204 results in English
Kokand Khanate. City of Andidzhan. Palace of the Son of the Kokand Khan under Construction
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kokand Khanate. City of Andidzhan. Palace of the Son of the Kokand Khan
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kokand Khanate. City of Andidzhan. Gate to the Palace
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kokand Khanate. City of Assak. Woman's Section of Khan's Court
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kokand Khanate. City of Kokand. Palace of Said Khudoyar Khan, with Soldiers of the Kokand Khan's Army Standing Outside the Entrance, and a Russian Officer Standing in the Center
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kokand Khanate. Gate of the Kokand Palace in the City of Kokand. Exterior View, with Soldiers of the Kokand Khan's Army Standing Outside the Entrance
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kokand Khanate. Gate of the Kokand Palace in the City of Kokand. Soldiers of the Kokand Khan's Army Standing in the Interior Courtyard of the Palace
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ceremony at "Wedding of the Rails," May 10, 1869 at Promontory Point, Utah
President Abraham Lincoln signed the Pacific Railroad Act into law on July 1, 1862. The act gave two companies, the Union Pacific Railroad and the Central Pacific Railroad, responsibility for completing the transcontinental railroad and authorized extensive land grants and the issuance of 30-year government bonds to finance the undertaking. The Union Pacific was to lay track westward from a point near Omaha, Nebraska; the Central Pacific was to build eastward from Sacramento, California. The meeting point of the two lines, a matter of some significance relating to land grants ...
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Captured Guns at Ali Masjid
This photograph of artillery pieces captured by British forces in the Battle of Ali Masjid is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. In the battle, which took place in November 1878, a British and Indian force led by General Sir Samuel Browne (1824–1901) won a victory over the Afghan Army and tribesmen led by Gholam Hyder Khan. Browne captured the fort at Ali Masjid and then marched to Kabul, prompting the Afghan amir, Sher ʻAlī Khān (1825–79 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Landi Kotal
This photograph of Landi Kotal is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Landi Kotal is a small town at the western edge of the Khyber Pass that traditionally marks the entrance to Afghanistan. It is the highest point along the pass. Pictured here is the encampment of the 12,000-strong Peshawar Valley Field Force, under General Sir Samuel Browne (1824–1901), as it crossed the Khyber Pass on the march towards Kabul at the start of the war. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Shamsher Bridge and Masjid, Kabul
This photograph of Shah-do-Shamsher Bridge and the Shah-do-Shamsher Masjid (mosque) in Kabul is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Shah-do-Shamsher means “king of two swords” in Dari. Shamsher Bridge crosses the Kabul River, which is the main waterway through the city. Except during the summer, the flow of the river is minimal. An Afghan soldier overlooks the river with the bridge in the background, while several people take shelter from the sun in the shadows of a nearby building ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kabul River, Old Bridge, Bala Hissar in the Distance
This photograph of the Kabul River and one of five bridges that crossed the river at the time is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The river, a tributary of the Indus, is seen running through the center of the photograph. Soldiers stand atop the bridge, while people walk along the road in the distance. In the right foreground people sit or squat on the bridge; behind them soldiers ride by on horseback. Bala Hissar (High Fort) is in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Captured Guns, Kabul
This photograph of Afghan artillery captured during the British occupation of Kabul in October–December 1879 is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Sir Frederick Roberts (1832–1914), the commander of the Kabul Field Force, brought at least 20 field guns (usually horse-drawn mobile cannons) with his army during the conquest and occupation of Kabul during the second phase of the war. His move against Kabul was sparked by the assassination in September 1879 of Sir Pierre Louis Napoleon ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Camp on Shagai Heights
This photograph of the British camp on the Shagai Plateau is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The ascent to the Shagai Plateau begins shortly after the entrance to the Khyber Pass from the southeast (at Peshawar, in present-day Pakistan). The encampment of the conical tents of the Peshawar Valley Field Force stretches off into the horizon. The camels seen among the tents were used by the British and Indian troops to transport supplies and equipment. Smaller hills in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Guns Captured at the Peiwar Kotal. Parked at Kohat
This photograph of captured Afghan artillery pieces at Peiwar Kotal is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Mobile field guns of various sizes are arrayed in front of a line of British tents. In the foreground is a row of trees, probably watered from the irrigation ditch alongside. Peiwar Kotal was the site of a battle in late November 1878 between British forces under Sir Frederick Roberts (1832–1914), who outmaneuvered Afghan forces under an unknown commander. The result ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Means of Carrying the Wounded
This photograph of a makeshift transport for a wounded British (Indian) soldier is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Two soldiers wearing sun-shielding pith helmets stand at the front of the photograph. They flank two Afghan camel drivers who likely are escorting the wounded soldier. The soldier’s head is swathed in bandages and he lies on a platform atop another dromedary camel. Because of their greater endurance in the harsh Afghan climate, camels were generally preferable to horses ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Army Signaling
This photograph of British troops signaling is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Signaling in the British Army at that time was performed by the Corps of the Royal Engineers. They used electric telegraphy in regions that had telegraph lines. Hand-held flags, fires for nighttime communications, and different types of non-electrical semaphores were used for campaigns in less-developed regions, such as Afghanistan. The seated soldier who is facing right uses a telescope to view the horizon; other soldiers operate ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Engagement in the Khost Country from a Drawing
This photograph of a drawing of a military engagement near Khost (now Khowst), Afghanistan, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The identity of the artist is unknown. The image appears to show a skirmish in late 1878–January 1879 that involved the Kurram Valley Field Force fighting against unidentified Afghan adversaries. In the foreground are massed British cavalry and dragoons (mounted infantry), while ahead of them infantrymen fire upon the enemy in the distance. A section of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mule Battery
This photograph of a battery of mules is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Mules historically were used by armies to transport supplies in difficult terrain and, occasionally, as mobile firing platforms for smaller cannons. Mules were also used to tow heavier wheeled field guns through treacherous mountain trails in Afghanistan. One of these slightly larger field guns sits in the left foreground of the photograph, surrounded by sepoys (Indian soldiers in the British Army). The Second Anglo-Afghan War ...
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Elephant and Mule Battery ("Dignity & Impudence")
This photograph of an elephant and mule battery is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The mule team on the left side of the photograph would have hauled supplies or towed the small field gun, while the elephants towed the larger gun. The men in the photograph are a mix of British soldiers and Indian sepoys. The group kneeling around the smaller, muzzle-loaded field gun is preparing to fire after the soldier at front left has used the ramrod ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Elephant Battery on the March
This photograph is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Elephants were commonly used as shock cavalry in the front lines of military campaigns throughout South and Southeast Asia until the end of the 19th century, when the introduction of advanced artillery and Gatling guns made them vulnerable to enemy fire. The British Indian Army, like their Mughal imperial predecessors, used war elephants to transport large quantities of cargo, but the main advantage of the elephant in late-19th-century military tactics ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mule Battery on the March
This photograph of a mule battery on the march is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The British soldiers facing the camera are wearing pith helmets, which were made of spongy plant tissues, or occasionally of cork, and provided light-weight protection from the sun. The mules are carrying dissembled field guns, including wheels, barrels, and other parts. Mules had considerable advantages as pack animals in the rough terrain, being hardy, sure footed, and habituated to the altitude. The Second ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Gatling Guns in Action
This photograph of two British Army Gatling guns is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The Gatling gun, an American invention of the early 1860s, was among the first rapid-fire weapons. Used by European powers in colonial warfare as a means of countering attacks by numerically superior infantry, the guns were capable of inflicting massive casualties. The first use of the Gatling by the British Army was in the Afghan war, at the Battle of Charasia in October 1879 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Group of Afghans
This photograph of a group of Afghan men is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Most of the men are armed with rifles or jezails (heavy Afghan muskets) and wear distinctive turbans. Pashtuns generally leave a length of turban cloth hanging down, so these men are probably from a smaller ethnic group. One lone exception has no head covering at all, and there is a Sikh soldier sitting on a chair in the center of the photograph. He wears ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Group of Afghans
This photograph of a group of Afghan men is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Most of the men are armed with jezails (elongated heavy muskets) and long daggers and wear distinctive turbans. Pashtuns generally leave a length of turban cloth hanging down, so these men are probably from a smaller ethnic group. The lone exception is the Sikh soldier standing in front of a tent at the back center of the photograph. He wears a British Army uniform ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General Hume and Staff at Kandahar, 1881
This photograph of the staff of Major-General Robert Hume at Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Hume led the Southern Afghanistan Field Force and supervised the British withdrawal from Kandahar in April 1881. He is in the center, with a full beard and a sash across his chest. Surrounding him are the staff members who assisted him in coordinating the evacuation, along with two Baluch orderlies. The withdrawal from Kandahar marked the end of the war. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Barrack Square, Kandahar, 78th Highlanders
This photograph of the 78th Highlanders at Barrack Square in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The 78th Highlanders, a Scottish infantry regiment then commanded by Colonel A.E. Warren, did not arrive in Afghanistan until November 1880. Most of the fighting was over by then, as the British victory at the Battle of Kandahar several months earlier was the last major battle of the war. In this photograph, the 78th Highlanders pose for a group portrait ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Signal Tower, Kandahar
This photograph of a ruined building in use as a British Army signal tower in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Soldiers are seen at various levels of the building, with officers at the top holding a tripod, a telescope, and other devices. The British Army of the 1870s used various signaling technologies, including where possible the telegraph, and heliographic semaphores, which transmitted Morse code by means of sunlight flashed from mirrors. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Heyland Cart and Pack Mules
This photograph of a cart and pack mules outside of the Durrani Gate in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Mules were important pack animals in the often-difficult terrain, valued for their strength and patient, mild temperament. The photograph shows some of the different kinds of pack harnesses. The massive brick walls at the entrance gate to the city are visible in the background. The photograph is by Sir Benjamin Simpson (1831–1923), who captured many scenes ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Artillery Square, Kandahar
This photograph of British Army artillery unit in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. A large citadel, possibly Kandahar Bala Hissar (High Fort), dominates the skyline of the photograph, while the Kirka Sharif (Mosque of the Sacred Cloak) is visible in the left background. British soldiers are encamped across the square, near their light and heavy field guns. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what it saw as growing Russian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Durrani Gate
This photograph of the Durrani Gate in Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ahmad Shah Durrani made Kandahar his capital when became the ruler of an Afghan empire in 1747. The heavy wooden doors of the gate, one of the entrances to the Kandahar citadel, can be seen in the back center of the photograph. Soldiers in pith helmets stand guard, regarding a scene that includes camels and herdsmen who have just emerged from the gate, civilians ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Afghanistan, 1879-80
Afghanistan, 1879-80 is an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878–80). The war began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what it saw as growing Russian influence in Afghanistan, invaded the country from British India. The first phase of the war ended in May 1879 with the Treaty of Gandamak, which permitted the Afghans to maintain internal sovereignty but forced them to cede control over their foreign policy to the British. Fighting resumed in September 1879 after an ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
First World War
This photograph from the archives of the League of Nations shows a soldier killed in World War I. The war raged for more than four years, from August 1914 to November 1918, and resulted in the deaths of more than nine million combatants. As many as seven million civilians also were killed in the war or died as a consequence of it. In the hope of ensuring that such a destructive conflict would never recur, U.S. president Woodrow Wilson and other leaders established, at the 1919 Paris Peace Conference ...
Under the Auspices of the League, Saar Plebiscite
After World War I, the Treaty of Versailles placed the territories of the Saar basin, formerly part of Germany, under the administration of the League of Nations for a period of 15 years. As compensation for the destruction by Germany of coal mines in the north of France and part of the reparations Germany was to pay for the war, France was given control of the coal mines of the Saar for this period. The administration of the territory was entrusted to a Governing Commission consisting of five members chosen ...
View and Map of the Affair at Ratan, of August 20, 1809
This watercolor by the Swedish artist and draftsman Carl Gustaf Gillberg (1774–1855) depicts the fighting at Ratan on August 20, 1809 between the armies of Sweden and Russia. Contemporaneously with the Napoleonic wars, at the beginning of the 19th century Sweden and Russia fought what became known as the Finnish War, which had the effect of radically altering the political topography of the Baltic. Sweden’s defeat put an end to its domination in the region. Finland, previously a province of Sweden, became a grand duchy under the rule ...
Rue des Rosiers: Montmartre Hills
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Commander of the Place Vendôme under the Commune
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
General Staff of the Place Vendôme, under the Commune
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Place Vendôme
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Place Vendôme; Barricade in the Rue Castiglione
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Place Vendôme (Group of Federated Soldiers near the Barricade in the Rue Castiglione)
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Place Vendôme, Ministry of Justice Courtyard. (Supper Time)
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...