51 results in English
German Lutheran Church (1861-64), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the Lutheran Church in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is a city of many ethnic groups and faiths. In 1861, the small Lutheran community, primarily of German origin, was given permission to construct a house of worship on St. Catherine Street ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tokareva House, Built around 1900, Detail of Main Facade, Perm', Russia
This view of the main façade of the Tokareva house at No. 67 Kirov (formerly Permskaia) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm' (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, Perm’ was the center of a large and prosperous merchant community ...
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Tartar District, Ordzhonikidze Street #26, House (Late 19th Century), Perm', Russia
This view of a wooden house at No. 26 Ordzhonikidze (formerly Monastyrskaia) Street, in the Tatar district of Perm', was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, it was the center of a large merchant community, of which ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Irtysh River, Ferry Crossing at Bol'sherech'e, Russia
This photograph of the Irtysh River at Bol'sherech'e was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. The Irtysh, one of Siberia's mighty rivers, is in fact a tributary of the still greater Ob' River. The Irtysh originates in the extreme northwest part of China, near the Mongolian Altai Mountains. Over its length of 4,248 kilometers, it passes through Kazakhstan and western Siberia before its confluence with ...
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Church of the Ascension (St. Theodosius) (1903-10), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the Perm' Church of the Ascension in the name of St. Feodosii was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, the city's merchant community gave substantial donations for church construction. The donor for ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Gribushin Mansion, Built around 1900, Perm', Russia
This view of the Gribushin House at No. 13 Pokrovskaia (now Lenin) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. Before the 1917 revolution, the city was the center of a prosperous merchant community in which the Gribushins were ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ivolginsk Buddhist Datsan, Main Temple, Interior, Ivolga, Russia
This photograph of the interior of the main temple at the Ivolginsk Buddhist datsan (monastery) was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. This primary Buddhist center in the Republic of Buriatiia (Russian Federation) is situated 25 kilometers to the southwest of Ulan-Ude near the Ivolga River. It was founded in 1946 after the destruction or closure of previous Buddhist monastic communities in what appears to have been a cultural ...
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Church of St. Nicholas (1705), South Facade, Detail, Nyrob, Russia
This photograph of the south façade of the Church of St. Nicholas in Nyrob (northern part of Perm' Territory) was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated near the Kolva River some 160 kilometers north of Solikamsk, Nyrob is first mentioned in historical sources in 1579. Because of its remote location, the settlement was chosen by Tsar Boris Godunov in 1601 as the place of exile for the boyar ...
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Yegoshikha Cemetery, Church of the Dormition (1905), Southwest View, Perm', Russia
This southwest view of the entrance gate and the Church of the Dormition at the Egoshikha Cemetery in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is one of Russia's largest cities. The first settlement was located on the small Egoshikha River, near its confluence with the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kuklin House (1790s; after 1817), Governor's Mansion, Study of Nicholas II, who Lived Here with his Family from August 1917 until mid April, 1918, Tobol'sk, Russia
This photograph of the study of Nicholas II at the Governor General's Mansion in Tobol'sk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Tobol'sk was founded in 1587 by the cossack leader Daniel Chulkov near the confluence of the Tobol' and Irtysh rivers. Thereafter, Tobol'sk became the main administrative center of Siberia until the mid-19th century. A factor in its decline was the routing of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Monastery, Canal (19th Century), Solovetskii Island, Russia
This photograph of a canal on Large Solovetskii Island was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated in the southwestern part of the White Sea, the island and its archipelago are the site of the Transfiguration-Solovetskii Monastery, one of the most revered monastic institutions in Russia. Founded as early as 1429 by the monk Savvatii, the monastery experienced its greatest development in the second half of the 16th century ...
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Monastery, Cathedral of the Transfiguration of the Savior (1558-1566), Northwest View with Gallery (1602), and Church of St. Nicholas (1832-1834) Solovetskii Island, Russia
This photograph of the central ensemble of the Transfiguration-Solovetskii Monastery was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located on Large Solovetskii Island, part of an archipelago in the White Sea, the monastery was founded as early as 1429 by the monk Savvatii. Following his death in 1435, the enterprise was revived by the monk Zosima in 1436. After decades of tenuous existence, the remote monastery greatly expanded in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Nativity-St. Ferapont Monastery, Southwest View, Ferapontovo, Russia
This photograph of the main ensemble at the Ferapontov-Nativity of the Virgin Monastery was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the “Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located near the Sheksna River in the central part of Vologda Province, the Ferapontov-Nativity Monastery was founded in 1398 on the shores of Lake Borodava by Ferapont, a monk of noble birth from Moscow. The center of the monastery is the Cathedral of the Nativity of the Virgin, built ...
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Noblemen's Assembly (1830), West Facade, Perm', Russia
This photograph of the former Noblemen's Assembly (Dvor'ianskoe sobranie) at No. 20 Sibirskaia (now Karl Marx) Street in Perm' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Established in the 1720s as a factory settlement on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Perm’ (so named in 1781) is the largest metropolis on the European side of the Urals. Before the 1917 revolution, it had a significant concentration ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Log Church of the Epiphany (also known as Nativity of the Virgin), (1617), Northwest View, with Kama River in Background, Pianteg, Russia
This photograph of the southeast view of the log Church of the Epiphany (also known as the Church of the Nativity of the Mother of God) in the village of Pianteg (Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the steep left bank of the Kama River some 40 kilometers southwest of Cherdyn', the Pianteg church is the oldest surviving log structure in the western Urals ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Icon of the Mother of God, from Tokhtarevo Village (1694), East Facade. Reassembled at Khokhlovka Architectural Preserve, Russia.
This photograph of the northeast view of the log Church of the Mother of God from the village of Tokhtarevo (Suksun District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the Sylva River (a southern tributary of the Kama River), Tokhtarevo was once a flourishing village, as the size and beauty of its church indicate. Built in 1694, the church at Tokhtarevo follows the traditional plan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of Transfiguration, from Yanidor Village (1702), Northwest View, Reassembled at Khokhlovka Architectural Preserve, Russia
This northwest view of the log Church of the Transfiguration of the Savior from the village of Yanidor (Cherdyn' District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the Sypan River (a northern sub-tributary of the Kama River), Yanidor was once a flourishing village, as the size and beauty of its church indicate. Built in 1702, the Church of the Transfiguration follows the traditional plan of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Igoshev House, from Village of Gribany (Mid-19th Century), Reassembled at Khokhlovka Architectural Preserve, Russia
This photograph of a log house (izba) at the V.I. Igoshev farmstead from the village of Gribany (Uinskoe District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the Teles River (a southern sub-tributary of the Kama River), Gribany was too small to have its own church, but the fertile river lands provided a reasonably secure existence for peasant farmers in the mid-19th century, when this ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Igoshev House, from Village of Gribany (Mid-19th Century), Interior, Main Room, Khokhlovka, Russia
This interior view of a log house (izba) at the V.I. Igoshev farmstead from the village of Gribany (Uinskoe District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Situated on the Teles River (a southern sub-tributary of the Kama River), Gribany was too small to have a church, but the fertile river lands provided a reasonably secure existence for peasant farmers and craftsmen in the mid-19th century ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Windmill from Shikhiri Village (Mid-19th Century), Reassembled at Khokhlovka Architectural Preserve, Russia
This photograph of a log windmill from the village of Shikhiri (or Shikhari, Ocher District, Perm' Region) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. This stout log structure was built in the mid-19th century by Kuz'ma Rakhmanov, a prosperous peasant from the region of the Ocher River (a western tributary of the Kama River). Constructed with squared pine logs tightly joined in a mortise and tenon (dovetail) technique ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Elevation of the Cross (1747-58), South View, Irkutsk, Russia
This southeast view of the Church of the Elevation of the Cross in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Built in stages from 1747 to 1760 on the Hill of the Cross, the church originally bore the name of its first main altar, dedicated to the Trinity, with a secondary altar dedicated to the Elevation of the Cross. The elongated form combines traditional 17th-century ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Elevation of the Cross (1747-58), Southeast Corner, Irkutsk, Russia
This southeast view of the main structure of the Church of the Elevation of the Cross in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Built in stages from 1747 to 1760 on the Hill of the Cross, the church originally bore the name of its first altar, dedicated to the Trinity, with a secondary altar dedicated to the Elevation of the Cross. The primary altar ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Resurrection (1690s), Southwest View, Kargopol', Russia
This northwest view of the Church of the Resurrection of the Savior in Kargopol' (Arkhangel'sk Oblast') was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Kargopol' is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian north, founded perhaps in the 12th, or even the 11th, century. Its location near Lake Lacha and the source of the Onega River (which flows into the White Sea) enabled Kargopol' to benefit from extensive ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Nativity of John the Baptist (1740-51), Southeast View, Kargopol', Russia
This southeast view of the Church of the Nativity of John the Baptist in Kargopol' (Arkhangel'sk Oblast') was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Kargopol' is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian north, founded perhaps in the 12th, or even the 11th, century. Its location near Lake Lacha and the source of the Onega River (which flows into the White Sea) enabled Kargopol' to benefit from ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Resurrection (1690s), Southwest View, Kargopol', Russia
This southwest winter view of the Church of the Resurrection of the Savior in Kargopol' (Arkhangel'sk Oblast') was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Kargopol' is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian north, founded perhaps in the 12th, or even the 11th, century. Its location near Lake Lacha and the source of the Onega River (which flows into the White Sea) enabled Kargopol' to benefit from ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ (1552-62, 1652, 1770s), Northeast View, Kargopol', Russia
This northeast view of the Cathedral of the Nativity of Christ in Kargopol' (Arkhangel'sk Oblast') was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Kargopol' is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian north, founded perhaps in the 12th, or even the 11th, century. Its location near Lake Lacha and the source of the Onega River (which flows into the White Sea) enabled Kargopol' to benefit from trade in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Annuciation (1692), Northeast View, Kargopol', Russia
This northeast view of the Church of the Annunciation in Kargopol' (Arkhangel'sk Oblast') was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Kargopol' is one of the oldest settlements in the Russian north, founded perhaps in the 12th, or even the 11th, century. Its location near Lake Lacha and the source of the Onega River (which flows into the White Sea) enabled Kargopol' to benefit from trade in salt and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Savior (1706-10), Southwest View, Irkutsk, Russia
This photograph of the Church of the Miraculous Icon of the Savior (Spas Nerukotvornyi) in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. From the time of its first log forts in the 1660s, Irkutsk was destined to be the administrative and commercial center of eastern Siberia. In 1700, Irkutsk became the third Siberian city capable of producing bricks on a large scale. In 1706-10, master ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Log Fort Tower (Late 17th Century), Bel'sk, Russia
This photograph of the surviving log tower at the Bel'sk fort (Irkutsk territory, eastern Siberia) was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. From the middle of the 17th century to the 19th century, Russian settlements in the vast Irkutsk territory were built almost entirely of logs. Remarkably, a few of these log structures from the 17th century have survived. Among them is this watch tower from the fort ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Church of the Savior (1706-10), East View, Irkutsk, Russia
This photograph of the Church of the Miraculous Icon of the Savior (Spas Nerukotvornyi) in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. From the time of its first log forts in the 1660s, Irkutsk was destined to be the administrative and commercial center of eastern Siberia. In 1700, Irkutsk became the third Siberian city capable of producing bricks on a large scale. Shortly thereafter, in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Governor-General's Residence (1814-21). Built by the Merchant M. V. Sibiriakov, the Building Now Serves as Part of Irkutsk State University, Irkutsk, Russia.
This photograph of the former Sibiriakov Mansion in the city of Irkutsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. From the time of its first log forts in the 1660s, Irkutsk was destined to be the administrative and commercial center of eastern Siberia. In 1700, Irkutsk became the third Siberian city capable of producing bricks on a large scale. This grand residence, with a Corinthian portico, was built in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cathedral of St. Sophia and Dormition (1681-86), (right), and Cathedral of the Intercession (1743-46;1850-67), (left), East View, Tobol'sk, Russia
This photograph of the east view of the St. Sophia Cathedral ensemble in Tobol'sk (western Siberia) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Founded in 1587 at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers, Tobol'sk was for some two centuries the de facto Siberian capital and, as of 1620, the center of the vast Eparchy of Siberia. This exalted position was reflected in the main cathedral ...
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Fort Jefferson Lighthouse
This photograph shows Fort Jefferson Lighthouse, one of 30 historic lighthouses in the state of Florida. The origins of the structure go back to 1825, when a 65-foot (20-meter) tower was completed at Bush Key (now known as Garden Key) in the Dry Tortugas and fitted with a light consisting of 23 lamps in 14-inch (35-centimeter) reflectors. Construction of Fort Jefferson began in 1847. The fort covered the entire island and incorporated the lighthouse in its south wall. In 1856 a taller lighthouse was constructed, and in 1858 the Garden ...
Church of the Archangel Michael (1745-54), South View, Tobol'sk, Russia
This photograph of the southwest view of the Church of the Archangel Michael in Tobol'sk (western Siberia) was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Founded in 1587 at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers, Tobol'sk was for some two centuries the de facto Siberian capital and, as of 1620, the center of the vast Eparchy of Siberia. Among the city's imposing 18th-century "Siberian baroque ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tobol'sk Kremlin, Merchants' Court (Gostinnyi Dvor), (1703-05), South View, Tobol'sk, Russia
This photograph of the Merchants' Court (Gostinnyi dvor) in Tobol’sk, was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Tobol'sk was founded in 1587 at the confluence of the Tobol and Irtysh rivers. Peter the Great attached much significance to the development of Tobol'sk as a base for Russian expansion in Siberia. In 1708, he designated Tobol’sk as the administrative center for the Province of Siberia, which ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cathedral of the Icon of the Sign (1768-1801), Early 20th Century, South View, Tiumen', Russia
This photograph of the south façade of the Cathedral of the Icon of the Sign (Znamenie) in the western Siberian city of Tiumen' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Founded in 1586 on the site of a Tatar settlement at the confluence of the Tiumenka and Tura rivers, Tiumen' is considered the oldest permanent Russian settlement in Siberia. Until the 19th century, it existed in the shadow of ...
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Log House, Semakov Street #9 (Late 19th Century), Tiumen', Russia
This photograph of a wooden house at No. 9 Semakov Street in the western Siberian city of Tiumen' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Founded in 1586 on the site of a Tatar settlement at the confluence of the Tiumenka and Tura rivers, Tiumen’ is considered the oldest permanent Russian settlement in Siberia. Until the 19th century, it existed in the shadow of Tobol'sk, located to the ...
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Log House, Turgenev Street #59 (Late 19th Century), Tiumen', Russia
This photograph of a wooden house at No. 59 Turgenev Street in the western Siberian city of Tiumen' was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Founded in 1586 on the site of a Tatar settlement at the confluence of the Tiumenka and Tura rivers, Tiumen’ is considered the oldest permanent Russian settlement in Siberia. Until the 19th century, it existed in the shadow of Tobol'sk, located to the ...
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Cathedral Bell Tower (1713), South Facade, Solikamsk, Russia
This photograph of the south façade of the Cathedral Bell Tower in Solikamsk was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Founded around 1430 on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Solikamsk is among the oldest Russian settlements in the Ural Mountains. Its wealth was based on rich sources of salt (hence the first part of its name) and other minerals. By the late 16th century, the defeat of ...
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Ascension-Trinity Monastery, Church of the Ascension (1704), Southeast View, Solikamsk, Russia
This southeast view of the Church of the Trinity (formerly Ascension) at the Ascension-Trinity Monastery in Solikamsk was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Founded around 1430 on the middle reaches of the Kama River, Solikamsk is among the oldest Russian settlements in the Ural Mountains. Its wealth was based on salt (hence the first part of its name) and other minerals. The Ascension Monastery was founded circa 1590 ...
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Ascension-Trinity Monastery, Church of St. Michael Malein (1731), South View, with Procession of the Cross, Saturday, August 12, 2000, Solikamsk, Russia
This view of the Procession of the Cross at the Ascension-Trinity Monastery in Solikamsk was taken in 2000 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. The procession took place on August 12, 2000, and was part of the rededication of the main monastic Church of the Trinity . In the background is the Church of St. Michael Malein. The Ascension Monastery was founded circa 1590 by local tradesmen and free peasants. Its buildings were ...
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Cathedral of St. Seraphim (1907), Southwest View, Viatka, Russia
This photograph of the Cathedral of St. Seraphim of Sarov in Viatka was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. The city of Viatka, renamed Kirov in 1934, is located on the Viatka River, 900 kilometers east of Moscow. Founded in 1181 under the name "Khlynov," Viatka was brought into the Muscovite realm by the end of the 15th century. The town subsequently became a trading and administrative center in ...
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