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Region Between Amazon River and São Paulo
This pen-and-ink watercolor map shows the course of the Amazon River, including its minor tributaries and the towns located along its banks. Although much of the area along the Amazon was controlled by indigenous people through the early colonial period, settlers established towns along the riverbanks to support trade and exploration into Brazil’s interior. The largest of these towns was Belem, which appears on the map.
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
History of the Expedition Under the Command of Captains Lewis and Clark: To the Sources of the Missouri, thence Across the Rocky Mountains and down the River Columbia to the Pacific Ocean
This account of the Lewis and Clark Expedition, published in 1814, is based on the detailed journals kept by Captains Meriwether Lewis and William Clark, the leaders of expedition. The book begins with “Life of Captain Lewis,” written by Thomas Jefferson, which reproduces Jefferson’s detailed instructions to Lewis regarding the goals of the expedition. “The object of your mission is to explore the Missouri River, and such principal streams of it, as, by its course and communication with the waters of the Pacific Ocean, whether the Columbia, Oregan [sic ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Map in Which the Rivers on Argentina, Parana and Paraguay are Described Most Exactly for the First Time, When a Beginning was Made by the New Colony as Far as the Mouth of the Jauru River
This atlas of colonial South America is by Miguel Antonio Ciera. A noted mathematician and professor of astronomy at the University of Coimbra in Portugal, Ciera was part of an expedition sent to demarcate the border between Spanish and Portuguese holdings in South America following signature of the 1750 Treaty of Madrid and the 1756 Guarani War. The atlas focuses on the southern part of the continent, in the watershed of the Paraná River, where the borders were most disputed. The territory in the atlas includes present-day Argentina and Paraguay ...
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
Syr Darya Oblast. City of Khodzhent. Aerial View of District Mazar-Khadzhi-Baba with Syr Darya River in the Background
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Syr Darya Oblast. Kara Tiube, near Kazalinsk
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Syr Darya Oblast. Crossing via the Syr Darya River
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Syr Darya Oblast. Ferry Crossing the Syr Darya at the City of Chinaz
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Syr Darya Oblast. Ferry on the Arys River
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Irtysh River, Ferry Crossing at Bol'sherech'e, Russia
This photograph of the Irtysh River at Bol'sherech'e was taken in 1999 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. The Irtysh, one of Siberia's mighty rivers, is in fact a tributary of the still greater Ob' River. The Irtysh originates in the extreme northwest part of China, near the Mongolian Altai Mountains. Over its length of 4,248 kilometers, it passes through Kazakhstan and western Siberia before its confluence with ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Zeravshan District. Village of Sudzhin. Mount Ravat
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Illustrated Work on the Storage and Drainage Activities at the Lakes and Rivers of the Yellow River and the Grand Canal
This work was originally in the Qing imperial collection. The painting of the work was executed in an exquisite manner. A title at head of the work reads: Huang Yun hu he zong tu (The overall map of the lakes and rivers of the Yellow River and the Grand Canal). The work depicts Dajiang (the Yangtze River) in the south up to the borders of Shandong, Henan, and Jiangnan in the north. It has detailed scenes of the tributaries, harbors, and bridges of the lakes and rivers, followed by two ...
Contributed by
National Central Library
The Administrative Maps of the Ming Dynasty (Incomplete Copy)
The author of this work was Chen Zushou (died 1637), a late-Ming literary author. A native of Yanling (present-day Changzhou, Jiangsu Province), Chen Zushou received his jin shi degree in 1634 and became, in the following year, an official at the Bureau of Operations, one of the four bureaus in the Ministry of War. In 1636, while working at the ministry, he wrote this book, based on a large number of earlier works and contemporary local records, including maps. The original edition, very rich in content, had three juan in ...
Contributed by
National Central Library
Shamsher Bridge and Masjid, Kabul
This photograph of Shah-do-Shamsher Bridge and the Shah-do-Shamsher Masjid (mosque) in Kabul is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Shah-do-Shamsher means “king of two swords” in Dari. Shamsher Bridge crosses the Kabul River, which is the main waterway through the city. Except during the summer, the flow of the river is minimal. An Afghan soldier overlooks the river with the bridge in the background, while several people take shelter from the sun in the shadows of a nearby building ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Kabul River, Old Bridge, Bala Hissar in the Distance
This photograph of the Kabul River and one of five bridges that crossed the river at the time is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The river, a tributary of the Indus, is seen running through the center of the photograph. Soldiers stand atop the bridge, while people walk along the road in the distance. In the right foreground people sit or squat on the bridge; behind them soldiers ride by on horseback. Bala Hissar (High Fort) is in ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
An Afghan Water Mill in Afghanistan
This photograph of an Afghan water mill is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The mill, rectangular shaped with a thatched roof, was probably operated on a part-time basis by the family pictured in the photograph. The water mill is a traditional design with a small horizontal mill-house built of stone, or perhaps mud bricks. The men look directly at the camera, but a woman wearing a chador partially screens her face for modesty. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Bridge Across the Indus at Attock
This photograph of a pontoon bridge across the Indus River is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Pontoon bridges such as this one, formed from boats lashed together by various materials, were easily assembled and disassembled. This pontoon bridge was built near the town of Attock in Punjab Province, in present-day Pakistan, and likely was used by the British Army to ferry supplies and troops across the Indus. Laborers, fishermen, travelers, soldiers, and pack animals are seen in the ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress
Kichu River West of Lhasa
This view of the Kichu River, west of Lhasa, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The Kichu River is also called Kyii ch'u, KyiI, and Kyi-chu in other sources. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian for ...
Contributed by
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries
Lhasa, Yu-tog zamba, a Bridge at the Entrance to Lhasa
This photograph showing the Yu-tog zamba, a stone bridge at the entrance to Lhasa, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The bridge (which is called Yutok jampa and the Bridge Yu-tok in other sources) is located on the way from Lhasa to Potala (the palace of the Dalai Lama). It is covered with glassed blue tiles, but the name means the “turquoise roof bridge.” In Journey to Lhasa and ...
Contributed by
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries
Kichu River in its Lower Course
This view of the lower course of the Kichu River is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The Kichu River is also called in other sources Kyii ch'u, KyiI, and Kyi-chu. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. Accompanying the photos is a set of notes written in Russian ...
Contributed by
University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee Libraries
Map of the Bay of Benguela and the Cantonbelle River
This map of the Bay of Benguela, on the coast of present-day Angola, is by the French cartographer Jacques-Nicolas Bellin (1703-72). Trained as a hydrographer, Bellin was attached to the French Marine Office and specialized in producing maritime maps showing coastlines. In 1764, he published Le Petit Atlas Maritime (Small maritime atlas), a work in five volumes containing 581 maps. Bellin’s maps were in the tradition of Sanson and de L’Isle, and placed great emphasis on scientific accuracy rather than on artistic beauty for its own sake.
Contributed by
National Library of Brazil
The Helmund River
The Helmand River (also seen as Helmund) rises in the mountains of east-central Afghanistan west of Kabul. It flows 1,150 kilometers through southwestern Afghanistan and a small part of Iran before emptying into the Helmand (Sīstān) swamps on the Afghan-Iranian border. This map of the river was prepared for a paper presented by Sir Clements Robert Markham (1830–1916) to the Royal Geographical Society in London in February 1879. The paper and the map were published in the March 1879 Proceedings of the society. Markham was a British geographer ...
Contributed by
Library of Congress