- Europe (10)
- East Asia (2)
- Africa (1)
- Central and South Asia (1)
- Middle East and North Africa (1)
- Oceania and the Pacific (1)
- 1900 CE - 1949 CE (11)
- 1850 CE - 1899 CE (2)
- 8000 BCE - 499 CE (1)
- 1500 CE - 1699 CE (1)
- 1700 CE - 1799 CE (1)
- 1800 CE - 1849 CE (1)
- 500 CE - 1499 CE (1)
- Territorial questions
- Politics and government (8)
- World War, 1914-1918 (6)
- League of Nations (5)
- Memory of the World (5)
- War posters (4)
- Mandates (3)
- Nationalism (3)
- Emigration and immigration (2)
- Economic conditions (1)
- Farmers (1)
- Food supply (1)
- Franco-Prussian War, 1870-1871 (1)
- Germans (1)
- Germany -- Colonies (1)
- Plowing (1)
- Refugees (1)
- Soldiers (1)
- Togoland (1)
Type of Item
Under the Auspices of the League, Saar Plebiscite
After World War I, the Treaty of Versailles placed the territories of the Saar basin, formerly part of Germany, under the administration of the League of Nations for a period of 15 years. As compensation for the destruction by Germany of coal mines in the north of France and part of the reparations Germany was to pay for the war, France was given control of the coal mines of the Saar for this period. The administration of the territory was entrusted to a Governing Commission consisting of five members chosen ...
French Mandate for Togoland
As a consequence of World War I, Germany was stripped of its colonies and the Ottoman Empire was partitioned and forced to surrender control of territories in the Middle East. The Covenant of the League of Nations established a system under which the League conferred upon certain states a mandate to rule those former colonies which, in the language of the Covenant, were “inhabited by peoples not yet able to stand by themselves under the strenuous conditions of the modern world.” Britain and the British Empire, France, Belgium, and Japan ...
Mandate for Palestine and Memorandum by the British Government Relating to its Application to Transjordan
After World War I, the Covenant of the League of Nations established a system by which the League was empowered to confer upon certain of the victorious powers mandates to administer territories formerly ruled by Germany or the Ottoman Empire. Mandated territories were to be governed on behalf of the League, until such time as they could become independent. On September 16, 1922, the Council of the League approved a mandate to Great Britain for Palestine, previously part of the Ottoman Empire. The mandate provided for the eventual creation of ...
Military Situation in Manchuria before 18 September 1931. Map Prepared for Lytton's Report on the Sino-Japanese Conflict
On the night of September 18, 1931, anti-Japanese activists set off explosions on the Japanese-owned South Manchurian Railroad in Manchuria, northeastern China. The Japanese army used the incident as a pretext to invade Manchuria, and quickly occupied its key cities. China appealed to the world’s powers for help. The Council of the League of Nations, supported by the United States, sought to negotiate a peaceful solution to the conflict. In early 1932, the Council dispatched an inquiry commission to China under the leadership of the British diplomat, the Earl ...
Situation in Manchuria: Report of the Lytton Commission of Inquiry
On the night of September 18, 1931, anti-Japanese activists set off explosions on the Japanese-owned South Manchurian Railroad in Manchuria, northeastern China. The Japanese army used the incident as a pretext to invade Manchuria, and quickly occupied key Manchurian cities. China appealed to the world’s powers for help. The Council of the League of Nations, supported by the United States, sought to negotiate a peaceful solution to the conflict. In early 1932, the Council dispatched an inquiry commission to China under the leadership of the British diplomat, the Earl ...
Map Illustrative of the March of the Indian Section of the Boundary Commission from Quetta to Olerat and Badkis; of the Frontier as Proposed and Actually Demarcated, and of the Author's Return Journey from Herat to the Caspian
In the early 1880s, Great Britain (which at that time effectively controlled the foreign policy of Afghanistan) and the Russian Empire opened negotiations to define the northern border of Afghanistan. The two sides formed a Joint Boundary Commission, which began work in the fall of 1885. By January 1888, the commission had set up 79 boundary markers along the 630-kilometer frontier from the Du’l-Feqar Pass to the Amudar’ya River. This annotated map of the western half of Afghanistan shows the route taken by the British (i.e., Indian ...
Don't Be Fooled, Stay with Germany!
This poster, published in Berlin in 1919, shows a Polish man sitting on a Polish border gate and gesturing to a couple to go to Poland. Behind him are clouds forming an image of a man with plenty to eat. The couple on the German side of the border walks by; the arm of the German man is raised as if to shield the couple from the image, and the text warns, “Don't be fooled, stay with Germany!” Following the defeat of Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I ...
The People of Alsace and Lorraine are French!
In 1871, at the conclusion of the Franco-Prussian War, Alsace and most of Lorraine, which had been part of France before the war, were annexed to the newly-formed German Empire. The French bitterly resented the loss of these territories, and their recovery became a prime objective of French foreign policy and one of France’s chief aims during World War I. This poster, published in Paris in 1914, personifies the German annexation by depicting an Alsatian woman with her hand chained to a brick wall. The bold text on the ...
This is What the Polish Emigrants Look Like
This 1919 poster was produced as part of the campaign to convince ethnic Germans in Upper Silesia to vote to keep the province German after World War I. The poster appeals to German voters by depicting destitute ethnic Germans leaving Poland. The complete text reads: “This is what the Polish emigrants look like, and you'll look like this too if Silesia becomes part of Poland. Upper Silesians! Stay with the new Germany!” Located in present-day southwestern Poland, Upper Silesia was originally a Polish territory that over the centuries passed ...
This is What it Would Be Like for Us in Poland! We Farmers Vote for Germany!
Following the defeat of Germany and Austria-Hungary in World War I, the victorious Allies re-established an independent Polish state. Disputes arose between Germany and Poland about the demarcation of borders and the ownership of regions populated by both Poles and Germans. To resolve these disputes, the Allies mandated several popular referenda in which voters were asked to decide whether they wanted to be part of Germany or of Poland. This 1920 poster produced in Berlin was part of the German campaign to convince rural voters to opt for Germany. It ...
Mandate for Nauru
Nauru is an island country located in the central Pacific that has been inhabited for thousands of years by people of Micronesian and Polynesian origin. In 1888, Imperial Germany took over the island. At the end of World War I, the Treaty of Versailles stripped Germany of its colonies. The League of Nations, established by the treaty, conferred a mandate on Great Britain to administer the territory under a trusteeship. Australia, whose troops had occupied the island in 1914, took control of the island, with Britain and New Zealand acting ...
The Roumanian Question: The Roumanians and their Lands
Romania was formed in 1861 by the union of the provinces of Moldavia and Wallachia, which had been ruled by the Ottoman Turks for centuries. At the 1878 Congress of Berlin, the major European powers recognized the full independence of Romania. In World War I, Romania fought on the side of France, Britain, and the other Allied powers against Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Bulgaria, chiefly with the aim of gaining territories traditionally inhabited by ethnic Romanians but under the control of Austria-Hungary and other neighboring countries. Published in Pittsburgh in 1919 ...