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Fortress of Dio: Plans of Plazas and Forts of Portuguese Possessions in Asia and Africa
This drawing shows the fortress of Diu, located on an island off the northwest coast of India. In 1509, the Portuguese defeated the forces of the Sultan of Gujarat in the Battle of Diu, thereby securing dominance over trade routes in the Indian Ocean. Construction of this fortress-garrison complex began in 1535, under an agreement with the sultan, but the agreement fell apart and the sultan’s troops attacked the fort in 1537. The fortress was reconstructed in 1545 by João de Castro (1500-48), a Portuguese naval commander and the ...
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National Library of Brazil
Fortress of Chaul: Plans of Plazas and Forts of Portuguese Possessions in Asia and Africa
This drawing shows the fortress of Chaul, one of Portugal’s defense complexes along the western coast of India. The Portuguese first settled at Chaul in 1521 and constructed a fort, which was rebuilt several times. The structure shown in this drawing most likely is the one built in 1613, which featured expanded defense works.
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National Library of Brazil
Fortress of Ormuz: Plans of Plazas and Forts of Portuguese Possessions in Asia and Africa
This drawing shows the Portuguese fort at Ormuz, located on the Persian Gulf island of Hormuz. In its heyday, Ormuz was one of the most important ports in the Middle East, controlling trading routes between India and East Africa. Before coming under Portuguese control in the early 1500s, Ormuz was a city-state that flourished as an independent kingdom. Its prime location along trade routes made it one of the wealthiest cities in the world. The Portuguese controlled the city and its port from 1515 until 1622, when they were expelled ...
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National Library of Brazil
Map of the Whole of Guiana or the Savage Coast, and the Spanish West Indies at the Northern End of South America
This 18th-century Dutch map, produced in Amsterdam by the publisher Isaak Tirion (circa 1705–circa 1769), shows the northern coast of South American and its offshore islands, including Curaçao, Bonaire, and neighboring islands; Trinidad and Tobago; and Grenada. Guiana is divided, from west to east, into Spanish, Dutch, and French sections, corresponding roughly to a part of present-day Venezuela and present-day Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. The territory to the south of Guiana, in present-day Brazil, is labeled as Portuguese. Three scales are given in the main map: French and ...
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Columbus Memorial Library, Organization of American States
Portuguese Possessions in Oceania
This book by Affonso de Castro, an infantry captain in the Portuguese Army who served as governor of East Timor (present-day Timor-Leste) from 1859 to 1863, is one of the earliest historical studies of this former Portuguese colony. The work is in two parts. The first part examines the history of East Timor from its occupation by the Portuguese in the 16th century, and recounts Queen Mena's conversion to Christianity and the disputes with the Dutch over the region. In the second part of the study, the author examines ...
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Library of Congress
A Philosophical and Political History of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies
A Philosophical and Political History of the Settlements and Trade of the Europeans in the East and West Indies is a six-volume translation, published in London in 1798, of the ten-volume Histoire philosophique et politique des établissemens et du commerce des Européens dans les deux Indes by Guillaume-Thomas-François (1713–96), also known as Abbé Raynal. Educated by the Jesuits and ordained as a priest, Raynal left the clergy and became a journalist. He published the first edition of Histoire des deux Indes in 1770, which he expanded in editions of ...
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Library of Congress
Map of the Fortress of Mozambique with New Works Projected for Better Defense
This manuscript map shows the fortress of San Sebastian on the Island of Mozambique, a small but strategic island off the coast of the African mainland. The fortress was built in the 16th century by the Portuguese, who developed the island into a major trading port. The structure was constructed in an Italianate style out of local materials, and incorporated an intricate system of collecting rainwater, needed to compensate for the island's lack of fresh water. This map was drawn in 1741, as the Portuguese were planning a renovation ...
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National Library of Brazil