42 results in English
Sangallo’s Sienese Sketchbook
The so-called Sienese sketchbook of the famous architect and engineer Giuliano da Sangallo was originally in the library of Sienese scholar Giovanni Antonio Pecci. The librarian Giuseppe Ciaccheri, a committed and passionate collector who enriched the Biblioteca comunale degli Intronati di Siena with works of art of outstanding quality, acquired it in 1784. Together with the Codice Barberiniano in the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, the sketchbook bears witness to the architect's prolific production of drawings and is a valuable source of knowledge about his work. The small format and the ...
Treatise on Architectural Design
A rare survival from the 16th century, this working notebook of the Italian architect and sculptor Bartolomeo Ammannati (1511–92) contains designs for and textual descriptions of fortifications, systems of measurement, preparatory drawings for busts and other sculptures, and a lengthy text on the elements of architectural expression. Ammannati trained with Baccio Bandinelli in Florence and had commissions in Venice, Padua, Urbino, Naples and Rome, in addition to the work he did for Grand-Duke of Tuscany Cosimo I de’ Medici (1519–74) in his hometown of Florence. The 114 folio ...
Parc de Saint-Cloud
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Tuileries Palace; Main Hall, and Place du Carrousel
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Tuileries Palace: Interior View
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Pre-Hispanic Idol
Shown here are three views of what remains of a terracotta seated human figure in an accentuated stylized form. The figure was discovered in the Painted Cave site at Gáldar, northwest Gran Canaria, in the Canary Islands archipelago of Spain, which lies about 100 kilometers west of Morocco. The cave complex was inhabited before the Castilian conquest of the Canaries in the 15th century by an indigenous people called the Guanches. The head of this figure is missing, but other examples of Guanche ceramics include figures with heads as prolongation ...
Russian Diplomatic Mission in Dongjiaominxiang, a Typical Chinese House with a Garden and Statuary, in the Legation Quarter of Beijing, 1874
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
Description of Egypt. Second Edition. Antiquities, Volume Three (Plates)
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he brought with him an entourage of more than 160 scholars and scientists. Known as the French Commission on the Sciences and Arts of Egypt, these experts undertook an extensive survey of the country’s archeology, topography, and natural history. A soldier who was part of the expedition found the famous Rosetta Stone, which the French linguist and scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) later used to unlock many of the mysteries that long had surrounded the language of ancient Egypt. In 1802 Napoleon authorized ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Description of Egypt. Second Edition. Antiquities, Volume Four (Plates)
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he brought with him an entourage of more than 160 scholars and scientists. Known as the French Commission on the Sciences and Arts of Egypt, these experts undertook an extensive survey of the country’s archeology, topography, and natural history. A soldier who was part of the expedition found the famous Rosetta Stone, which the French linguist and scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) later used to unlock many of the mysteries that long had surrounded the language of ancient Egypt. In 1802 Napoleon authorized ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Description of Egypt. Second Edition. Antiquities, Volume Five (Plates)
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he brought with him an entourage of more than 160 scholars and scientists. Known as the French Commission on the Sciences and Arts of Egypt, these experts undertook an extensive survey of the country’s archeology, topography, and natural history. A soldier who was part of the expedition found the famous Rosetta Stone, which the French linguist and scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) later used to unlock many of the mysteries that long had surrounded the language of ancient Egypt. In 1802 Napoleon authorized ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Description of Egypt. Second Edition. Modern State, Volume One (Plates)
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he brought with him an entourage of more than 160 scholars and scientists. Known as the French Commission on the Sciences and Arts of Egypt, these experts undertook an extensive survey of the country’s archeology, topography, and natural history. A soldier who was part of the expedition found the famous Rosetta Stone, which the French linguist and scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) later used to unlock many of the mysteries that long had surrounded the language of ancient Egypt. In 1802 Napoleon authorized ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Description of Egypt. Second Edition. Modern State, Volume Two (Plates)
