51 results in English
Havana on the Island of Cuba
Joan Vinckeboons (1617–70) was a Dutch cartographer and engraver born into a family of artists of Flemish origin. He was employed by the Dutch West India Company and for more than 30 years produced maps for use by Dutch mercantile and military shipping. He was a business partner of Joan Blaeu, one of the most important map and atlas publishers of the day. Vinckeboons drew a series of 200 manuscript maps that were used in the production of atlases, including Blaeu’s Atlas Maior. This pen-and-ink and watercolor map ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Brochure for White Star Line’s Two Ships “Olympic” and “Titanic”
This Danish-language brochure, published in Copenhagen in 1911 or 1912, advertises two ships of the British-owned White Star Line, the Olympic and Titanic. Included are facts about the line and its fleet; information about tickets, timetables, and classes of service; and illustrations of the dining rooms, libraries, cabins, and decks. The brochure lists amenities available to second- and third-class passengers and shows the menus for the morning, midday, and evening meals offered on each of the seven days of the voyage across the Atlantic. The publication was aimed at people ...
View and Map of the Affair at Ratan, of August 20, 1809
This watercolor by the Swedish artist and draftsman Carl Gustaf Gillberg (1774–1855) depicts the fighting at Ratan on August 20, 1809 between the armies of Sweden and Russia. Contemporaneously with the Napoleonic wars, at the beginning of the 19th century Sweden and Russia fought what became known as the Finnish War, which had the effect of radically altering the political topography of the Baltic. Sweden’s defeat put an end to its domination in the region. Finland, previously a province of Sweden, became a grand duchy under the rule ...
Commercial Law of Egypt
This volume, Qanun al-Tijarah (Commercial law of Egypt), contains two printed works, the commercial and the maritime codes of Egypt. The two documents are extracted from a more comprehensive but unidentified work, possibly covering civil procedure and the criminal code. Each title is preceded by the order of Egyptian ruler Khedive Muhammad Tawfīq authorizing publication and implementation of the law. The first title, Commercial Code, includes definitions of terms and focuses on debt and bankruptcy. The second title, Maritime Code, covers ships operating under the Ottoman flag and the rights ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Submarine Vessel, Transverse Section
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pumps, Cocks, Water Chamber, and Anchor for “Plunging Boat”
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cock Cavity and Wheel Details for “Plunging Boat”
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vessel under Sail and Anchored
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Water Chambers, Valves, Water Passages
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vessel-Sighting Mechanism Details
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Submarine Vessel, Longitudinal Section
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Saint Thomas Island, Danish Possession in the Antilles: View from the Brazilian Observatory with the Sandbank and the East Part of the Harbor and the City Charlotte Amalie
This photograph is contained in an album that commemorates the participation of Brazil in the international effort to track the transit of Venus in 1882. This involved the establishment by the Imperial Observatory of an observatory, named after Emperor Dom Pedro II (1825-91), on the island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies (present-day U.S. Virgin Islands). The transit of Venus is a rare astronomical event that occurs when Venus passes between the Earth and the sun, becoming visible in daylight against the solar disk. The transits occur ...
Saint Thomas Island, Danish Possession in the Antilles: View from the Brazilian Observatory with the West Part of the Harbor and the City Charlotte Amalie
This photograph is contained in an album that commemorates the participation of Brazil in the international effort to track the transit of Venus in 1882. This involved the establishment by the Imperial Observatory of an observatory, named after Emperor Dom Pedro II (1825-91), on the island of Saint Thomas in the Danish West Indies (present-day U.S. Virgin Islands). The transit of Venus is a rare astronomical event that occurs when Venus passes between the Earth and the sun, becoming visible in daylight against the solar disk. The transits occur ...
St. Augustine: Part (Below Thirty Degrees Latitude) is on the Mainland of Florida, but the Sea Coast is More Low-Lying and thus Torn Away and Rendered Island-Like
This map is the earliest engraving of any city or territory now part of the United States. It also includes the dorado fish, one of the natural history subjects drawn by John White, governor of the first Anglo-American settlement in America, in the Hatteras region, then part of Virginia (now North Carolina). Sir Francis Drake’s 1585-86 raid on the West Indies picked up the Virginia settlers and returned them to Europe. In the course of the return voyage, the author of this view-plan was able to copy the figure ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Steamer S. Salvador, São Francisco River
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. In 1868, photographer Augusto Riedel accompanied Luis Augusto, Duke of Saxe, son-in-law of Emperor Pedro II, on an expedition into the interior of Brazil. The expedition probably traveled by ...
Pier in the Town of Hankou, Hubei Province, China, 1874
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
Port of Aden from the Sea
This 1894 photograph depicts Aden (in present-day Yemen) as viewed from the sea. The port city of Aden was occupied by the British in 1839 and became an important fueling depot for the British Navy. Situated at a strategically advantageous spot at the entrance to the Red Sea, Aden became a British Crown Colony in 1937 and remained under British control for another three decades. William Henry Jackson (1843-1942) took the photograph for the World’s Transportation Commission, a mission organized by U.S. railroad publicist Joseph Gladding Pangborn to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Voyage Around the World by the King's Frigate La Boudeuse and the Ship L'Etoile in 1766, 1767, 1768, and 1769
Following France’s defeat in the Seven Years' War (1756-63), Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811), a soldier with a distinguished military record in Canada, received permission from King Louis XV to undertake France’s first major geographical exploration of the Pacific. In 1766-69 Bougainville became the first Frenchman to circumnavigate the globe. His voyage, meticulously recounted in this book, resulted in several significant scientific contributions, including establishing the precise location of a number of Pacific islands and determining the width of the Pacific Ocean. However, it was Bougainville’s observations of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of the Island and the City of Batavia Belonging to the Dutch, for the India Company
This hand-colored engraving of the Dutch colonial capital of Batavia (present-day Jakarta) was created by Jan Van Ryne in 1754. Van Ryne was born in the Netherlands, but spent most of his working life in London, where he specialized in producing engravings of scenes from the British and Dutch colonies. Located at the mouth of the Ciliwung River, Jakarta was the site of a settlement and port possibly going back as far as the fifth century A.D. In 1619, the Dutch captured and razed the existing city of Jayakerta ...
Panama Canal—West Lirio Slide
This 1923 photograph from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress documents a recent landslide in the West Lirio section of the Panama Canal and its effects on eastbound and westbound shipping. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Saint Augustine Map, 1589
This engraved hand-colored map or view-plan by Baptista Boazio depicts Sir Francis Drake's attack on Saint Augustine on May 28-29, 1586. Boazio, an Italian who worked in London from about 1585 to 1603, made maps to illustrate accounts of English expeditions and campaigns. He prepared a series of maps marking Drake's route for Walter Bigges' work on Drake's expedition to the West Indies, first published in 1588 and followed by later editions. This map highlights an episode from Drake's Caribbean expedition, pictorially portraying how the English ...
View of the Damage from the Hurricane of 1906
The sixth hurricane of 1906 was one of 11 hurricanes or tropical cyclones that Atlantic hurricane season. The storm made landfall on September 27, 1906, west of Biloxi, Mississippi, but wreaked its greatest damage from Mobile, Alabama to Pensacola, Florida. The Category 4 hurricane was the most destructive storm to strike the Pensacola area in 170 years. Winds in excess of 105 miles (170 kilometers) per hour stretched past the city and port of Pensacola, and Escambia Bay in the Gulf of Mexico saw a storm surge as high as ...
Makian As It Appears from the Side of Ngofakiaha
This view of the island of Makian and the village of Ngofakiaha in the Maluku Islands (present-day Indonesia) is from the Atlas Blaeu-Van der Hem. Representing the entire surface of the Earth, the 50 volume work is often considered the most beautiful and most remarkable atlas ever composed. The collectors atlas (a special form of compiling cartographic material) was based on the Atlas Maior (Great atlas), published in Amsterdam by Joan Blaeu (1596–1673) in various editions between 1662 and 1672. This was the largest and most expensive book produced ...
Contributed by Austrian National Library
Foreigners' Ship: Steamship
Commodore Matthew C. Perry entered the port of Yokohama in 1853 with an intimidating fleet of steam warships, in order to compel Japan to open up after nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact. The Japanese people became increasingly exposed to Western culture as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction. The mixture of anxiety, curiosity, and awe at this influx of unfamiliar technology and customs is reflected in the detailed depictions of foreign subjects by ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating world) artists. With the arrival of Perry, Yokohama-e (pictures of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Send the Eagle's Answer: More Ships
This poster, issued by the publication section of the Emergency Fleet Corporation in Washington, D.C., shows a large, colorful eagle flying above ships setting sail for a distant shore in flames. The Emergency Fleet Corporation was established under congressional mandate by the United States Shipping Board in April 1917, ten days after the United States declared war on Germany. Its purpose was to acquire, maintain, and operate the merchant ships that were needed to transport American troops and their supplies to France. The bald eagle as a symbol of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Winter in Panama with the U.S. Army
This World War I recruitment poster for the U.S. Army features a drawing of a ship transiting the Panama Canal and photographs of training exercises conducted in Panama. Under a treaty concluded with Panama in 1903, the United States was given permanent control over a zone of land 16 kilometers (10 miles) wide and about 64 kilometers (40 miles) long across the Isthmus of Panama, for the purpose of building, operating, and defending the Panama Canal. This strip of land, known as the Panama Canal Zone, was the site ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Take up the Sword of Justice
This 1915 poster, published in London for the Parliamentary Recruiting Committee, shows a figure rising from the sea to offer a sword, with a sinking ship and drowning victims in the distance. The reference is to the Lusitania, the British passenger liner that was torpedoed by a German submarine off the southern coast of Ireland on May 7, 1915, while en route to Liverpool from New York, with the loss of nearly 1,200 people. Until March 2, 1916, when the Military Service Act introduced conscription, Great Britain’s World ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Tidal Wave. July 4, 1918: 95 Ships Launched
The Emergency Fleet Corporation (EFC) was established under congressional mandate by the United States Shipping Board in April 1917, ten days after the United States declared war on Germany. Its purpose was to acquire, maintain, and operate the merchant ships that were needed to transport American troops and their supplies to France. In 1917, the United States was acutely short of merchant ships, shipyard workers, and yards to build ships, owing to the relative weakness of the merchant marine in the prewar years. This poster, showing a line of ships ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
City of Petrozavodsk. General View from Onega Lake
Construction of a new railroad to the ice-free port of Murmansk lasted from 1914 to the spring of 1917, when it was connected to the capital, then called Petrograd. Among the towns in this northern area along the route was Petrozavodsk, founded in September 1703, just four months after Saint Petersburg. Tsar Peter I (the Great) needed an additional iron works to supply his military, and his energetic associate Alexander Menshikov discovered an appropriate site where the Shuya River enters Lake Onega. The name of the settlement soon evolved to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sukhumi. General View of City and Bay from Cherniavskii Mountain
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
United States of North America: Perry Arrives in Uraga, Soshu Province
Commodore Matthew C. Perry (1794–1858) of the United States Navy entered the port of Yokohama in 1853 with an intimidating fleet of steam warships, in order to force Japan to open up after nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact. The “black ships” that he came with became a common subject for popular prints. The Japanese people were increasingly exposed to Western culture as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction, and a mixture of curiosity, awe, and anxiety at the influx of unfamiliar technology and customs can be seen ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
A Map of the World
While under nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact during the Edo period (1600-1868), the Japanese people still maintained a curiosity in foreign cultures. World maps in particular are indications of how the Japanese perceived their country and its position in the international community. Many were published in the port city of Yokohama and popularized for both informational and entertainment purposes. This map, a woodcut dating from the second half of the 19th century, depicts an enormous archipelago representing Japan at the center of the world. Images of a Russian ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Learning Portuguese (Aboard the Seattle-Maru in June 1917)
This photograph shows Japanese emigrants to Brazil learning Portuguese aboard the Japanese emigrant ship Seattle-Maru in 1917. The ship took about 80 days to sail from the port of Kobe, Japan, to Santos, Brazil. Japanese emigration to Brazil began in 1908, and reached its peak in 1926–35. Following the abolition of slavery in Brazil in 1888, the government of Brazil looked to immigrants to address a labor shortage in the increasingly important coffee industry. European immigrants, particularly Italians, filled the gap at first, but were later joined by immigrants ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Disembarking from a Ship, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print of passengers disembarking from a ship in the harbor in Algiers, and meeting and greeting people on the quay, is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). After seizing Algiers from the Ottomans in 1830, the French made the city a military and administrative headquarters for their colonial empire in North and West Africa. The city was particularly important for its strategic harbor, located in the Bay of Algiers. The French promoted immigration to Algiers, and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Disembarking from a Ship, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print of passengers disembarking from a ship in the harbor in Algiers, and being helped into small boats for transfer to shore, is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). After seizing Algiers from the Ottomans in 1830, the French made the city a military and administrative headquarters for their colonial empire in North and West Africa. The city was particularly important for its strategic harbor, located in the Bay of Algiers. The French promoted immigration to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Passengers Disembarking, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print of passengers disembarking from a ship in the harbor in Algiers into a fleet of boats for transfer to shore is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). After seizing Algiers from the Ottomans in 1830, the French made the city a military and administrative headquarters for their colonial empire in North and West Africa. The city was particularly important for its strategic harbor, located in the Bay of Algiers. The French promoted immigration to Algiers ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Steamship "Normannia", Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print of the steamship Normannia in the harbor in Algiers is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Constructed in Glasgow, Scotland, in 1890, the Normannia was one of four twin-propeller steamers belonging to the Hamburg-American Line that regularly crossed the Atlantic from Hamburg, Germany, and Southampton, England to New York. The ship displaced 8,374.26 metric tons and was 152.40 meters long and 17.53 meters wide. The Normannia was severely damaged in January ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bona, Algeria
This photochrome print from Bona (present-day Annaba) in northeast Algeria is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The town was described in the 1911 edition of Baedeker’s The Mediterranean, seaports and sea routes: Handbook for Travellers as “the chief seaport of Algeria after Oran and Algiers and the most important outlet for the produce of the département of Constantine [present-day Qacentina], such as phosphates, iron, zinc, cork, cattle, and cereals.” Founded on or near the Roman site ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Exterior View of Palm Huts on the Beaches Across from Gorgona Island, Province of Barbacoas
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) depicts a village scene on the Pacific coast of Colombia, across the water from the island of Gorgona. Shown are two palm huts on stilts, surrounded by lush growth. Ships are visible in the bay. In the foreground a man is working with an axe. In 1853, when the picture was painted, Barbacoas Province stretched from the Pacific lowlands up to the mountains of the Cordillera Occidental. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population ...
Cuba Shall Be Free
This chromolithograph is an allegorical composition. It shows a Cuban soldier holding the national flag on the left, the winged figure of Victory at the right, a coat of arms at lower center with cannonballs and military band instruments, and ships in the background. The title reads Cuba Sera Libre (Cuba shall be free), with the dates October 31 to November 4, 1873 indicated on the banner at the bottom. The title and the dates refer to the Virginius Incident, in which the Virginius, a blockade runner previously employed in ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
View of Santo Domingo under Siege, 1585-1586
This hand-colored engraved plate by Johann Theodor de Bry (born in Liège in 1561, died in Frankfurt-am-Main in 1623), is from the German edition of de Bry’s Grands voyages (Great voyages), an enterprise begun by de Bry’s father, Theodor de Bry (1528–98). The work ultimately consisted of ten illustrated volumes on the colonization of the Americas. This 1599 engraving is a bird's-eye panoramic view showing the city, harbor, and river of Santo Domingo (present-day Dominican Republic), with the fleet of the English privateer Sir Francis Drake ...
Contributed by Brown University Library
Philadelphia from the Navy Yard
The shipyard at Front Street on the Delaware River in the Southwark section of Philadelphia became operational in 1776. In 1801 it became the Philadelphia Naval Shipyard and the first official base of the United States Navy. The larger ironclad warships introduced into the navy after the American Civil War required more space, and in 1871 the shipyard moved to League Island at the confluence of the Schuylkill and Delaware Rivers. This print by John Caspar Wild (circa 1804−46) shows the Delaware bustling with an assortment of vessels, including ...