28 results in English
The Crown Jewel
This manuscript of Durrat al-tāj (The crown jewel) is a Shiite prayer book, consisting of prayers to be said when making a visitation to the tomb of Caliph ʻAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (circa 601−61). ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib is one of the most revered religious and holy figures of Islam. His honorary name, Amīr al-Mu‘minīn, translates from Persian as the “prince of the believers.” Written works by ‘Alī ibn Abī Ṭālib and sayings attributed to him are sacred to the Shiite faithful, particularly among Persian speakers. The ...
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Natives of Ziarat-e-Hazratji
This image of a group of people at a Muslim shrine is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ziarat generally means “visit” in Arabic, but here it refers specifically to religious pilgrimage sites found across the Middle East and North Africa and visited by Muslims of all persuasions. The remains of great religious teachers or members of bāyt ʻAlī (the family of ʻAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, the fourth Muslim caliph) are buried in such shrines. This monument to Hazratji ...
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Images from Mecca
Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca) by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of absence to go to Jeddah and Mecca to ...
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View of the Mosque, While Congregational Salat Are Being Held inside
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
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The Tomb of Sittanā Mèymūnah and the Camp of Meccan Pilgrims
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
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Second View of the Camps of the Mèymūnah Pilgrims
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Third View of the Same Camps of the Mèymūnah Pilgrims; in the Background the Road Winds toward Mecca
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Western Part of the Mina Valley, Which Stretches from West to East, during the Great Annual Pilgrimage Gathering
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Eastern Part of the Mina Valley
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Pilgrimage Station Muzdal'fah, Situated between Mina and 'Arafah
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mount 'Arafah during the Annual Pilgrimage Gathering (Seen from the South)
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Eastern Side of Mount 'Arafah
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Western Side of Mount 'Arafah
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pilgrims Camp in the Plain East of Mount 'Arafah
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ascent to Success: Commentary on the Light of Clarity
Maraqi al-Falah Sharh Nur al-Idah (Ascent to success: Commentary on the light of clarity) is a handbook for worship according to the Hanafi legal tradition by Egyptian legal scholar Hasan al-Shurunbulali (1585 or 1586-1659). The work, frequently reprinted, is a comprehensive guide to the rituals prescribed by Abu Hanifa (699−767), the founder of the Hanafi school of Islamic law. Topics such as ritual purity, fasting, and pilgrimage are covered in great detail. Hanafi jurisprudence is the predominant tradition in Central and South Asia, Turkey, and many other regions. Al-Shurunbulali ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Pilgrimage to the Caaba and Charing Cross
Hafiz Ahmed Hassan was an Indian Muslim, treasurer and advisor to the nawab of Tonk, Muhammad ‘Ali Khan (died 1895). Tonk was a principality in northwest India and is today part of the state of Rajasthan. When the nawab was deposed in 1867, the author accompanied him into exile, going first to Benares and then, in 1870, to the Muslim holy cities on pilgrimage. After completing the hajj, Hafiz proceeded to England where he spent a short time before returning to India. The focus of the book is his travel ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Medina. Al-ʻAnbarīyah or al-Rashādīyah, the Main Street of the Western Neighborhood. Right, Egyptian Pilgrims House. Left, Barracks
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
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Medina. Procession of the Maḥmal (Holy Carpet) through al-Manākha Square. 1914
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mecca. Bāb ʻAlī, Gate of the Holy Mosque at the East Corner; the Zamzam House is Visible through the Middle Door
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mecca. View of the Holy Mosque from the East Minaret. In the Foreground is the Zamzam House with the Kaaba Behind
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Movement of the Pilgrims through the Muna Valley to the Plain of Arafat. The Walled-In Pillar is the So-Called Second Satan (al-Jamrat al-Wusṭá)
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Camp of the Pilgrims on the Plains near Arafat
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
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Travels in Arabia: Comprehending an Account of those Territories in Hedjaz which the Mohammedans Regard as Sacred
John Lewis Burckhardt (1784−1817) was born Johann Ludwig Burckhardt in Lausanne, Switzerland. His accounts of his travels in the Middle East in the early 19th century are among the earliest modern European descriptions of Syria, Arabia, Egypt, and Sudan. Upon finishing university studies in Switzerland, he went to England to enroll in Cambridge University, where he studied Arabic and Islam in order to prepare himself for a career as an explorer-adventurer. As his acquaintance Muhammad ‘Ali Basha, ruler of Egypt, said of his adventurism, he possessed the “travelling madness ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Arab Hajji, Probably in Batavia
This carte-de-visite photograph depicts an Arab in the Dutch colonial capital of Batavia (present-day Jakarta) preparing for the hajj. The Arabs in Southeast Asia generally were from the area of Hadramaut in the southern part of Arabia. During the 19th century, the number of Arabs immigrating to Asia increased, but they remained tied to their homeland and often used the wealth acquired in their new homes to finance projects in Arabia. Despite sharing their Muslim faith with native Indonesians, Arabs maintained separate communities, particularly during the colonial period. The photograph ...
Manifestations of Goodness
Dalā’il al-Khayrāt (Manifestations of goodness) is a manuscript by Abu Abdullah Muḥammad ibn Sulaymān al-Jazūlī, a Moroccan Sufi and Islamic scholar who died in 1465. The contents of this work are known to Muslims as one of the best compilations of litanies of peace and blessings upon the Prophet Muhammad. The book was often given to pilgrims on their voyage to Mecca. The beginning of the manuscript shows the varied names by which Allah is called, and several pages portray the names by which the Prophet Muhammad is ...
Shibaura
The term ukiyo-e, literally “pictures of the floating world,” refers to a genre of Japanese artwork that flourished in the Edo period (1600–1868). As the phrase “floating world” suggests, with its roots in the ephemeral worldview of Buddhism, ukiyo-e captured the fleeting dynamics of contemporary urban life. While being accessible and catering to “common” tastes, the artistic and technical details of these prints show remarkable sophistication, their subjects ranging from portraits of courtesans and actors to classical literature. Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849) was a prolific artist and woodblock printer ...
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Moslems Worshipping the Shrines Sacred to Islam, Mecca, Arabia
This photograph of a scene in Mecca, present-day Saudi Arabia, is from the Frank and Frances Carpenter Collection at the Library of Congress. Frank G. Carpenter (1855–1924) was an American writer of books on travel and world geography, whose works helped to popularize cultural anthropology and geography in the United States in the early years of the 20th century. Consisting of photographs taken and gathered by Carpenter and his daughter Frances (1890–1972) to illustrate his writings, the collection includes an estimated 16,800 photographs and 7,000 glass ...
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Hajj Directions
This line of text reads: Annahu la yastalim ila al-hajar al-aswad wa-al-rukn al-yamani (He does not permit [it] except [at] the Black Stone and the Yemenite Corner). It appears that this text comprises a fragment of a pilgrimage guide or prescriptive text that states that, during tawaf (ritual circumambulation), touching or kissing the Kaaba only is permitted at the Black Stone and the Yemenite Corner (the southeast corner). Certain prayers and supplications also are particular to those two corners of the Kaaba. The line of text is executed in a ...
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