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he brought with him an entourage of more than 160 scholars and scientists. Known as the French Commission on the Sciences and Arts of Egypt, these experts undertook an extensive survey of the country’s archeology, topography, and natural history. A soldier who was part of the expedition found the famous Rosetta Stone, which the French linguist and scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) later used to unlock many of the mysteries that long had surrounded the language of ancient Egypt. In 1802 Napoleon authorized ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Description of Egypt. First Edition. Antiquities, Descriptions, Volume One
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he brought with him an entourage of more than 160 scholars and scientists. Known as the French Commission on the Sciences and Arts of Egypt, these experts undertook an extensive survey of the country’s archeology, topography, and natural history. A soldier who was part of the expedition found the famous Rosetta Stone, which the French linguist and scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) later used to unlock many of the mysteries that long had surrounded the language of ancient Egypt. In 1802 Napoleon authorized ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Description of Egypt. First Edition. Antiquities, Descriptions, Volume Two
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he brought with him an entourage of more than 160 scholars and scientists. Known as the French Commission on the Sciences and Arts of Egypt, these experts undertook an extensive survey of the country’s archeology, topography, and natural history. A soldier who was part of the expedition found the famous Rosetta Stone, which the French linguist and scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) later used to unlock many of the mysteries that long had surrounded the language of ancient Egypt. In 1802 Napoleon authorized ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Description of Egypt. First Edition. Antiquities, Essays, Volume One
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he brought with him an entourage of more than 160 scholars and scientists. Known as the French Commission on the Sciences and Arts of Egypt, these experts undertook an extensive survey of the country’s archeology, topography, and natural history. A soldier who was part of the expedition found the famous Rosetta Stone, which the French linguist and scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) later used to unlock many of the mysteries that long had surrounded the language of ancient Egypt. In 1802 Napoleon authorized ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Description of Egypt. First Edition. Antiquities, Essays, Volume Two
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he brought with him an entourage of more than 160 scholars and scientists. Known as the French Commission on the Sciences and Arts of Egypt, these experts undertook an extensive survey of the country’s archeology, topography, and natural history. A soldier who was part of the expedition found the famous Rosetta Stone, which the French linguist and scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) later used to unlock many of the mysteries that long had surrounded the language of ancient Egypt. In 1802 Napoleon authorized ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Description of Egypt. Index Followed by a Bibliography on Bonaparte's French Expedition
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he brought with him an entourage of more than 160 scholars and scientists. Known as the French Commission on the Sciences and Arts of Egypt, these experts undertook an extensive survey of the country’s archeology, topography, and natural history. A soldier who was part of the expedition found the famous Rosetta Stone, which the French linguist and scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) later used to unlock many of the mysteries that long had surrounded the language of ancient Egypt. In 1802 Napoleon authorized ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
At the Estate. Denmark
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Monumental Jaguar Sculpture
This painted buff ceramic sculpture was made in southern Veracruz, Mexico, in 600-900 AD, or the Late Classic Period of Mesoamerican civilization. Scholars traditionally have defined Mesoamerica as a cultural region comprising the modern countries of Mexico, Guatemala, Belize, western Honduras, and El Salvador. Its history is divided into an Archaic Period (circa 12,000-1500 BC), a Preclassic or Formative Period (circa 1500 BC-200 AD), a Classic Period (circa 200-900 AD), and a Postclassic Period (circa 900-1500 AD). The tropical jaguar was a major sacred creature in much of Mesoamerica ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Yogyakarta. Temple Ruins: Details of Sculpted Figures
This photograph taken near Jakarta, Indonesia is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress.  Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass and film negatives. In ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Tuileries Garden, Paris, France
This photochrome print of the Jardin des Tuileries in Paris is part of “Views of Architecture, Monuments, and Other Sites in France” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Located next to the palace of Louvre, the Tuileries is the site of a palace and royal residence with a large garden originally built for Catherine de Medici in 1564. During the reign of Louis XIV, the celebrated landscape gardener André Le Nôtre (1613–1700) laid out the basic features of the garden, which included a grand allée that ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Luxembourg Palace, Paris, France
This photochrome print of the Palais du Luxembourg is part of “Views of Architecture, Monuments, and Other Sites in France” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). This palace, which today is the seat of the French Senate, was built between 1615 and 1620 by the French architect Salomon de Brosse (1571–1626) on the site of an older palace, the Hotel du Luxembourg. According to the 1900 edition of Baedeker's Paris and its Environs, with routes from London to Paris: Handbook for Travellers, the palace “bears ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Arc de Triomphe, de l'Etoile, Paris, France
This photochrome print of the Arc de Triomphe is part of “Views of Architecture, Monuments, and Other Sites in France” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Standing at one end of the Champs-Elysées, the Arc de Triomphe was commissioned by Napoleon I to honor the French army. Construction began in 1806, but was halted after the Bourbon restoration of 1815. It was resumed in the 1830s by King Louis-Philippe and completed in 1836. The three architects associated with the project were Jean Chalgrin (active 1806-11), L. Joust ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Arch of Peace, Milan, Italy
This photochrome print of the Arch of Peace (Arco della Pace) in Milan is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Italy” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). This 23-meter marble structure stands in the Piazza Sempione, at one end of the Simplon Road, the strategic route through the Alps taken by Napoleon I when he invaded northern Italy in 1800. Napoleon later commissioned the arch to commemorate his victories. Construction began in 1806 under the direction of the architect Luigi Cagnola (1762–1833), but ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Fountain of Trevi, Rome, Italy
This photochrome print of the Trevi Fountain (Fontana di Trevi) is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Italy” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The fountain, 26 meters long by 20 meters wide, stands against the south side of the Palazzo Poli, a Baroque palace that was altered by Luigi Vanvitelli (1700–73) to accommodate the fountain and serve as its backdrop. The fountain dates back to ancient Rome, when this location was the terminal point for the Aqua Virgo aqueduct, which was commissioned ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Serbian Concert and Exhibition
This World War I poster advertises a concert and art exhibition to take place in Paris on June 17–18, 1916, for the benefit of Serbia. The poster depicts a classical female figure with a crown of thorns around her feet, presumably representing Serbia, and lists the officers and members of the organizing committee for the event. The president of the committee was Princess Alexis Karageorgevitch, a non-reigning member of the Serbian royal family. The Kingdom of Serbia suffered heavy military and civilian losses during the war. The European conflict ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Details of Milan Cathedral
This 1906 photo is of Milan’s great cathedral, Il Duomo di Milano, dedicated to Saint Mary Nascent and seat of the Archbishop of Milan. Begun in 1386, the cathedral—the largest in Italy—was formally completed only in 1965. Its primary style derives from the late French Gothic and displays extensive use of statuary and flying buttresses. This dramatic photograph, taken from the cathedral roof, shows buttresses on the south side decorated with crockets (on the upper edge of the buttresses) and a row of pinnacles (at the end ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Details of Milan Cathedral
This 1906 photo is of Milan’s great cathedral, Il Duomo di Milano, dedicated to Saint Mary Nascent and seat of the Archbishop of Milan. Begun in 1386, the cathedral—the largest in Italy—was formally completed only in 1965. Its primary style derives from the late French Gothic and displays extensive use of statuary and flying buttresses. This photograph, taken at the top of the cathedral roof, shows finials (spires) on the south (left) and north sides. The elaborate stonework of the finials includes profuse statuary culminating in figures ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Details of Milan Cathedral
This 1906 photo is of Milan’s great cathedral, Il Duomo di Milano, dedicated to Saint Mary Nascent and seat of the Archbishop of Milan. Begun in 1386, the cathedral—the largest in Italy—was formally completed only in 1965. Its primary style derives from the late French Gothic, with extensive use of statuary and flying buttresses. This dramatic photograph, taken from the cathedral roof on the south side, shows one of the buttresses decorated with crockets. The main structure (left) has attached statuary. In the right background is the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
In Monrepos Park in Vyborg
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Description of Egypt. Second Edition. Antiquities, Volume Two (Plates)
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he brought with him an entourage of more than 160 scholars and scientists. Known as the French Commission on the Sciences and Arts of Egypt, these experts undertook an extensive survey of the country’s archeology, topography, and natural history. A soldier who was part of the expedition found the famous Rosetta Stone, which the French linguist and scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) later used to unlock many of the mysteries that long had surrounded the language of ancient Egypt. In 1802 Napoleon authorized ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Savior in the Dungeon. A Carved Figure in the Assumption Church in the City of Cherndyn
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Corner of the Likanskii Palace
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
In the Borodino Museum. Borodino
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Two Carved Wooden Pictures of the Korchev District. In the Tver Museum
Tver is an ancient city (first mentioned in 1135) on the Volga River to the northwest of Moscow. Opened in 1866, the Tver Museum included works of art and crafts. In 1897 the museum was allocated space in the Imperial Transit Palace. Nationalized in 1918, the museum was given the entire Transit Palace in 1921. It remained there until World War II, when it was severely damaged during the German occupation of Tver in the fall of 1941. Seen here are two wooden panels with painted relief carving from the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
In the Borodino Museum. Borodino
On September 7, 1812, during the invasion of Russia by Emperor Napoleon I of France, Russian and French armies clashed on the Borodino battlefield, situated to the west of Moscow. Although the battlefield became a revered site already in the 1820s and the first major monument was unveiled in 1839, the first museum at Borodino was opened only in 1903 at the initiative of P. Bogdanovich, the Borodino stationmaster. The museum exhibits, such as these photographed in 1911, were originally housed in the railroad station. Visible here in arrangement on ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Two Carved Wooden Statues of Bearded Men with a Halos above Their Head, One Holds a Set of Keys, the Other a Book
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bust of Jesus
This bust of Jesus was photographed in the museum in Tver, an ancient city on the Volga River to the northwest of Moscow. The museum opened in 1866, and featured natural and archeological items of interest from the area as well as works of art, such as this marble bust of Christ. In 1897 the museum was allocated rooms in the Imperial Transit Palace. In 1918 it was nationalized and granted state protection. In 1921 it was allotted the entire space of the Transit Palace, where it remained until World ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Decorative Items on Display Including a Candelabra, Boxes, and a Carved Animal Sculpture
Tver is an ancient city on the Volga River to the northwest of Moscow. Opened in 1866, the Tver Museum displayed natural and archeological items of interest from the Tver region, as well as works of art. Shown in this 1910 image are a bronze candelabra, a bronze vessel (with spout) in the form of a lion, and enameled snuff boxes. In 1897 the museum was allocated space in the Imperial Transit Palace (Putevoi dvorets). Nationalized and granted state protection in 1918, the museum was given the entire space of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Description of Egypt. Second Edition. Antiquities, Volume One (Plates)
When Napoleon Bonaparte invaded Egypt in 1798, he brought with him an entourage of more than 160 scholars and scientists. Known as the French Commission on the Sciences and Arts of Egypt, these experts undertook an extensive survey of the country’s archeology, topography, and natural history. A soldier who was part of the expedition found the famous Rosetta Stone, which the French linguist and scholar Jean-François Champollion (1790-1832) later used to unlock many of the mysteries that long had surrounded the language of ancient Egypt. In 1802 Napoleon authorized ...
Contributed by Bibliotheca Alexandrina
Museum: Entrance Hall, II, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print of the Musée National des Antiquités Algériennes in Algiers is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The museum, which opened in 1897, was described in the 1911 edition of Baedeker’s The Mediterranean, seaports and sea routes: Handbook for Travellers as containing “the finest collection of the kind in Algeria.” The print depicts the museum’s entrance hall, holding part of the collection of ancient columns and sculpture. The hall shows the fine decorative architectural ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Interior of Governors Palace, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print of the governor’s palace in Algiers is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The palace, Dar Hassan Pacha, was described in the 1911 edition of Baedeker’s The Mediterranean, seaports and sea routes: Handbook for Travellers as having been “one of the latest specimens of Moorish-Turkish architecture in Algeria; but it has been entirely remodeled to suit its present purpose and has been provided with a new façade.” Pasha Hassan, finance minister to the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress