- War posters (7)
- World War, 1914-1918 (7)
- Emigration and immigration (6)
- League of Nations (5)
- Memory of the World (5)
- Soldiers (4)
- Kosovo, Battle of, 1389 (3)
- Politics and government (3)
- Serbs (3)
- Boat people (2)
- Bridges (2)
- Drina River (Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia) (2)
- Economic conditions (2)
- Fund raising (2)
- Nansen International Office for Refugees (2)
- Passports (2)
- Polish people (2)
- Rivers (2)
- Treaties (2)
- War bonds and funds (2)
- War relief (2)
- Allegory (1)
- Arbitration (International law) (1)
- Cubans (1)
- Disarmament (1)
- Discrimination (1)
- Economic development (1)
- Hitler, Adolf, 1889-1945 (1)
- Icons (1)
- Jews (1)
- Liberty (Symbolic character) (1)
- Lithographs (1)
- Mariel Boatlift, 1980 (1)
- Mary, Blessed Virgin, Saint (1)
- Mothers and children (1)
- Nationalism (1)
- Nazis (1)
- Our Lady of Częstochowa (Icon) (1)
- Oxen (1)
- Petar I Karađorđević, King of Serbia, 1844-1921 (1)
- Prisoners of war (1)
- Sailboats (1)
- Seashore (1)
- Territorial questions (1)
- War damage (1)
Type of Item
Passport Request, Nansen Office in Berlin
The Nansen International Office for Refugees was authorized by the League of Nations in the fall of 1930 and began active operations on April 1, 1931. It was the successor to the first international agency dealing with refugees, the High Commission for Refugees, established in June 1921 by the League of Nations under the direction of the Norwegian explorer and statesman Fridtjof Nansen (1861–1930). The League Secretariat had assumed responsibility for international refugees and stateless persons and charged the Nansen office with carrying out its responsibilities in this area ...
Nansen Passport with Stamps
The Nansen passport was a certificate issued by the Nansen International Office for Refugees as an international substitute for a passport, which allowed stateless persons or those deprived of their national passports to enter and transit other countries. The Nansen office was the successor to the first international agency dealing with refugees, the High Commission for Refugees, established in June 1921 by the League of Nations under the direction of the Norwegian explorer and statesman Fridtjof Nansen (1861–1930). The League Secretariat had assumed responsibility for international refugees and stateless ...
Convention on the International Status of Refugees
This document is the original typewritten text of the Convention on the International Status of Refugees, which was concluded on October 28, 1933, by five countries—Belgium, Bulgaria, Egypt, France, and Norway—and subsequently adhered to by a number of others. The convention was the most far-reaching attempt on the part of the League of Nations to define the responsibilities of states towards refugees. It grew out of four multilateral League arrangements that were adopted between 1922 and 1928 in response to refugee problems caused by World War I and ...
The League of Nations: A Pictoral Survey
The League of Nations: A Pictoral Survey is a small book, published in 1925 by the Information Section of the League Secretariat and updated in 1928, intended to educate the general public about the nature and purpose of the League. It explains the organizational structure of the League and its main institutions—Assembly, Council, and Permanent Secretariat—and associated bodies such as the International Labour Organisation and the Permanent Court of International Justice. A flow chart on page nine shows the relationship between the executive and legislative bodies of the ...
Letter of Resignation of James G. McDonald, High Commissioner for Refugees (Jewish and Other) Coming from Germany
James G. McDonald was an American diplomat who in October 1933 was appointed by the Council of the League of Nations to be high commissioner for refugees (Jewish and other) coming from Germany. His mandate was to “negotiate and direct” the “international collaboration” necessary to solve the “economic, financial and social problem” of refugees from Germany. McDonald held this position for more than two years. He resigned in December 1935, having concluded that the “conditions in Germany which create refugees have developed so catastrophically that a reconsideration by the League ...
Haitian Refugee Boat on the Beach at the Naval Station Key West
This image, taken by Key West photographer Cory McDonald in the 1970s, shows one of countless vessels abandoned by “boat people” from Haiti after they completed the perilous journey to the United States. An accompanying note indicates that the boat had had 52 people on it, and that the photograph was taken at sunrise after a nighttime arrival. Since the beginning of the François Duvalier (“Papa Doc”) regime in 1964, political and economic pressures drove many Haitians out of their country and to the United States. The United States Immigration ...
Cuban Refugee Breaks Down Upon his Arrival at Key West, Florida from Mariel, Cuba During the Mariel Boatlift
The Mariel Boatlift was a mass exodus of Cubans from Mariel Port on the island of Cuba to Florida between April and November 1980. Departure by boat was permitted by the Castro government after several years of improving relations between Cuba and the United States under President Jimmy Carter, a period that coincided with a severe downturn in the Cuban economy. Perhaps as many as 125,000 Cubans made the journey to Florida on overcrowded craft of varying size and seaworthiness. Political opinion in the United States began to turn ...
Dawn after Darkness!
This 1918 poster is one of a series of six lithographs by artist Alexander Oscar Levy (1881–1934) made toward the end of World War I. These lithographs celebrated the U.S. victory and commemorated the sacrifices made by the U.S. armed forces during the war. This poster shows the allegorical figure of Liberty leading troops to victory; in the foreground are German prisoners of war and refugees. The text of a separate poster advertising the set of prints declared: “This tribute to our American heroes who made the ...
Serbia Day. June 25, 1916
This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1916, depicts a scene in late 1915 from the Serbian theater of the war, in which the remnants of the Serbian army and accompanying civilian refugees were forced across the borders into Montenegro and Albania. Invading forces from Austria-Hungary and Germany had pushed deep into Serbia, where they occupied the capital city of Belgrade. One of the major engagements of the campaign took place at Kosovo, the scene of a battle in 1389 between a medieval Serbian army and an invading ...
Serbia Day. June 25, 1916
This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1916, shows a group of Serbian civilians and soldiers as they head into the mountains. When invading forces from Austria-Hungary and Germany pushed into Serbia in 1915, they occupied the capital city of Belgrade, and drove the remnants of the Serbian army and accompanying civilian refugees across the borders into Montenegro and Albania. One of the major engagements of the campaign took place at Kosovo, the scene of a battle in 1389 between a medieval Serbian army and an invading Ottoman ...
Serbia Day, June 25, 1916. Anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo
This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1916, depicts a scene in late 1915 from the Serbian theater of the war, in which the remnants of the Serbian army and accompanying civilian refugees were forced across the borders into Montenegro and Albania. Invading forces from Austria-Hungary and Germany had pushed into Serbia, where they occupied the capital city of Belgrade. One of the major engagements of the campaign took place at Kosovo, the scene of a battle in 1389 between a medieval Serbian army and an invading Ottoman ...
Polish Victims' Relief Fund. Most Holy Virgin of Częstochowa Help Us
This World War I poster, published in Britain in 1915, shows refugees outside a devastated town, gazing up at an apparition of Our Lady of Częstochowa. The text appeals for donations to help victims of the fighting in Poland. When the war broke out, Poland was part of the Russian Empire. Russia, at war with Germany, invaded the German enclave of East Prussia from Polish territory in August 1914, but after initial successes, was defeated at the August 26–30 Battle of Tannenberg. Germany and its ally Austria-Hungary launched an ...
This is What the Polish Emigrants Look Like
This 1919 poster was produced as part of the campaign to convince ethnic Germans in Upper Silesia to vote to keep the province German after World War I. The poster appeals to German voters by depicting destitute ethnic Germans leaving Poland. The complete text reads: “This is what the Polish emigrants look like, and you'll look like this too if Silesia becomes part of Poland. Upper Silesians! Stay with the new Germany!” Located in present-day southwestern Poland, Upper Silesia was originally a Polish territory that over the centuries passed ...
The Polish Victims' Relief Fund
This World War I poster, published in Britain in 1915, shows refugees with children, carrying their possessions as they flee past a burning village. The text appeals for contributions to the Polish Victims' Relief Fund with the words: “The homeless women and children of Poland are far, but need they be far from your hearts? Pray help us to help them!” The honorary secretary of the fund is listed as Miss Laurence Alma Tadema, the daughter of the painter Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema (1836–1912). Poland was part of the Russian ...