26 results in English
A Collection from the Archaeological Museum, Used for Teaching in the Women's Advanced Courses in Kiev
This book contains an extended essay about and eight illustrations of the clothes and decorations worn by women in ancient Russia. The information is based on archeological excavations of kurgans, or burial mounds, containing domestic objects from the ancient Slavs. The objects depicted are from the Archaeological Museum in Kiev. As indicated in the title, the book was used for teaching courses for women in Kiev. Advanced courses for women opened in Kiev and several other Ukrainian cities in 1878, and were part of a broader movement in the country ...
The Treasure of Khvarazm’Shah
Ismā‘īl ibn Ḥasan Jurjānī (circa 1042–circa 1136, also seen as Jorjānī and Gurjānī), known popularly as Hakim Jurjānī, was among the most famous physicians of 12th-century Iran. In the period between the Islamic conquest and the time of Jurjānī, almost all scientific books by Iranians were written in Arabic, including such famous works as al-Qānūn fī al-tibb (The canon of medicine) by Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Jurjānī's medical encyclopedia, Zakhīrah-i Khvārazm’Shāhī (The treasure of Khvarazm’Shah) was the first major medical book in post-Islamic Iran written in ...
Commentary on the Chapter Nine of the Book of Medicine Dedicated to Mansur
This work is a commentary in Latin by Italian professor and physician Giovanni Arcolani (died 1484, also known as Ioannis Arculani) on the ninth book of Kitāb al-ṭibb al-Manṣūrī (The book of medicine dedicated to Mansur) by the renowned Persian polymath Abū Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakarīyā Rāzī (circa 865–circa 925). Known in the Latin West as Rhazes or Rasis, Rāzī was born in Rayy, just south of Tehran. He is generally considered one of the towering figures in medicine in the medieval period. His influence on ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Textbook on Arabic Grammar and Usage
This manuscript is a guide for Christian students of the Arabic language. It was written by Jirmanus Farhat (circa 1670–1732), a prominent Maronite clergyman, and copied after his death for use as a school text. The Lebanese Maronite Church was and remains united with the Roman Catholic Church. However, there was tension in the church, at some times more acute than others, over matters of “Vaticanization” of language and form of worship. Farhat took a leading part in these debates, and helped to advance the use of better Arabic ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lanterns Burning for Students Discerning
This mid-19th century publication is a basic textbook of Arabic grammar and syntax. Originally written by Jirmānūs Farḥāt (circa 1670–1732), it was edited by the famous Lebanese teacher and scholar Buṭrus al-Bustānī. Jirmānūs, Maronite bishop of Aleppo, composed his work at a critical time in the history of the Maronite rite of the Catholic Church as it sought to develop a national identity. With the help of scholars and writers such as Jirmānūs, a solution was found in the Garshuni script, that is, the native Arabic of the Maronites ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Interpreter of Arabic Literature and Its History
Al-Wasit fi-al-Adab al-‘Arabi wa-Tarikhih (The interpreter of Arabic literature and its history) is a textbook in Arabic literature approved for use by the Egyptian Ministry of Education in the various schools under its jurisdiction, namely all teacher-training institutes and secondary schools. The authors were religious and literary figures. The better known of the two, Shaykh Ahmad al-Iskandarī, was born in Alexandria, pursued his studies at al-Azhar, and became a teacher in the schools of al-Fayyūm and other areas around Cairo. He was appointed to the faculty of Cairo University ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Last Word on the Foundations of the Language of the Arabs
Faṣl al-khiṭāb fī uṣūl lughat al-Aʻrāb (The last word on the foundations of the language of the Arabs) is an introductory grammar of classical Arabic by Nasif al-Yaziji, one of the founders of the renaissance of Arabic culture in the 19th century. In design and presentation it differs markedly from traditional descriptive grammars and pedagogy by Sibawayh (died 796), Ibn Malik (died 1274), and Ibn Ajarrum (died 1324). In format, al-Yaziji’s textbook provides rules and paradigms for memorization along with exhaustive explanations. In a short preface he explains that ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Grand Monuments of the Ancients in the Nile Valley
Kitāb al-athar al-jalīl li-qudamāʼ Wādī al-Nīl (The grand monuments of the ancients in the Nile Valley) is a history of ancient Egyptian civilization by Ahmad Najib, an official of the Egyptian antiquities service under the direction of Jacques de Morgan (1857−1924). Najib published the work as a textbook on orders from education minister Ya’qub Artin (1842−1919) and claimed that it was the first effort by an Egyptian to instruct his countrymen on the historical wonders of their country. The book begins with general remarks on the Nile ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Cosmography
Created in England in the late-12th century, this manuscript was intended to be a scientific textbook for monks. The manuscript is brief, at nine folios, and was designed as a compendium of cosmographical knowledge drawn from early Christian writers, such as Bede and Isidore, as well as the later Abbo of Fleury. Those writers, in turn, drew on classical sources, such as Pliny the Elder, for their knowledge but adapted it to be understood through the filter of Christianity. The 20 complex diagrams accompany and help to illustrate the texts ...
Contributed by Walters Art Museum
History of Afghanistan: Official Text-Book for the Examination of Military Officers in Interpretership Pushtu
Tārīkh-i-Afghānistān (History of Afghanistan) is a translation into Pashto of G.B. Malleson’s History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878 (1879). Published in Peshawar in 1930, the book was used as a textbook for British military officers serving in the Pashto-speaking areas of northwestern India (present-day Pakistan) and Afghanistan. Its purpose was to provide a language learning text that would at the same time introduce its readers to the history of the Pashto lands. The translation was done by Ahmad Jan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Knowledge of the Earth
As is stated in the introductory chapter, the subject of Maʻrifat al-arz̤ (Knowledge of the Earth, or Introduction to geology) is “the structure and the continual evolution that [the Earth] has been subject to in prior eons and at the present time.” The work thus can be regarded as an introductory text on geology. Following the introduction are 20 chapters on topics ranging from “rocks” (Chapter 2) to the “Quaternary Period” (Chapter 21). Sections in each chapter are numbered consecutively, and end at Section 167, “The Ice Age.” Other topics ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Hyginus’s “De Astronomia” and Other Astronomical and Computational Manuscripts
Although this manuscript dating from the early 12th century is incomplete, its overall structure can be deduced from the remaining parts. At one time it contained the De Astronomia of Hyginus, a calendar, and several texts on chronometry. An astronomical textbook under the name of Hyginus was widely disseminated throughout the Middle Ages. The topics of the work concern central conceptions relating to stars and celestial myths. In its present form, the manuscript contains the second book of Hyginus’s De Astronomia, together with pen drawings, including of the constellations ...
Contributed by Bavarian State Library
Brief Political Geography for the Instruction of Bulgarian Youth
The Brief Political Geography for the Instruction of Bulgarian Youth is the first general geography in Bulgarian. It was published in Kragujevac, Serbia, with the financial backing of the Serbian prince Miloš Obrenović.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sakhāqī’s Book [of Arithmetic]
This work is a tutorial text on elementary arithmetic, in 20 folios. It is divided into an introduction, 11 chapters, and a conclusion. In the beginning, the sign for zero is introduced, along with the nine Indian numerals, written in two alternative forms. This is followed by a presentation of the place system. The first four chapters cover, respectively, addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. Chapter five introduces operations on non-whole numbers. The remaining six chapters discuss fractions and operations on them.
Compendium on Using the Device Known as the Almucantar Quarter
This work, by a timekeeper at the Al-Azhar Mosque in Cairo, is an important and comprehensive textbook on timekeeping. It introduces the useful device of dividing a quarter of a circle of projection into sections known as almucantars (muqanṭarāt). The work, comprising 100 folio pages, contains 30 chapters and a conclusion. The work was composed in 1440-1 (844 A.H.) and was copied in 1757 (1170 A.H.).
Universal Geography for Children
Geography textbooks were very popular as basic education tools during the 19th-century National Revival in Bulgaria. Between 1824 and 1878, some 43 different titles or editions of this genre were published. Universal Geography for Children by Ivan Bogorov, or Bogoev (1818–92), appeared early in this tradition. Bogorov’s book was a translation from the Russian of a work, also entitled Universal Geography, by Vasilii Bardovskii (1804–74), a teacher of geography at a gymnasium in St. Petersburg and the author of several popular Russian geography textbooks. Bogorov’s Mathematical ...
Grammar of the Slavic Language
Ivan N. Momchilov was a noted teacher and textbook writer during the 19th-century era of the Bulgarian National Revival. As a teacher, he recognized the need for a basic primer for his pupils on Church Slavic, and set about writing such a work. His 1847 Grammar of the Slavic Language was Momchilov’s first textbook and the first Church Slavic grammar to be published in Bulgarian and by a Bulgarian. It was compiled using several other grammars as its foundation, namely those by the Russian Ivan Stepanovich Peninskii, by the ...
Writing Manual
Sava Dobroplodni (1820–94) was a noted educator, dramatist, and literary figure during the era of the National Revival in Bulgaria. In his role as an educator, he wrote many textbooks, including this pismennik (writing manual). Published in 1853, Dobroplodni’s guide was one of the earliest Bulgarian manuals of writing, or orthography, as well as the first to provide definitions of such literary terms as metaphor, synonym, and allegory. The book showed the Slavic, Greek, German, and French alphabets, offered rules for writing, and gave examples of good writing ...
Compendium of Astronomy
Mulahhas fī al-Hay'a (Compendium of astronomy) by Sharaf al-Dīn Mahmūd ibn Muhammad ibn Umar al-Jiġhmīnī (died circa 1221) is one of the most famous textbooks of astronomy ever produced in the Islamic world. The importance of the work is clearly indicated by the existence of thousands of copies of the text, some representing the autonomous tradition of the Mulahhas itself, others preserving the work as part of the many commentaries and even supercommentaries (commentaries on commentaries) that were produced in the centuries that followed its appearance. One well-known extensive ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Book on Medicine Dedicated to al-Mansur
This manuscript preserves one of the most famous medieval Arabic medical treatises, the Kitab al-Mansouri fi al-Tibb (The book on medicine dedicated to al-Mansur), which was composed by the well-known Persian physician, natural scientist, philosopher, and alchemist Abu Bakr Muḥammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi (865–925) early in the 10th century. As apparent in the title of the book, this work is dedicated to the governor of the province of Rayy (in present-day Iran and the birthplace of al-Razi), Al-Mansur ibn Ishāq. Al-Razi (also known by Latinized versions of his name ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Book of Medicine Dedicated to Mansur and Other Medical Tracts
Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (also known by Latinized versions of his name, Rhazes or Rasis, 865–925 AD) was a Persian polymath, physician, and philosopher. He was born in Rayy, south of present-day Tehran, Iran. After studying philosophy, at around the age of 30 he began studying medicine under the supervision of Abu Al-Hassan al-Tabari. He became the head of a Rayy hospital and later headed a hospital in Baghdad. Al-Razi was known in the fields of medicine and chemistry, which he combined to prescribe medications for numerous ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Chapter Nine of the Book of Medicine Dedicated to Mansur, with the Commentary of Sillanus de Nigris
Abu Bakr Muhammad Ibn Zakariya al-Razi (also known by Latinized versions of his name, Rhazes or Rasis, 865–925 AD) was a Persian polymath, physician, and philosopher. He was born in Rayy, south of present-day Tehran, Iran. After studying philosophy, at around the age of 30 he began studying medicine under the supervision of Abu Al-Hassan al-Tabari. He became the head of a Rayy hospital and later headed a hospital in Baghdad. Al-Razi was known in the fields of medicine and chemistry, which he combined to prescribe medications for numerous ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Alphabet Book for Primary Schools in the Bosnian Vilayet
The first printing house in Bosnia and Herzegovina was founded in 1519 by Božidar Goraždanin, in the city of Goražde, in eastern Bosnia. Two years later, in 1521, the establishment closed and was moved to Romania. Subsequently, a small number of books written in Bosnia and Herzegovina were sent outside the country to be printed, in Venice, Vienna, Rome, and elsewhere, but books were not produced in the country. In the second half of the 19th century, there was a revival of interest in printing and publishing in Bosnia and ...
Bosnian Grammar for High Schools. Parts 1 and 2, Study of Voice and Form
The first printing house in Bosnia and Herzegovina was founded in 1519 by Božidar Goraždanin, in the city of Goražde, in eastern Bosnia. Two years later, in 1521, the establishment closed and was moved to Romania. Subsequently, a small number of books written in Bosnia and Herzegovina were sent outside the country to be printed, in Venice, Vienna, Rome, and elsewhere, but books were not produced in the country. In the second half of the 19th century, there was a revival of interest in printing and publishing in Bosnia and ...
Brief Geographical Primer, with an Additional Text on Bosnia: for Primary Schools
The first printing house in Bosnia and Herzegovina was founded in 1519 by Božidar Goraždanin, in the city of Goražde, in eastern Bosnia. Two years later, in 1521, the establishment closed and was moved to Romania. Subsequently, a small number of books written in Bosnia and Herzegovina were sent outside the country to be printed, in Venice, Vienna, Rome, and elsewhere, but books were not produced in the country. In the second half of the 19th century, there was a revival of interest in printing and publishing in Bosnia and ...
Spelling Book for the Children of the Martínez de Taos Family
This Spanish-language schoolbook on the use and pronunciation of the letters of the alphabet and the rules of punctuation is the first book printed in New Mexico. In 1834, Mexican official Ramón Abréu brought a printing press from Mexico to Santa Fe, where Abréu and press operator Jesús María Baca produced the book under the direction of Father Antonio José Martínez (1793-1867). Martínez, a priest who founded schools in the Taos area and was an active supporter of Mexican independence, purchased the press the following year and moved it to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress