced on a large scale at the second battle of Ypres, in Flanders, Belgium, in April 1915. Armies soon adopted gas masks and respirators as protective measures. This poster shows a soldier on the battlefield, collapsing and clutching his throat as a result of exposure to poison gas. The poster was used to instruct soldiers in the proper use of gas masks, and it was also ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Y.M.C.A. Service for Relatives of Dangerously Wounded
This 1915 British poster shows a woman visiting a wounded soldier in a hospital, as a doctor and a Red Cross nurse look on. During World War I, the YMCA provided many services to troops at the front, to those on home leave, and to their families. The illustration is by British artist Edgar Wright, who created a series of posters depicting the YMCA’s wartime work. Wright was also one of the main illustrators of the book, The Romance of the Red Triangle: The Story of the Coming of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Tsar Sees His Forces Returning
The Russo-Japanese War (1904–5) was documented in various forms of media, such as woodblock prints, photographs, and illustrations. The victories of the Japanese military in the early stages of the war inspired propaganda prints by Japanese artists. Kobayashi Kiyochika (1847–1915) contributed this farcical single-sheet print to the series, Nihon banzai hyakusen hyakushō (Long live Japan: 100 victories, 100 laughs). Kiyochika, known for producing woodblock prints using Western painting methods, had been under the brief tutelage of Charles Wirgman (1832–91), an English cartoonist for the Illustrated London News ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kuropatkin is Surprised at his Dinner by Wounded from the Front
The Russo-Japanese War (1904–5) was documented in various forms of media, such as woodblock prints, photographs, and illustrations. The victories of the Japanese military in the early stages of the war inspired propaganda prints by Japanese artists. Kobayashi Kiyochika (1847–1915) contributed this farcical single-sheet print to the series, Nihon banzai hyakusen hyakushō (Long live Japan: 100 victories, 100 laughs). Kiyochika, known for producing woodblock prints using Western painting methods, had been under the brief tutelage of Charles Wirgman (1832–91), an English cartoonist for the Illustrated London News ...
Contributed by Library of Congress