34 results in English
Map of Lesser Antilles
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Islands and Mainland of the West Indies
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of Atlantic Coast of North America from the Chesapeake Bay to Florida
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Map of the Peninsula of Florida
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This circa 1639 map of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Guiana and Caribana
This map of part of the northern coast of South America is a Dutch version of a map originally produced around 1650 by Nicolas Sanson (1600–1667), royal geographer to Kings Louis XIII and XIV, and commonly known as the father of French cartography. Numerous editions copied from Sanson were printed in the early 18th century. The map covers the region from the island of Trinidad and the mouth of the Orinoco River in the west to the mouth of the Amazon River in the southeast. Sanson divides this area ...
Venezuela with the Southern Part of New Andalusia
This 17th-century map of Venezuela and a part of New Andalusia, provinces of the Spanish Empire located in present-day Venezuela, is a copy of an earlier map published in Amsterdam by Henricus Hondius (1597–1651). Hondius was the son of Jodocus Hondius (1563–1612), a Flemish cartographer and engraver who settled in Amsterdam in about 1593 and established a business that produced globes and the first large maps of the world. In 1604 Hondius acquired the plates for Mercator’s world atlas and in 1606 published a new edition of ...
Spain
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Spain is Number 34 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. This relatively brief study covers political history and social and political conditions. It traces the history of Spain from the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Report of What Happened to the Royal Navy of the Philippines, and the Victory Achieved Against the Dutch, Who Had Besieged the City of Manila for Six Months
Relacion del svceso dela armada real de Philipinas, y vitoria que alcanço delos Olandeʃes, que tuuieron ʃitiada ʃeys meʃes ala Ciudad de Manila se publicó (Report of what happened to the royal navy of the Philippines, and the victory achieved against the Dutch, who had besieged the city of Manila for six months) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1619. The book deals with the events of October 1616−April 1617, when a fleet of Dutch ships blockaded the entrance to Manila Bay, before being driven off by a Spanish ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Iconographic Plan of Mexico City Showing the General Layout of its Pleasant and Beautiful Streets: As well as the repair and elimination of the negative features of the various neighborhoods, with their myriad hidden places, deserted alleyways, ruins and the negligent residents who cause them, in spite of all the efforts of the officers of public law and order under the command of His Excellency Count Revilla Gigedo, in the administration of Metropolitan Mayor Don Ignacio Castera
This map of Mexico City was made to support an early effort at urban improvement carried out by Viceroy Juan Vicente Güemes Pacheco de Padilla Revillagigedo (1740-99), who served as the 52nd viceroy of New Spain in the period from 1789 to 1794. During his tenure, this enlightened official undertook a massive overhaul of the social, financial, and administrative organization of New Spain. He ordered the first census, reorganized the militia, strengthened frontier garrisons, and promoted further exploration of the Pacific coast. This map reflects the viceroy's interest in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
St. Augustine: Part (Below Thirty Degrees Latitude) is on the Mainland of Florida, but the Sea Coast is More Low-Lying and thus Torn Away and Rendered Island-Like
This map is the earliest engraving of any city or territory now part of the United States. It also includes the dorado fish, one of the natural history subjects drawn by John White, governor of the first Anglo-American settlement in America, in the Hatteras region, then part of Virginia (now North Carolina). Sir Francis Drake’s 1585-86 raid on the West Indies picked up the Virginia settlers and returned them to Europe. In the course of the return voyage, the author of this view-plan was able to copy the figure ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Venezuela Together with the Southern Part of New Andalusia
Henricus Hondius (1597-1651) was the son of Jodocus Hondius (1563-1612), a Flemish cartographer and engraver who settled in Amsterdam in about 1593 and established a business that produced globes and the first large maps of the world. In 1604, Hondius acquired the plates for Mercator’s world atlas and in 1606 published a new edition of this famous work. Following Hondius’ death in 1612, Henricus and his brother Jodocus carried on the family business. With his brother-in-law Johann Jansson, Henricus continued publication of what became known as the Mercator-Hondius atlas ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Geographical Description and Governmental Administration and Settlement of the Spanish Colonies in the Gulf of Guinea
This book is a detailed description of the African colony of Spanish Guinea (present-day Equatorial Guinea), by a Spanish colonial official, Luis Ramos-Izquierdo y Vivar. The Spanish territories in west Africa included the islands of Ferdinand Po, Coriseo, Elobey-Chico, Elobey-Grande, and Annobon, and the mainland African territory known as Rio Muni. The first part of the book covers the geography of the island and the mainland territories, including their climate, physical features, and populations. The second part of the book discusses the government and administration of the territories. Ramos-Izqueirdo y ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Splendid Narrative of Ferdinand Cortes About the New Spain of the Sea and Ocean Transmitted to the Most Sacred and Invincible, Always August Charles Emperor of the Romans, King of the Spaniards in the Year of the Lord 1520: In Which is Contained Many Things Worthy of Knowledge and Admiration About the Excellent Cities of Their Provinces…Above All About the Famous City Temixtitan and Its Diverse Wonders, Which Will Wondrously Please the Reader
Between July 1519 and September 1526, Hernando Cortés (1485-1547), the soldier and adventurer who in 1519-21 conquered for Spain what is now central and southern Mexico, sent five extended letters to Emperor Charles V in which he described his exploits and placed himself and his actions in a favorable light. This book contains the first Latin edition of Cortes’s second letter. In it, Cortés gives an account of his first meeting with the Aztec emperor, Montezuma II. Dated October 30, 1520, the letter was translated from Spanish into Latin ...
Contributed by John Carter Brown Library
Map of Mexico City
Dated 1720, this map was produced by the government of Mexico City in order to improve urban sanitation through the collection of garbage. It shows the central part of the city in detail, including names of streets, plazas, hospitals, hospices, columns, small squares, arches, and other places.
Saint Augustine Map, 1589
This engraved hand-colored map or view-plan by Baptista Boazio depicts Sir Francis Drake's attack on Saint Augustine on May 28-29, 1586. Boazio, an Italian who worked in London from about 1585 to 1603, made maps to illustrate accounts of English expeditions and campaigns. He prepared a series of maps marking Drake's route for Walter Bigges' work on Drake's expedition to the West Indies, first published in 1588 and followed by later editions. This map highlights an episode from Drake's Caribbean expedition, pictorially portraying how the English ...
Muchitlan, Tlaxcala, Mexico
This map from Zumpango del Río in the present-day state of Guerrero, Mexico, is from the Relaciones Geográficas collection in the Benson Latin American Collection at the University of Texas at Austin. Dating from between 1578 and 1586, the Relaciones Geográficas are responses to a questionnaire initiated by the Spanish crown in 1577, requesting information about Spanish-held territories in the Americas. The questionnaires covered such topics as demographics, political administration, languages spoken, physical terrain, and vegetation. The crown received 191 responses to these questionnaires. Of the 167 responses known to ...
Cempoala, Mexico
This map from Zempoala in the present-day state of Hidalgo, Mexico, is from the Relaciones Geográficas collection in the Benson Latin American Collection at the University of Texas at Austin. Dating from between 1578 and 1586, the Relaciones Geográficas are responses to a questionnaire initiated by the Spanish crown in 1577, requesting information about Spanish-held territories in the Americas. The questionnaires covered such topics as demographics, political administration, languages spoken, physical terrain, and vegetation. The crown received 191 responses to these questionnaires. Of the 167 responses known to exist, 43 ...
Method of Securing the Ports and Populations of All the Coasts of the Indies
In the second half of the 17th century, rampant piracy threatened the economic and commercial interests of Spain in the West Indies. Piracy also introduced a complicating factor in the ongoing struggle among Spain, France, and England for preeminence in the Caribbean. This book, published around 1694, offers recommendations, apparently addressed by Governor Sebastien de Roteta of Trinidad to King Charles II, on fortifying Spanish ports in the West Indies against pirate attack. The book is in two parts, with a printed iron cross appearing at the head of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Present State of the West-Indies: Containing an Accurate Description of What Parts Are Possessed by the Several Powers in Europe
This book, published in London in 1778, is a succinct compilation of information about the West Indies, containing, as indicated by the lengthy subtitle, “an authentick account of the first discoverers of those islands, and the parts adjacent, their situation, extent, boundaries, soil, product, trade, commerce, inhabitants, strength, government, and religion: also their principal bays and harbours, the materials for which were collected on the spot during the last war by some of the officers of his Majesty's forces, and diligently compared with all authentick narrators.” Even though the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Philosophical and Political History of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies
A Philosophical and Political History of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies is a six-volume translation, published in London in 1798, of the ten-volume Histoire philosophique et politique des établissemens et du commerce des Européens dans les deux Indes by Guillaume-Thomas-François (1713–96), also known as Abbé Raynal. Educated by the Jesuits and ordained as a priest, Raynal left the clergy and became a journalist. He published the first edition of Histoire des deux Indes in 1770, which he expanded in editions of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Culhuacán, Mexico
This map from Culhuacán in the present-day Delegación de Ixtapalapa, Mexico City, is from the Relaciones Geográficas collection in the Benson Latin American Collection at the University of Texas at Austin. Dating from between 1578 and 1586, the Relaciones Geográficas are responses to a questionnaire initiated by the Spanish crown in 1577, requesting information about Spanish-held territories in the Americas. The questionnaires covered such topics as demographics, political administration, languages spoken, physical terrain, and vegetation. The crown received 191 responses to these questionnaires. Of the 167 responses known to exist ...
Ixcatlán, Santa María, Mexico
This map from Ixcatlán, Santa María, in the present-day state of Oaxaca, Mexico, is from the Relaciones Geográficas collection in the Benson Latin American Collection at the University of Texas at Austin. Dating from between 1578 and 1586, the Relaciones Geográficas are responses to a questionnaire initiated by the Spanish crown in 1577, requesting information about Spanish-held territories in the Americas. The questionnaires covered such topics as demographics, political administration, languages spoken, physical terrain, and vegetation. The crown received 191 responses to these questionnaires. Of the 167 responses known to ...
Cholula, Tlaxcala, Mexico
This map from Cholula in the present-day state of Puebla, Mexico, is from the Relaciones Geográficas collection in the Benson Latin American Collection at the University of Texas at Austin. Dating from between 1578 and 1586, the Relaciones Geográficas are responses to a questionnaire initiated by the Spanish crown in 1577, requesting information about Spanish-held territories in the Americas. The questionnaires covered such topics as demographics, political administration, languages spoken, physical terrain, and vegetation. The crown received 191 responses to these questionnaires. Of the 167 responses known to exist, 43 ...
Tenochtitlán, 1521
This topographical map of Mexico City and its surroundings dates from around 1550, some three decades after the conquest of the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán by Hernán Cortés in 1521. Tenochtitlán was founded in the 14th century on an island in the salt lake of Texcoco. Upon occupying the city, the Spanish pulled down its central parts and replaced the Aztec temples with buildings constructed in the Spanish style, but they left the street layout virtually intact. The map shows the new buildings. The cathedral (Iglesia Major) is in the ...
Mirror of the Cruel and Horrible Spanish Tyranny Perpetrated in the Netherlands, by the Tyrant, the Duke of Alba, and Other Commanders of King Philip II
This volume, published in the Netherlands in 1620, contains French translations of two earlier works detailing Spanish crimes and atrocities in both Europe and the New World. The first part is an abridged version of Oorsprong en voortgang der Nederlandtscher beroerten (Origin and progress of the disturbances in the Netherlands) by Johannes Gysius (died 1652), first published anonymously in 1616. The second part is a translation of Brevísima relación de la destrucción de las Indias (A short account of the destruction of the Indies), written by Bartolomé de las Casas ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Narrative Letter by Hernán Cortés
The name of Hernán Cortés (1485–1547) and the controversy surrounding him are linked to the conquest of Mexico, which was the most important event of his life. Cortés was born in Medellín, Spain. He studied at the University of Salamanca, took part in Spain’s conquest, in 1506, of Hispaniola and Cuba, and rose to become a municipal official in Cuba. In 1518, he took command of an expedition to secure the interior of Mexico. Cortés’s letters are an essential source for understanding the early Spanish presence in ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain
History of the Revolution in New Spain
Fray Servando Teresa de Mier was born in Monterrey, Nuevo Leon, Mexico in 1763. He entered the Dominican order at age 16, studied philosophy and theology, and obtained a doctorate at age 27. Sentenced to exile in Spain after a sermon deemed provocative, Mier was imprisoned and escaped several times. He worked with Simón Rodríguez, a future mentor to Simón Bolívar, in France where he was later involved in hostilities against Napoleon. Historia de la Revolución de Nueva España (History of the revolution in New Spain), published in London in ...
Map of the Province of Antioquia
The Colombian political figure and historian José Manuel Restrepo (1781–1863) first became known as the geographer and cartographer of the province of Antioquia in New Granada (the Spanish viceroyalty that comprised all or parts of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). In 1807, Restrepo carried out geodesic and barometric measurements in 102 towns of the province. In 1809, he completed this map of Antioquia, the first attempt to depict with precision the province’s rugged terrain. In the same year, he wrote an essay on the physical, social, and ...
The Pilgrimage of Alpha (Manuel Ancízar) in the Northern Provinces of New Granada, 1850–51
Peregrinación de Alpha (Manuel Ancízar) por las provincias del norte de la Nueva Granada, en 1850 i 51 (The pilgrimage of Alpha (Manuel Ancízar) in the northern provinces of New Granada, 1850–51) consists of articles written by Manuel Ancízar (1812–82), published in book form in 1853. Ancízar, who wrote under the pseudonym Alpha, was secretary of the Comisión Corográfica (Chorographic Commission) of New Granada (the Spanish viceroyalty that comprised all or parts of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). Formed in 1849, the commission included engineers and geographers ...
Rewards for Obedience, Punishment for Disobedience
Premios de la obediencia, castigos de la inobediencia (Rewards for obedience, punishment for disobedience) by Raymundo Azero (1739–94) is one of the first books printed in New Granada (the Spanish viceroyalty that comprised all or parts of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). Azero studied at the College of San Buenaventura in Santa Fe de Bogotá and was ordained a Franciscan priest. He later served as professor of theology at the college and as its director. He was also a missionary and local administrator. Azero’s missionary experience unfolded ...
Conquest and Discovery of the New Kingdom of Granada in the West Indies of the Ocean Sea and Foundation of the City of Santa Fe de Bogotá
Little is known about Juan Rodríguez Freyle, the author of Conquista i descubrimiento del Nuevo Reino de Granada de las Indias Occidentales del Mar Océano y fundación de la ciudad de Santa Fé de Bogotá (Conquest and discovery of the New Kingdom of Granada in the West Indies of the Ocean Sea and foundation of the city of Santa Fe de Bogotá), a work commonly known as El carnero (The billygoat). He was born in April 1566 in Santa Fe de Bogotá, the first city in the Colombian part of ...
The Educated Vassal in the State of the New Kingdom of Granada, and His Respective Duties
El vasallo instruido (The educated vassal) was written in Cartagena by the Capuchin friar Joaquin de Finestrad. The manuscript, presented here, has two dates: 1783 on the front cover in pencil, and 1787 in the dedication to Viceroy Francisco Gil de Taboada y Lemos. The work consists of 12 unnumbered folios containing the dedication and preface, followed by the text of 505 pages originally numbered by the author. It also includes a double-sized attachment containing a comparative analysis of the tariffs of the Royal Customs of Santa Fe of December ...
View of Santo Domingo under Siege, 1585-1586
This hand-colored engraved plate by Johann Theodor de Bry (born in Liège in 1561, died in Frankfurt-am-Main in 1623), is from the German edition of de Bry’s Grands voyages (Great voyages), an enterprise begun by de Bry’s father, Theodor de Bry (1528–98). The work ultimately consisted of ten illustrated volumes on the colonization of the Americas. This 1599 engraving is a bird's-eye panoramic view showing the city, harbor, and river of Santo Domingo (present-day Dominican Republic), with the fleet of the English privateer Sir Francis Drake ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Map of the United States of America: With the Contiguous British and Spanish Possessions, 1816
This 1816 map by John Melish (1771–1822) is the first to show the United States as a continental state, stretching from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific. Melish was a Scot who traveled extensively in the United States in 1806–7. In 1809 he returned to America and settled permanently in Philadelphia, where he advertised himself as “Geographer and Publisher” and set up the first U.S. firm dedicated to map publishing. In an accompanying booklet to this map, Melish explained that he initially intended to end his map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress