60 results in English
Paranaguá
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Porto de Don Pedro II Station, Kilometer 2200
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Alexandra Station, Kilometer 15
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Morretes Station, Kilometer 40.900
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paraná Railway
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Photographs of the Jing-Zhang (Beijing-Zhangjiakou) Railway Construction
Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction) is an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio of Shanghai. The construction had three phases: the first line, from Fengtai to Nankou, was completed in September 1906. The second line, from Nankou to Kangzhuang, was ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Russian Royal Family at Borodino, 1912
This photograph shows Tsar Nicholas II (1868−1918) and Tsarina Alexandra Fedorovna (1872−1918) with their daughters and other notables, walking on the train platform after arriving at Borodino Station on the occasion of the 100th anniversary of the Battle of Borodino. The second individual from the right is Baron Vladimir Borisovich Frederiks (1838−1927), a minister of the imperial court who was close to Nicholas II. During Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812, Russian and French armies clashed on the Borodino battlefield, situated to the west of Moscow ...
Nova Friburgo Train Station
The Thereza Christina Maria collection is composed of 21,742 photos assembled by Emperor Pedro II (1825-91) throughout his life and donated by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a wide variety of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and Brazilians in the 19th century and also includes many photographs of Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows the train station at Nova Friburgo, which was part of the Cantagalo Railroad that linked the city of Porto das Caixas in Itaboraí state with the ...
Gare d'Auteuil
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Minas and Rio Railway, Brazil: Cruzeiro Station
The Minas and Rio Railway, also known as the Rio Verde Railway, was opened for traffic on July 14th, 1884, in the presence of Emperor Pedro II (1825–91), his daughter Princess Isabel, and her husband, Prince Gastão de Orléans, conde d’Eu. The British-owned and constructed line ran from Cruzeiro in the interior of the state of São Paulo, across the Mantiqueira Mountains, and through cities and towns in the southern part of the state of Minas Gerais as far as Três Corações do Rio Verde. The line played ...
Minas and Rio Railway, Brazil: Passa Quatro Station, at Kilometer 34
The Minas and Rio Railway, also known as the Rio Verde Railway, was opened for traffic on July 14th, 1884, in the presence of Emperor Pedro II (1825–91), his daughter Princess Isabel, and her husband, Prince Gastão de Orléans, conde d’Eu. The British-owned and constructed line ran from Cruzeiro in the interior of the state of São Paulo, across the Mantiqueira Mountains, and through cities and towns in the southern part of the state of Minas Gerais as far as Três Corações do Rio Verde. The line played ...
Mudawarah Castle (In Turkish, Müdevereh) on the Old Pilgrim Road. First Station in Arabia, 562 Kilometers from Damascus, 734 Meters above Sea Level. Beginning of the Sand Plain of North Arabia
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Al-ʻUlā. Hejaz Railroad Terminal for Europeans, 980 Kilometers from Damascus, 684 Meters above Sea Level. Bedouin (Shammar) Gendarmerie. 1915
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Abyār Naṣīf. Fastening Station of the Hejaz Railroad, 74 Kilometers North of Medina, 489 Meters above Sea Level. 1910
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Medina. Central Station in Front of the West Gate
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Medina. Freight Train Depots and Workshops
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Guang'anmen Railway Station, Beijing
This photograph is not titled, but the inscription on the facade of the railway station reads, “Beijing Guang'anmen (also seen as Kuanganmen) Station.” The smaller Chinese characters along the right side read, “Summer of the Bingwu year (1906) of Guangxu reign,” and the characters on the left side read, “Written by Chen Zhaochang.” Chen (1867–1914) was designated by the Chinese government as the general manager for the General Railway Bureau and the Railway Engineering Bureau. Seen inside the station is an office, with a sign (written in Chinese ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Train Yard at the Xizhimen Gate
This photograph shows the train yard located at Xizhimen Gate, one of the city gates of old Beijing. On the left stands a locomotive engine; the four letters on its body, “P.M.B.L.,” indicate that this is a foreign model with high horsepower. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Xizhimen Station
This photograph shows the Xizhimen Railway Station, located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The sign visible on the facade of the station reads, "Beijing Xizhimen Station Hsichihmen." Four guards and an official stand in front of the station. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Qinghe Station
This photograph has no title, but the sign on the facade of the station reads, “Qinghe Station Chingho.” The smaller Chinese characters along the two sides read: “Summer of the Bingwu year (1906) of Guangxu reign,” and “Inscription by Chen Zhaochang.” Chen (1867–1914) was designated by the Chinese government as the general manager for the General Railway Bureau and the Railway Engineering Bureau. Seen inside the station is an office, with a sign (written in Chinese and English) indicating that this is the telegraph department. The photograph is from ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Shahe Station
This photograph has no title, but it shows the Shahe Station, located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The sign on the station facade, written in Chinese and in transliteration, states the station name. The smaller Chinese characters appearing along the two sides of the sign read: “Summer of the Bingwu year (1906) of Guangxu reign,” and “Inscription by Chen Zhaochang.” Chen (1867–1914) was designated by the Chinese government as the general manager for the General Railway Bureau and the Railway Engineering Bureau. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Nankou Station
This photograph has no title, but it depicts the new Nankou Station, located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The sign on the facade of the station reads, “Nankou Station, Nankou.” The smaller Chinese characters read: “Summer of the Bingwu year (1906) of Guangxu reign,” and “Inscription by Chen Zhaochang.” Chen (1867–1914) was designated by the Chinese government as the general manager for the General Railway Bureau and the Railway Engineering Bureau. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Construction Site of the New Dongyuan Railway Station
This photograph shows the scene of the construction site of the Dongyuan railway station, located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The station building is constructed in the same style as the Juyongguan and Sanbao stations. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Construction Site of the New Railway Switches at the Juyongguan Pass Station
This photograph shows a construction site at the railway station of Juyongguan Pass, located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line, and near the Great Wall of China. The construction crew seen here is working on new railway switches. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Qinglongqiao Station
This photograph has no title, but it shows the front of the station at Qinglongqiao, located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. On the facade of the station is an inscription reading, "Qinglongqiao Station." The line of Chinese characters on the right reads “Autumn of the Wushen year  (1908) of Guangxu reign,” and on the left, “Inscription by Guan Xianjun.” The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly ...
Contributed by National Library of China
A Distant Southwest View of the Qinglongqiao Train Yard
This photograph shows a distant view of the train yard at Qinglongqiao Station, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. In the foreground is a construction site and railway workers. In the background are high mountains and the Great Wall of China. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese ...
Contributed by National Library of China
A Panoramic View from the West of the Number 39 Bridge of the Qinglongqiao Train Yard
This photograph shows a view of a bridge along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line, seen from the west. The bridge was located at the train yard of Qinglongqiao. In the far background is a chain of mountains. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs ...
Contributed by National Library of China
A Panoramic View from the East Entrance of the Qinglongqiao Train Yard
This photograph shows a view seen from the east entrance of the Qinglongqiao train yard along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. High mountains are on the right and left and in the distant background. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album ...
Contributed by National Library of China
South View of Two Trains, Passing in the Two Directions, on the West Side of the Qinglongqiao Station
This photograph shows two trains traveling along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line, on the west side of Qinglongqiao Station. The train in the foreground is a freight train. The second train is a passenger train, with the section directly following the locomotive carrying freight. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Railway Switches at the Xibozi Station Stockpile Processing Yard
This photograph shows railroad switches at the stockpile processing yard of Xibozi Station, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. Railroad switches are connecting devices that allow switching from one line to another so that trains can turn in another direction safely and smoothly. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Xibozi Station
This photograph shows the incomplete construction of Xibozi Station, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. Rail workers are gathered alongside the tracks. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Kangzhuang Station
This photograph has no title, but it shows a view of the station at Kangzhuang, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The inscription on the facade of the station reads,: “Kangzhuang Station, in the Wushen year  (1908) of Guangxu reign, inscription by Guan Xianjun.” The remainder of the inscription is illegible. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first ...
Contributed by National Library of China
The Kangzhuang Station Engine House and Water Tower
This photograph shows a view of the engine house and the water tower at Kangzhuang Station, located along the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by the Tongsheng Photo Studio ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Piraquara Station, Kilometer 87.350
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Paranaguá to Curitiba Railway. Paraná Province: Curitiba Station
The Paranaguá to Curitiba line of the Paraná Railway in Brazil was constructed between 1880 and 1884. The work was divided into three parts: Paranaguá−Morretes, Morretes−Roça Nova, and Roça Nova−Curitiba. The construction team was headed by the engineer João Teixeira Soares. The construction marked a milestone in Brazilian engineering, as it involved crossing the coastal Serra do Mar. A British writer gave this description of the line in 1917: “The summit is reached at 3122 feet [952 meters] after a 40-km. rise…. The track of 1-metre gauge ...
Picturesque Map of Havana with House Numbers
José María de la Torre y de la Torre (1815-73) was a Cuban geographer, archaeologist, historian, and educator. De la Torre’s 1849 Plano Pintoresco de La Habana con los números de las casas (Picturesque map of Havana with house numbers) has great importance from a geographic point of view. The map shows the names of the streets, house numbers, promenades, fortifications, and public buildings, and the division of the city by neighborhoods. The scale is in varas castellanas (Castilian yards, an old unit of measurement that varied with time ...
Quebec and Lake Saint-John Railway: Lake Saint-Joseph Railroad Station
This image is part of a collection of 91 photographs taken between 1887 and 1890 by the Livernois Photography Studio of Quebec City. The photographs depict the development and economic expansion of the Saguenay Fjord and Lake Saint-John region of the province of Quebec at the end of the 19th century. Much of this growth was associated with the building of the new railroad system. The photographs show railroad construction, fishing, tourism activities, as well as various locations in Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean, including the village of Roberval. Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean is a vast area ...
Quebec and Lake Saint-John Railway: Railroad Station at Lake Édouard
This image is part of a collection of 91 photographs taken between 1887 and 1890 by the Livernois Photography Studio of Quebec City. The photographs depict the development and economic expansion of the Saguenay Fjord and Lake Saint-John region of the province of Quebec at the end of the 19th century. Much of this growth was associated with the building of the new railroad system. The photographs show railroad construction, fishing, tourism activities, as well as various locations in Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean, including the village of Roberval. Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean is a vast area ...
Quebec and Lake Saint-John Railway: Chambord Junction
This image is part of a collection of 91 photographs taken between 1887 and 1890 by the Livernois Photography Studio of Quebec City. The photographs depict the development and economic expansion of the Saguenay Fjord and Lake Saint-John region of the province of Quebec at the end of the 19th century. Much of this growth was associated with the building of the new railroad system. The photographs show railroad construction, fishing, tourism activities, as well as various locations in Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean, including the village of Roberval. Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean is a vast area ...
Paul Kruger Street, Pretoria, South Africa
This photograph shows Paul Kruger Street, looking south towards Pretoria Station, Pretoria, South Africa, as it appeared around 1910. The railroad station was the work of Sir Herbert Baker (1862-1946), a British-born architect who designed many important buildings in South Africa. The street was named in honor of Paul Kruger (1825-1904), the president of the South African Republic (Transvaal) who led the resistance of the Afrikaans-speaking Boers to Britain in the Boer War of 1899-1902. The photograph is from the Van der Waal Collection at the Department of Library Services ...
Pretoria Station, South Africa, 1893
This photograph shows the arrival of the first train at Pretoria Station, Pretoria, South Africa, in 1893. Railroad construction in South Africa was spurred by economic development associated with the gold mining industry, following the discovery of gold near present-day Johannesburg in 1886. Pretoria, at the time the capital of the South African Republic, was connected by rail to Cape Town in 1893, and to Durban and Lourenço Marques (in the then-Portuguese colony of Mozambique) in 1895. The photograph is from the Van der Waal Collection at the Department of ...
Ladva Station on the Murmansk Railroad. Unevenness of the Railway
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress