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Map of the City and Bay of Cartagena de las Indias
This hand-colored pen-and-ink manuscript map was drawn by Antonio de Ulloa (1716–95) in 1735, based on an earlier map by Juan de Herrera dating from around 1721. It shows in great detail the bay of Cartagena de Indias and the adjacent coastal area of the present-day city of Cartagena, Colombia. The territory was then part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada in the Spanish Empire. The map is oriented by a compass rose with north pointing to the left. Longitude is set in relation to the Royal Astronomical Observatory ...
A Hydrographical and Chorographical Chart of the Philippine Islands
This magnificent map of the Philippine archipelago, drawn by the Jesuit Father Pedro Murillo Velarde (1696–1753) and published in Manila in 1734, is the first and most important scientific map of the Philippines. The Philippines were at that time a vital part of the Spanish Empire, and the map shows the maritime routes from Manila to Spain and to New Spain (Mexico and other Spanish territory in the New World), with captions. In the upper margin stands a great cartouche with the title of the map, crowned by the ...
General Atlas of All the Islands in the World
Islario general de todas las islas del mundo (General atlas of all the islands in the world) is the greatest work by Seville cosmographer Alonso de Santa Cruz (1505–67). The atlas was begun during the reign of Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V and finished in that of his son King Philip II, to whom it was dedicated. It consists of 111 maps representing all the islands and peninsulas of the world, and showing all the discoveries made by European explorers from 1400 to the mid-16th ...
Atlas of Joan Martines
This manuscript atlas by Joan Martines, cosmographer to King Philip II of Spain, dated 1587, represents the combination of two cartographic schools that existed at the time of its creation. The older one was the traditional school of Majorca, which specialized in decorative portolan maps that by this time were obsolete with regard to the geographic information they conveyed. The newer one was the cartographic school of the Low Countries, which applied Renaissance principles and used different forms of cartographic representation based on new concepts in astronomy, mathematics, and geography ...
Spherical Map That Shows the North of the Santo Domingo Island and the Eastern Part of Canal Viejo of Bahamas
This early-19th century Spanish naval map shows the eastern Caribbean, from the northern coasts of Hispaniola (present-day Haiti and the Dominican Republic) and Cuba to the Bahamas. The map was engraved by Fernando Selma (1752-1810), a well-known Spanish engraver who produced not only maps, but also portraits of notable Spaniards.
Map of the Brazilian Coast, Which Goes from Santa Ana Island to the Joatinga, Copied from a Portuguese Map and Printed on January, 1785
This Spanish map showing part of the Brazilian coast is a copy of an earlier Portuguese map. The inset map in the upper left shows the harbor of Rio de Janeiro.
Map of the Persian Gulf
This map of the Persian Gulf is by the French cartographer Jacques-Nicolas Bellin (1703−72). Qatar is shown as Catura. Cities on both the Arabian and Persian sides of the gulf are indicated, and the map shows a river emptying into the gulf at the port of Julfar (present-day Ra's al-Khaymah, United Arab Emirates). The scale is in common leagues, and there are no latitudinal or longitudinal lines. Trained as a hydrographer, Bellin was attached to the French Marine Office and specialized in producing maritime maps showing coastlines. His ...
A Chart of the Gulf Stream
This map, from the Peter Force Map Collection at the Library of Congress, was created by the Philadelphia engraver James Poupard. It was the third in a series featuring a chart of the Gulf Stream. The latter was well known to Spanish ship captains, who relied on it to sail from the Americas to the Iberian Peninsula, but there were no universal charts or maps due to Spanish secrecy. This map originally was sketched by Timothy Folger, a Nantucket fisherman and a cousin of Benjamin Franklin, who conceived the map ...
Memoir and Notice Explanatory of a Chart of Madagascar and the North-Eastern Archipelago of Mauritius
Robert Townsend Farquhar (1776–1830) entered the service of the British East India Company at a young age, served at various posts in India and the Moluccas (in present-day Indonesia), and in 1810 became governor of Mauritius, which Britain had conquered from France in the Napoleonic Wars. He commissioned a detailed map of Mauritius and neighboring Madagascar, with the objective of promoting British trade in the region. The map is the work of Jean-Baptiste Lislet-Geoffroy (1755–1836), the son of a French father, an engineer employed by the Compagnie des ...
Description of the Coasts, Points, Harbours and Islands of New France
This portolan-style chart on vellum was compiled by Samuel de Champlain (1567-1635), the founder of New France, and was originally intended for presentation to the King of France. One of the great cartographic treasures of America, the map offers the first thorough delineation of the New England and Canadian coasts from Cape Sable to Cape Cod, showing Port Royal; Frenchman's Bay; the St. John, St. Croix, Penobscot, and Kennebec Rivers; and Mount Desert Island, which Champlain himself named. The place names and coast line correspond closely to Champlain's ...
Coastal Map of China
This coastal map of China is one of several such maps in the Library of Congress. The map is similar, in content and format, to the six maps in Chen Luntong’s Hai quo wen jian lu (Eyewitness accounts of the coastal regions), made in 1730. The wording of several place-names and other details suggest that this map dates from 1787–1820. An introductory text states that it was compiled in the interest of coastal defense. The scroll map contains hundreds of place-names and is intended to be read from ...
Portolan Atlas of the Mediterranean Sea, Western Europe, and the Northwest Coast of Africa
Portolan charts came into use on sailing vessels in the Mediterranean Sea toward the end of the 13th century. Made for and, in many cases, by seamen, these nautical maps were characterized by the system of intersecting loxodromes, or rhumb lines, which crisscross each chart and the ornamented compass rose that usually appears. This atlas of five manuscript charts has been attributed to Juan Oliva, a member of the illustrious Oliva family of Catalan chartmakers who began working in Majorca some time before 1550. The atlas was compiled no earlier ...
Nautical Chart of the Mediterranean Basin
This portolan nautical chart, of Catalan origin, illustrates the coastal areas of the Mediterranean Sea with a wealth of detail, with toponyms of the inhabited areas shown without regard to political-territorial divisions. Nautical charts came into use on sailing vessels in the Mediterranean toward the end of the 13th century, coinciding with much broader seafaring activity and exploration. These charts supplemented the written instructions, or portolanos, which had been used for several centuries and thus were called portolan charts. The main centers of production for these charts were Spain and ...
A Map of the World
While under nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact during the Edo period (1600-1868), the Japanese people still maintained a curiosity in foreign cultures. World maps in particular are indications of how the Japanese perceived their country and its position in the international community. Many were published in the port city of Yokohama and popularized for both informational and entertainment purposes. This map, a woodcut dating from the second half of the 19th century, depicts an enormous archipelago representing Japan at the center of the world. Images of a Russian ...
The West-India Pilot, Containing Piloting Directions for Port Royal Harbour in Jamaica, in and out through the Kays ...
Captain Joseph Smith Speer was an English mariner who spent many years in Central America and the Caribbean. He created detailed maps and guides based on his personal experiences. In 1766, he published The West-India Pilot, containing 13 maps and detailed navigational instructions for passage between Caribbean ports. An expanded edition with 26 maps appeared in 1771. Speer’s instructions to mariners were practical and straightforward. They pointed out hazards to be avoided, such as rocks and shallow waters, and advised captains on how to sail and anchor along the ...
Mediterranean Sea Region 1569
This portolan chart by the prominent Italian cartographer and engraver Paolo Forlani is the first sea chart engraved and printed on copperplate. Forlani was born in Verona but flourished in Venice in 1560–74. Most of his maps appeared under the imprint of other publishers, including Giovanni Francesco Camocio, Ferrando Bertelli, and Bolognini Zaltieri in Venice and Claudio Duchetti in Rome―members of the Lafreri school of cartography, some of whose printing plates were still used well into the 17th century. Nominally a map of the Mediterranean Sea region, the ...
Variations of the Compass for the Year 1925
The annotation on this map reads, “Used in laying out route for flight from San Diego to St. Louis to New York to Paris, 1927” and is signed C.A. Lindbergh. The map bears the official stamp: “CORRECTED THROUGH NOTICE TO MARINERS NO 25 JUNE 19’26 HYDROGRAPHIC OFFICE NAVY DEPARTMENT.” Charles Lindbergh (1902–74) was the American aviator who made the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean on May 21–22, 1927. Because Lindbergh relied on the dead-reckoning method of navigation, this map would have been useful ...
Great Circle Sailing Chart of the North Atlantic Ocean
Charles Lindbergh (1902–74) was the American aviator who made the first nonstop solo flight across the Atlantic Ocean on May 21–22, 1927. This is the chart with the gnomonic projection that he referred to as the “nugget of gold” that he found in a shop in San Pedro, California, while preparing for his transatlantic flight. It was this chart that enabled Lindbergh to determine quickly and accurately the great circle latitudes and longitudes as he plotted his course. The annotation on the map reads, “Used in laying out ...
North Atlantic Ocean: Northeastern Sheet [portion]
This is one of four charts held at the American Geographical Society Library that the American aviator Charles Lindbergh (1902–74) used to plan his historic transatlantic flight. Lindbergh was an airmail pilot who, in 1926, learned of the $25,000 prize for the first nonstop flight between New York and Paris. Backed by a group of businessmen in St. Louis, Missouri, Lindbergh had a special plane built, which he named The Spirit of St. Louis in honor of his supporters. On May 21–22, 1927, Lindbergh achieved the first ...
Book on Navigation
Originally composed in 1525 and dedicated to Sultan Süleyman I (the Magnificent), this great work by Piri Reis (died circa 1555) on navigation was later revised and expanded. Born in about 1470 in Gelibolu (Gallipoli), Piri Reis became an Ottoman admiral, geographer, and cartographer. The present manuscript, made mostly in the late 17th century, is based on the later expanded version and has some 240 exquisitely executed maps and portolan charts. They include a world map with the outline of the Americas (folio 41a) and maps of coastlines, with bays ...
This work is an illuminated and illustrated maritime atlas, referred to as the Walters Deniz atlası. It is one of the earliest Ottoman atlases, tentatively dated to around the mid-16th century. The work contains eight double-page charts executed on parchment. Four of the maps show the Mediterranean, Aegean, and Black seas. There is also a world map and a chart of the Indian Ocean. The various geographical names are written in black nasta‘līq script. A distinguishing feature of this atlas is the detailed approach to representing such features as ...