210 results in English
The Uganda Journal, Volume I, Number 1, January 1934
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
Syr Darya Oblast. Basmandinsk Gorge near Ura Tiube
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan Okrug. City of Pandzhikent. Part of the City, Kurgan Miana
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan District. City of Urgut. Section of the City Bordering the Khodzha Dag Mountain Range
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan District. City of Urgut. Allayaran Mountains
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan District. Village of Bakhriin near the Kara Tiube Gorge
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zeravshan Okrug. Village of Sudazhin, View from the Mountain of Ravat
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Landscape and Notes on Shading and Perspective
This sketch showing a landscape with mountains, farm buildings, and a European man is from a set of 27 drawings on 15 sheets that was discovered in the National Library of South Africa in 1986. The drawings are important for presenting the earliest realistic depictions of the Khoikhoi people, the original inhabitants of the Western Cape. The artist most likely was a Dutchman, born in the 17th century, who was attached in some capacity to the Dutch East India Company and possibly en route to the Dutch East Indies or ...
Jamrūd Fort near the Khyber
This photograph of Jamrūd Fort is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The three tribesmen in the foreground of the picture wear loose tunics, longi (turbans), and dōpâta (shawls) and carry jezails (long heavy muskets). The fort is located at the eastern entrance to the Khyber Pass (in present-day Pakistan), the strategically important pass through the Hindu Kush mountain range along the historic Silk Road that in the 19th century linked British India and Afghanistan. It was the site ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Jamrūd Fort, Another View
This photograph of Jamrūd Fort is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The fort is located in present-day Pakistan at the east entrance to the Khyber Pass, the strategically important mountain pass through the Hindu Kush mountain range along the historic Silk Road that in the 19th century linked Afghanistan with British India. It was the site of a major battle between the Sikh and Durrani Empires in 1836–37. Even though the fort appears to be in disrepair ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ali Masjid and Surroundings
This photograph of Ali Masjid is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ali Masjid is a small shrine located at the narrowest point in the Khyber Pass, to the east of the city of Landi Kotal. The shrine is dedicated to ʻAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (circa 600–661), nephew and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad and one of the first converts to Islam. Above the shrine sits a fort, at the highest point of the pass (visible atop the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ali Masjid and the British Camp, 1878
This photograph of the British camp at Ali Masjid is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ali Masjid is located in the narrowest part of the Khyber Pass, and was the first location captured by General Sir Samuel Browne (1824–1901) on his march with the Peshawar Valley Field Force towards Kabul at the start of war. The battle took place on November 21, 1878. Browne’s victorious British and Indian troops faced the Afghan army and tribesmen led ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Gorge Below Ali Masjid
This photograph of the gorge below Ali Masjid is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ali Masjid is located at the narrowest point in the Khyber Pass and contains a shrine to ʻAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (circa 600–661), the nephew and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, one of the first converts to Islam and held to be particularly holy for his being born inside the Kaaba at Mecca. The fortress above the shrine was built in 1837 by ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Ali Masjid from Below
This photograph of Ali Masjid is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Ali Masjid is located at the narrowest point in the Khyber Pass. It contains a shrine to ʻAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib (circa 600–661), the nephew and son-in-law of the Prophet Muhammad, and a fortress built in 1837 by the Afghan amir, Dōst Mohammad Khān (1793–1863). The shrine and fort are located in extremely rugged terrain overlooking a deep gorge. The figures in the foreground, one ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Landi Kotal
This photograph of Landi Kotal is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Landi Kotal is a small town at the western edge of the Khyber Pass that traditionally marks the entrance to Afghanistan. It is the highest point along the pass. Pictured here is the encampment of the 12,000-strong Peshawar Valley Field Force, under General Sir Samuel Browne (1824–1901), as it crossed the Khyber Pass on the march towards Kabul at the start of the war. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Landi Kotal Pass
This photograph of the Landi Kotal Pass is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Pictured are members of the Queens’s Own Madras Sappers and Miners of the Peshawar Valley Field Force inspecting the new road through the Khyber Pass that was constructed by the British during their march to Kabul at the start of the conflict. British forces had to travel through the Landi Kotal Pass to reach Jalālābād, the first major town on the Afghan side of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Buddhist Tope at Sphola
This photograph of the Buddhist tope (stupa) above the Afghan village of Sphola, about 25 kilometers from Jamrūd, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. This ruined stupa features a dome resting upon a three-tiered base. Sphola sits in a ravine located midway between Ali Masjid and Landi Kotal in the Khyber Pass. The stupa may have been constructed towards the end of the Kushan Empire or soon after (third to fifth centuries). It is the most complete Buddhist ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Suffain Koh Panorama
This panoramic photograph of the Suffain Koh or Safed Koh (meaning White Mountain) range is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The Safed Koh range reaches up to 4,671 meters, creating a natural border between eastern Afghanistan and northwestern Pakistan. A range of smaller hills runs across the middle distance of the photograph, while the Safed Koh looms behind them. The British military camp can be seen stretching across the plain in the foreground. The Second Anglo-Afghan War ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
From the Khyber to Shuttugardun
This photograph of a rocky landscape beneath the Safed Koh range is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The caption mentions “Shuttugardun,” which is probably a reference to Shotur Gardan (meaning camel’s neck), a small town in Kandahar Province. The Safed Koh range dominates the background, while in the foreground signs of agricultural activity are visible. The right side of the photograph shows a receding layer of short stone walls. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Panorama of an Afghan City
This panoramic photograph of an unidentified Afghan city is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The city is in the middle frame, flanked on both sides by rocky hills, and with mountains rising in the distance. The right frame shows a sentry tower atop a hill and a man with his mule stopping for rest beneath it. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what it saw as growing Russian influence in Afghanistan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kabul River, Old Bridge, Bala Hissar in the Distance
This photograph of the Kabul River and one of five bridges that crossed the river at the time is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The river, a tributary of the Indus, is seen running through the center of the photograph. Soldiers stand atop the bridge, while people walk along the road in the distance. In the right foreground people sit or squat on the bridge; behind them soldiers ride by on horseback. Bala Hissar (High Fort) is in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Panorama of the Bala Hissar
This panoramic photograph of the Bala Hissar (High Fort) in Kabul is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The British envoy to Kabul, Sir Pierre Louis Napoleon Cavagnari (1841–79), was murdered inside the fort in September 1879, triggering a general uprising and the second phase of the war. The Kōh-e Shēr Darwāzah (lion door) Mountain rises behind the fort, while the ancient walls with battlements and sentry towers trail off into the distance on both sides. The fortress ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Camp on Shagai Heights
This photograph of the British camp on the Shagai Plateau is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The ascent to the Shagai Plateau begins shortly after the entrance to the Khyber Pass from the southeast (at Peshawar, in present-day Pakistan). The encampment of the conical tents of the Peshawar Valley Field Force stretches off into the horizon. The camels seen among the tents were used by the British and Indian troops to transport supplies and equipment. Smaller hills in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kohat Pass
This photograph of Afridi tribesmen at the Kohat Pass is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The Kohat Pass links the town of Kohat with Peshawar further to north. The pass is the home territory of the Pashtun Afridi tribe, who were regarded by the British authorities as a strongly independent and “warlike” tribe. The Afridi men shown here are observing the photographer, who might have been John Burke. He was rejected as an official photographer but accompanied the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Elephant Battery on the March
This photograph is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Elephants were commonly used as shock cavalry in the front lines of military campaigns throughout South and Southeast Asia until the end of the 19th century, when the introduction of advanced artillery and Gatling guns made them vulnerable to enemy fire. The British Indian Army, like their Mughal imperial predecessors, used war elephants to transport large quantities of cargo, but the main advantage of the elephant in late-19th-century military tactics ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kandahar from Hazratji Tomb
This photograph of Kandahar, taken from the Hazratji Tomb, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Located north of the center of the city and surrounded by the tombs of 19th-century Afghan rulers, the tomb is a shrine to Hazratji, a famous Kandahari saint. That his tomb is seven meters long attests to his reputation for holiness. The other tombs have tall marble stones at each end and are decorated with black and white pebbles. The photograph shows the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Plain, North and East of Kandahar
This photograph of a plain located northeast of Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Foothills are visible in the distance. The buildings and other objects in the photograph are not identified, but the irregular pillars could well be tombstones. The Second Anglo-Afghan War began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what it saw as growing Russian influence in Afghanistan, invaded the country from British India. The first phase of the war ended in May 1879 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kandahar from Signal Tower
This photograph of Kandahar from the vantage point of a signal tower is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. A section of the city wall starts at the right side of the photograph and stretches out of sight into the left background. The unusually shaped mountain shrouded by haze in the back right holds the Chilzina, a chamber hewn out of the rock that was part of the old Kandahar citadel, accessed by the "Forty Steps" carved in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Chilzina, or the Forty Steps
This photograph of the Chilzina and the "Forty Steps" is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The Chilzina is a chamber carved from the mountain rock that was part of the old citadel of Kandahar, built by the first Mughal emperor, Ẓahīr al-Dīn Muḥammad Bābur (1483–1530), in the early 16th century. Inside the chamber near the summit, reached by forty steps, are Persian inscriptions detailing Bābur's conquests in India and elsewhere in Asia. A battle between Amir ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Baba Wali Kotal
This photograph of Baba Wali Kotal is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The village and pass of Baba Wali were named for a Kandahari holy man whose tomb was nearby. The place was the site of a major battle outside Kandahar in September 1880, between Afghan forces led by Ghazi Mohammad Ayub Khan (1857–1914) and British and Indian forces under Sir Frederick Roberts (1832–1914). The British defeated Ayub Khan, raising his siege of the city and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Panorama of Kandahar
This expansive panoramic view of Kandahar is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Panoramic photographs employ a variety of techniques to create a wide angle of view. This panoramic view is comprised of five photographs set together to give the viewer a broader image than would have been possible with a single photograph. The city of Kandahar is seen in the two photo panels on the right, with British troops, horses, and tents in the foreground. The Chilzina (a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Views of Great Tibet
These handwritten notes accompany a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society on August 2, 1904. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O.M.) Norzunov, who visited Tibet in 1900 and 1901. The notes were written in Russian for the Imperial Russian Geographical Society by Tsybikov, Norzunov, and other Mongolians familiar with central Tibet. Alexander Grigoriev, corresponding member of the American Geographical Society, translated ...
Lhasa from the East
“Lhasa from the East” is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In the background and nearly in the center of this photograph is the "iron mountain" Ch'agpori (also seen as Chagpori, Chiakpori, Chapori, Chakpori, Chaga, or Chag-pa hill in other sources) with the Man-ba Ta-ts'an (also seen as Man-bo-datsang or Vaidurya Ta-tsan), where Tibetan medicine was taught. On the right in the photograph is the hill Marpori with ...
Sera Monastery
This general view of Sera monastery from the south is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The monastery consists of very high buildings, with three gilded temples. The 1899 edition of The Buddhism of Tibet or Lamaism by L.A. Waddell states that it is called "Ser-ra, or the 'Merciful Hail.' It is said to have been so named out of rivalry to its neighbour, 'The rice-heap' (De-pung), as hail ...
Tibetan Women
“Tibetan Women” is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The photograph shows two Tibetan women of the lower class, walking barefoot, carrying loads on their backs. W.W. Rockhill, in his 1890 edition of Tibet, states: "Tibetan women are robust and the men weak, and one may frequently see women performing in the place of their husbands the socage services which the people owe. As a consequence (of the superior ...
Lhasa, Royal Monastery of Tengye-ling from Southeast
This view from the southeast of the Royal Monastery of Tan-gye-ling (also seen as Tangia Ling, Tangye-ling, or Tan gye Ling in other sources) is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. Tan-gye-ling was the monastic palace of Demu-khutuktu (also known as Demohutuktu), the late regent. In the distance are the “iron mountain,” Ch'agpori (also Chagpori, Chiakpori, Chapori, Chakpori, Chaga, or Chag-pa hill) on the left and the Dalai Lama ...
Lhasa, Chagpori (Iron Mountain) from Northwest
This northwestern view of Ch'agpori, the “iron mountain” (also seen as Chagpori, Chiakpori, Chapori, Chakpori, Chaga, or Chag-pa hill in other sources), is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. Houses are visible along the ridge. In his 1890 edition of Tibet, W.W. Rockhill writes: “Houses in Tibet are generally several-storied stone buildings, all the rooms of a storey being of equal size, the largest ones on the middle ...
Lhasa, Amban's Yamen (Residence of Chinese Official) from Southeast
This view of the residence of the Amban (a Chinese official), seen from the southeast, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. The duty of the Amban, according to J. Deniker in his 1903 article “New light on Lhasa, the forbidden city,” was “to watch over the Dalai Lama, the latter being nominally under subjection to China.” Deniker notes that the “house is a very modest dwelling, surrounded by walls ...
Lhasa, Ruins of Donkar-jong Castle
This view of the ruins of Donkar-jong castle on a hillside is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. According to the photographer’s notes, Donkar is a village on the route from Lhasa to Tashi-lhumpo (also seen as Tashi-lhunpo in other sources), about five miles (eight kilometers) to the west of Lhasa. The photographs in this collection were taken by two Mongolian Buddhist lamas, G.Ts. Tsybikov and Ovshe (O ...
Lhasa, Chja shi tan, Fortified Chinese Camp
This view of Ch’ja shi tan, a fortified Chinese camp (also seen as Chja shi tan in other sources), is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. According to the photographer’s note, Ch’ja shi tan was a fortified camp of the Chinese garrison of Lhasa in the vicinity of the town Dabchi on A-K's plan of Lhasa. (“A-K” refers to Pandit Kishen Singh, a legendary explorer of ...
Yaks in the Pasture
This photograph, showing domesticated yaks in a Tibetan pasture with people nearby, is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. In his 1891 edition of The Land of Lamas, W.W. Rockhill writes of the Tibetans: "They are shrewd and enterprising traders, and able to hold their own even with the Chinese, to whom they sell large quantities of lambskins, wool, yak-hides, musk, furs (principally lynx and fox skins), rhubarb and ...
Samye Monastery
This southern view of the Samye monastery (also seen as Sam-ye or Sam-yai in other sources) is from a collection of 50 photographs of central Tibet acquired in 1904 from the Imperial Russian Geographical Society in Saint Petersburg by the American Geographical Society. G.Ts. Tsybikov wrote in his article “Journey to Lhasa” of 1904: “The Sam-yai monastery is on the left bank of the Brahmaputra, 67 miles south-east of Lhasa. It is the oldest in Tibet, having been founded in the ninth century. Its five-storied sume (temple), of which ...