11 results in English
Codex Vergara
Codex Vergara is an Aztec cadastral document, drawn up in 1539 by the Spanish conquerors of Mexico, on behalf of the king of Spain, in order to facilitate the collection of taxes from the native population. The document records the landholdings of the Aztec villages of Calcantloxiuco, Topotitlan, Patlachiuca, Teocatitla, and Texcalticpac. These villages and their locations and sizes are represented on the document. The first seven pages show the genealogy of the families of landowners and their connections to the various plots of land. In the upper-left corner of ...
Codex of Mexican History from 1221 to 1594
This manuscript is an 18th-century copy of an original that has since been lost. It recounts the history of Mexico from 1221 to 1594. Among other events, it mentions the mythical discovery of Tenochtitlan (forerunner of Mexico City) by Cuauhcohuatl and the death of Emperor Moctezuma (also seen as Montezuma). The document is in Nahuatl, the main language of the indigenous population of Mexico. The copy was made in Mexico on paper imported from Europe, most likely by Father José Antonio Pichardo (1748−1812), who created many other copies of ...
Codex Azcatitlan
This manuscript, known as the Codex Azcatitlan, most likely dates from only a few years after the arrival of the Spanish in Mexico. It recounts the history of the Aztecs (also known as the Mexica), including their migration to Tenochtitlan (forerunner of present-day Mexico City) from Aztlán, the ancient or mythical birthplace of Aztec civilization. The codex depicts the succession of Aztec rulers, the arrival of Spanish troops headed by Hernán Cortés, and the introduction of Christianity. Of all the known manuscripts recounting Aztec history, the Codex Azcatitlan is probably ...
Codex Ixtlilxochitl
Codex Ixtlilxochitl is a ritual calendar that presents all the main ceremonies and holidays that were celebrated at the great teocalli, the terraced pyramid of Tenochtitlan (forerunner of present-day Mexico City) during the Mexican year. The Aztec calendar consisted of two systems. This codex presents the Xiuhpohualli (the first, or solar, calendar) of 365 days, divided into 18 months of 20 days, plus an additional period of five empty or unlucky days at the end of the year, called the Nemontemi. The manuscript begins with the first month of the ...
Matrícula de Huexotzinco
Matrícula de Huexotzinco is a census of the villages in the province of Huexotzinco (also seen as Huejotzingo). This very large document originally was comprised of more than 440 folios, six of which have since been lost. The census is divided into three parts: a text in Spanish introducing the census, the pictorial census, and an analysis in Spanish of the results. Each part starts with a page containing the glyph of the village name, followed by a registry of all married men, the elderly, widows and widowers, the sick ...
Aubin Tonalamatl
The Aubin Tonalamatl is a pictorial codex that reads from top to bottom and from right to left. It originally included another two folios that have since been lost. The Tonalamatl (bark paper [or book] of the days) was used by Aztec priests in a divination ritual. Tonalli means “day” and amatl refers to paper made from the inner bark of trees of the genus Ficus. The work contains a religious calendar of 260 days, the Tonalpohualli, which was used as a ritual and daily devotional for the celebration of ...
Codex Mexicanus
Codex Mexicanus is an oblong-shaped manuscript that contains calendrical and astrological information, some of which is related to the practice of medicine. The manuscript shows signs of wear, probably because this small-format book would almost always have been carried in the pocket of its owner. The first eight pages contain a series of circles within which letters of the Latin alphabet have been inscribed, most likely designating the days of the month. Images of Catholic saints and apostles also are included. The book includes a history of the Aztecs, or ...
Chavero Codex of Huexotzingo
The Chavero Codex concerns economics and taxation. It is written in Latin characters and contains 18 plates of glyphs and numerical counts using the Mesoamerican system of numbers and measurement, with variations that originated in the region of Huexotzingo (in present-day Puebla, Mexico). The codex is a part of the documentation of a judicial proceeding in the royal court, initiated by the community of Huexotzingo against indigenous officials accused of levying unjust and excessive taxes. The officials, responding to a questionnaire, describe the different taxes paid by the 21 districts ...
Customs of the Tribes in Taiwan
This album of twelve paintings is a record of the land and people of the island of Taiwan more than a hundred years ago. The surfaces of the paintings are somewhat rough and unfinished, but they show people farming, hunting, and going about their everyday lives and are thus an important resource for the study of the history of Taiwan. The album contains a preface in English by Arthur William Hummel (1884-1975), an American missionary to China and Sinologist who from 1928 to 1954 was the first head of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Depictions of Metals, Minerals, Insects and Plants
Jin shi kun chong cao mu zhuang (Depictions of metals, minerals, insects, and plants) was painted by Wen Shu (1594–1634), a great-great-granddaughter of Wen Zhengming (1470–1559), one of the greatest Ming dynasty painters, calligraphers, and scholars. Married to Zhang Jun, also a painter, and residing in Hanshan, Wen Shu was surrounded by nature and excelled in painting birds, flowers, plants, insects, and butterflies. She spent a number of years copying thousands of illustrations from books of traditional Chinese medicine in the imperial collection. Zhang Jun’s handwritten preface ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Painting of the Governor, Mayors, and Rulers of Mexico
This 16th-century pictographic manuscript, written in Mexico, contains the declarations of the defendants and witnesses in an investigation into charges of misrule and abuse against Viceroy Don Luis de Velasco and other Spanish authorities in New Spain, as Mexico was then called. The investigation was carried out in 1563–66 by Don Jeronimo de Valderrama, who was sent to Mexico for this purpose by order of Philip II of Spain. The people and their statements are represented through pictographs, followed by an explanation in Nahuatl and Castilian Spanish for the ...
Contributed by National Library of Spain