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Type of Item
Seat of the War in Asia. Map of Afghanistan
This map was published in November 1878 by the Office of the Chief of Engineers, U.S. Army, for “the information of the Officers of the U.S. Army.” The title, “Seat of the War in Asia, Map of Afghanistan,” refers to the Second Anglo-Afghan War of 1878−80, which began that month when Great Britain invaded Afghanistan from British India, for the purpose of checking what it perceived as the growth of Russian influence in the country. The map is based on surveys by British and Russian officers, “up ...
Unidentified African American Soldier in Union Uniform with Wife and Two Daughters
In May 1863, U.S. Secretary of War Edwin Stanton issued General Order Number 143 creating the Bureau of U. S. Colored Troops. This photograph shows an unidentified African American soldier in a Union uniform, with his wife in dress and hat, and two daughters wearing matching coats and hats. The image was found in Cecil County, Maryland, making it likely that this soldier belonged to one of the seven United States Colored Troop regiments raised in Maryland. The photograph is from the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs ...
Unidentified Girl in Mourning Dress Holding Framed Photograph of Her Father
This photograph shows a girl holding a framed image of her father. Judging from her necklace, mourning ribbons, and dress, it is likely that her father was killed in the war. The man in the portrait is recognizable as a Union cavalryman with a sword, wearing a Hardee hat (the regulation hat for enlisted men). The photograph is from the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs at the Library of Congress. The collection includes more than 1,000 special portrait photographs, called ambrotypes and tintypes, representing both Union and ...
Going to Work
This watercolor on heavy board, showing military personnel of the Women’s Army Corps in New Guinea in 1944, during World War II, is signed and dated by the artist, John Cullen Murphy (1919-2004). Murphy was an American cartoonist best known for drawing the Prince Valiant comic strip. Murphy joined the armed forces in 1940 and spent the war years in the Pacific, where he was an anti-aircraft officer, and drew illustrations for the Chicago Tribune. The battle for New Guinea was one of the major military campaigns in the ...
Wakulla Springs and World War II Troop Maneuvers
In this 1940s film, made in northwest Florida in color but without sound, U.S. Army troops practice slogging through a cypress swamp, make a human chain across the river, crawl on their bellies, and use weeds and Spanish moss for camouflage. The troops fire machine guns, shoot from trees, and swim in an assault across the river. As the troops hit the shore, smoke screens are seen and explosions hit the water. Other shots show a machine-gun team on shore, followed by scenes of the troops swimming with bamboo ...
American Library Association, Library War Service
When the United States entered World War I in 1917, the American Library Association established a Committee on Mobilization and War Service Plans, which was invited by the Department of War’s Commission on Training Camp Activities to provide library services to U.S. soldiers and sailors in the United States and overseas. ALA's wartime program became known as the Library War Service and was directed by Herbert Putnam, Librarian of Congress. Between 1917 and 1920, ALA mounted two financial campaigns and raised $5 million from public donations, erected ...
Battles Give Way to Sports in A.E.F.
This World War I recruiting poster shows scenes of military life in France, featuring sporting and recreational events with soldiers of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF). The text states: “How would you like to be with Uncle Sam's privileged tourists? Why worry about the hot weather or a job? Take a cool and comfortable ocean voyage. See Hawaii, Panama, or the Philippines, and better yourself by attending the Vocational Schools. Earn - Learn - Travel. Enlist in the U.S. Army.” The photographs show pole vaulting, boxing, swimming, a mule race ...
Columbia Calls. Enlist Now for U.S. Army
This World War I recruiting poster shows the symbolic figure of Columbia, a poetic name for and female personification of the United States, holding a U.S. flag and a sword while standing on top of a globe. In the lower right of the poster is the text of a patriotic poem, “Columbia Calls.” According to a story in the New York Times published on June 3, 1917, the design of the poster and the poem, both by Frances Adams Halsted (Mrs. E. Bayard Halsted), dated from 1916, when Halsted ...
This 1919 poster shows education and training being conducted at the ordnance operations, maintenance, and repair schools at the Raritan Arsenal in Metuchen, New Jersey. Photographs show classes receiving instruction in ten different skills or trades necessary to the U.S. Army at that time: machinist, blacksmith, welding, automobile mechanic, tractor mechanic, small arms and machine guns, explosives, artillery mechanic, saddler, and woodworking. The arsenal was part of the U.S. Army Ordnance Department, which traced its origins to the Board of War and Ordnance established in 1776 to supply ...
Learn to Adjust Your Respirator Correct and Quick. Don't Breathe While Doing It, and This Won't Happen to You
One of the most gruesome aspects of World War I was the use of poison gas as a weapon, which the German army first introduced on a large scale at the second battle of Ypres, in Flanders, Belgium, in April 1915. Armies soon adopted gas masks and respirators as protective measures. This poster shows a soldier on the battlefield, collapsing and clutching his throat as a result of exposure to poison gas. The poster was used to instruct soldiers in the proper use of gas masks, and it was also ...
Special Edition of Universal Current Events: Latest Views of Our Boys in the Service
This poster shows Uncle Sam (a representation of the United States) standing next to a soldier, each with an arm around the other's shoulders. In the background is a camp of military tents, with a U.S. flag planted and waving back and forth. The poster was produced by The Hegeman Print, a New York-based printer that produced a series of World War I propaganda posters, including ones featuring official war films. American soldiers in World War I were popularly known as “doughboys,” a term of obscure origin that ...
Winter in Panama with the U.S. Army
This World War I recruitment poster for the U.S. Army features a drawing of a ship transiting the Panama Canal and photographs of training exercises conducted in Panama. Under a treaty concluded with Panama in 1903, the United States was given permanent control over a zone of land 16 kilometers (10 miles) wide and about 64 kilometers (40 miles) long across the Isthmus of Panama, for the purpose of building, operating, and defending the Panama Canal. This strip of land, known as the Panama Canal Zone, was the site ...
One Last Effort and We Will Get Them
This poster, published in Paris in 1917, shows American soldiers following a French infantryman as they climb up a rock. Perched at the top are the imperial eagle and the Iron Cross, symbols of Germany. The American soldiers wear khaki uniforms and the distinctive leggings of the soldiers of the American Expeditionary Forces. The French soldier wears the blue greatcoat and the famous Casque Adrian (Adrian helmet), which was introduced in 1915 as the first modern steel helmet used by any army. The text urges a “last effort” to defeat ...
I Want You for U.S. Army
This World War I poster was created in 1917 by the celebrated American illustrator, James Montgomery Flagg (1877–1960), shortly after the United States entered the war. Flagg most likely was inspired by a 1914 poster by the British illustrator Alfred Leete, which featured Lord Kitchener, the British Secretary of State for War, pointing at the viewer and declaring, "Your Country Needs YOU." Even before he made this poster, Flagg was responsible for reinterpreting the image of Uncle Sam, who previously had been portrayed as a sedentary old man. Flagg ...
William H. Horstmann & Sons, Number 51, North Third Street, Philadelphia, Manufacturers and Importers of Military Goods
John Taylor French was born in Pennsylvania in 1822 and worked as a lithographer, particularly of fashion advertisements, in Philadelphia from about 1845 to 1852. This advertisement shows the ornately decorated storefront of William H. Horstmann & Sons clothing and military supply store. Patriotic bunting consisting of the names of J.H. Otten, carver, and J. Gibson, painter, and a shield surmounted by an eagle, flags, swords, and spears surround a sign that reads, "E Pluribus Unum, Horstmann," above the first level. Drums, military helmets, flags, and swords flank this central ...
View of the Philadelphia Volunteer Refreshment Saloons
This Civil War souvenir print contains six views of the Union Volunteer Refreshment Saloon and of the Cooper Shop Volunteer Refreshment Saloon in Philadelphia. The street addresses of both saloons are shown. The relief organization establishments, situated at the transportation hub between the North and South, provided hospital care, washing, sleeping, and writing facilities to more than 1 million military personnel, sailors, refugees, and freedmen in the course of the war. The print features a large central view of the exterior of the Union saloon with troops arriving and entering ...
Volunteer Refreshment Saloon, Supported Gratuitously by the Citizens of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
This print depicts the Union Volunteer Refreshment Saloon, located at the southwest corner of Swanson and Washington Avenues in Philadelphia during the American Civil War. The saloon was a volunteer relief agency supported by the citizens of Philadelphia, which provided meals, hospital care, and washing, sleeping, and writing facilities to military personnel, refugees, and freedmen throughout the war. The print shows soldiers, cheered by civilian onlookers, marching out from the main building to embark on cars of the Philadelphia, Wilmington and Baltimore Railroad for transport to the battlefields to the ...