40 results in English
Samarkand. Portion of Shir-Dar Minaret and Its Dome with Tillia-Kari
At the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, composed of three major monuments of the madrasah (religious school). Seen here is the Shir Dar Madrasah, built in 1619–36 during the Bukhara Ashtrakhanid dynasty. This view shows part of the main facade and imposing entrance arch, or iwan (on right), with a flanking minaret, behind which is a ribbed dome over an instruction hall. Despite structural damage, the ceramic work is relatively well preserved. The minaret displays geometric figures integrated with words in block Kufic script from the Kalima ...
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Tillia Kari from Ulugh Beg. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three major examples of the madrasah (religious school). The third of these, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646–60 on the site of a former caravansarai. Its basic plan is formed by a rectangular courtyard, shown here with two stories composed of arcades of pointed arches that frame rooms for scholars. Although much damaged, the facades are profusely decorated with intricate ceramic work in geometric and floral patterns. On the far left is a corner of the ...
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Study in Shah-i Zindah Mosque. Samarkand
The necropolis of Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) was revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Mohammad. Shown in this photographic detail (what the photographer called an “etude”) is apparently a structure known simply as the Octahedron, in the middle group of mausolea. Ceramic tiles decorate the surface both inside and out. Above the pointed arch are remnants of a floral pattern in faience. Visible through the doorway are red poppies in profuse bloom, which cover the hillside on which the Shah-i Zindah ensemble complex ...
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Mirza Ulugh Beg. Registan. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three examples of the madrasah (religious schools). The oldest component is the Ulugh Beg Madrasah, built in 1417–20 by the scholar King Ulugh Beg (1393?–1449; grandson of Timur). Shown here is the main facade with the great iwan arch at the entrance. The facade displays remnants of polychrome ceramic ornamentation, including panels of geometric and botanical motifs, and a vertical Perso-Arabic inscription band. The walls also display monumental geometric tile figures, within which are patterns of block ...
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Inside Shir-Dar Mosque. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The second madrasah is the Shir-Dar, was built in 1619–36 during the Bukhara Astrakhanid dynasty. Rectangular in plan, the two-story arcaded structure contained scholars’ cells along an interior courtyard. This view shows the northwest corner of the yard, with a ribbed dome over an instruction hall. Despite losses in this active seismic zone, the surface displays profuse ceramic decoration that includes geometric and botanical motifs, as well as a vertical Perso-Arabic inscription band. Visible ...
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Tillia Kari from Registan Square. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The third of these, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646–60 on the site of a former caravansarai. Its basic plan is formed by a rectangular courtyard, bounded by arcades that contain rooms for scholars. Although much damaged, the facades still show intricate ceramic decoration in geometric and botanical motifs, as well as panels with Perso-Arabic inscriptions above the door of each cell. The corner minaret displays geometric tile patterns with block Kufic ...
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Portion of Entrance Door on Right Side of Tillia-Kari. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, composed of three major examples of the madrasah (religious school). The third Registan component, the Tilla Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646–60 on the site of a former caravansarai. Shown here is the right half of an imposing entrance (on the building’s right side, according to caption), set within a peshtak (entrance arch). The door contains an inscription panel with cursive Perso-Arabic script and two panels of intricate wooden relief carving. The entrance is framed by tiles in a ...
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Inside Tillia Kari Courtyard. Detail on Right Side. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The third of these, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646–60 on the site of a former caravansarai. Its basic plan is formed by a rectangular courtyard, bounded by arcades that contain rooms for scholars. Although much damaged, the facades show profuse ceramic decoration in geometric and botanical motifs, as well as panels with Perso-Arabic inscriptions above the door of each cell. Seen here is a detail of a cell facade inside the ...
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View of Samarkand from Tillia Kari
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The third of these, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646–60 on the site of a former caravansarai. Its plan is formed by a rectangular courtyard, bounded by arcades that contain rooms for scholars. This view, taken from the two-story main facade, looks in the opposite direction from the square toward the adobe houses in the city. On the left is one of the four iwan arches that define the main axes of ...
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Detail of a Wall in Ulugh Beg (Interior). Samarkand
In the town center in Samarkand is the Registan complex, composed of three major examples of the madrasah (religious school). The oldest madrasah on Registan Square is named after the astronomer king Ulugh Beg (1393?–1449; grandson of Timur), who built it in 1417–20. During Ulugh Beg’s reign some 100 students attended this leading center of Islamic education. The ceramic panels shown here are from the courtyard niche of the great iwan arch. The delicate polychrome work includes faience tiles with intricate botanical figures. These are set within ...
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Detail of Ulugh Beg (to the Right of the Entrance). Samarkand
At the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, composed of three major madrasahs (religious schools). The oldest madrasah on Registan Square is named after the astronomer king Ulugh Beg (1393?–1449; grandson of Timur), who built it in 1417–20. During his reign some 100 students attended this center of Islamic education. Seen here is the upper part of the interior courtyard facade to the left of the main entrance arch. The courtyard was enclosed with two levels of recessed, arched bays that contained rooms for scholars. This view ...
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Detail of Shir-Dar (inside, to the Right of the Entrance). Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The second madrasah is the Shir-Dar, built in 1619–36 during the Bukhara Astrakhanid dynasty. Rectangular in plan, the two-story arcaded structure contained scholars’ cells along an interior courtyard. This view shows the remarkable ceramic decoration on the courtyard side of the main iwan arch. Panels of Perso-Arabic inscriptions in the cursive Naskh manner are set within strips of floral motifs. Especially notable is the faience mosaic in the center, with a vase supporting the ...
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Right Dome of Shir-Dar Mosque. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The second of these, the Shir-Dar Madrasah, was built in 1619–36 during the Bukhara Astrakhanid dynasty. This view from the interior courtyard parapet shows the ribbed dome over an instruction hall at the southwest corner. Despite losses in this active seismic zone, the surface displays lavish ceramic decoration that includes geometric and botanical motifs, as well as a horizontal Perso-Arabic inscription band. Uzbek craftsmen restored the ceramic tiles on the dome during the Soviet ...
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Wall and Column above Shir-Dar. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The second of these, the Shir-Dar Madrasah, was built in 1619–36 during the Bukhara Astrakhanid dynasty. This view from the parapet of the two-story structure shows a section of the side of the main facade, which contains the great iwan arch. The surface seen here is covered in geometric patterns formed by simple azure and blue glazed tiles. The attached column at the left corner displays geometric tile figures within which are patterns of ...
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On the Registan. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The second of these, the Shir-Dar Madrasah, was built in 1619–36. This view from Registan Square shows a group of turbaned mullahs and youths on the steps in front of the main facade, which contains the great iwan arch. (The left flank of the arch is brightly lit.) In the center is a large niche containing a partially blocked lattice window, with decorative panels containing floral and geometric figures on either side. Above the ...
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Rear of Shah-i Zindah Mosque. Samarkand
The Shah-i Zindah Necropolis is located at the outskirts of Samarkand (present-day Uzbekistan). Placed on an ancient burial ground, Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Mohammad. Shown here is the back facade of the domed Khodzha Akhmad Mausoleum built in the mid 14th century for a local spiritual leader. Located at the end of the necropolis in the northern cluster of shrines, this damaged monument contains bright ceramic work with floral, geometric, and inscriptional patterns. The walls of ...
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Outside View of the Passage of the Dead, from the Left. Samarkand
The Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) necropolis is located at the outskirts of Samarkand. Situated on an ancient burial ground, it is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. Although the photographer’s caption is imprecise, this view appears to show the northeast corner of a small madrasah built in 1812–13 by Davlat Kushbegi on the east side of the darvozakhana (main entrance) to Shah-i Zindah. The adobe brick wall on the left has glazed inserted ornaments. The corner is covered with polychrome ...
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Mosaics on the Shah-i Zindah Walls. Samarkand
The Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) necropolis is located at the outskirts of Samarkand. Situated on an ancient burial ground, it is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. Shown here is the facade of the peshtak (entrance arch) of the Shirin Bika Aga Mausoleum, built in 1385—86 for the younger sister of Timur (Tamerlane). Despite significant damage, the surface displays profuse ceramic ornamentation with Persian influence, including early examples of composite mosaics. Above the portal is an inscriptional panel in Thuluth cursive ...
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Mosaics on the Shah-i Zindah Walls. Samarkand
The Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) necropolis is located at the outskirts of Samarkand. Situated on an ancient burial ground, it is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. Shown here is the facade within the portal arch of the Tuman-Aka khanaka, built in 1405 near the Kusam-ibn-Abbas shrine as part of a memorial to the youngest wife of Timur (Tamerlane). The facade is distinguished by lively ceramic ornamentation with interlocking geometric patterns. At the center is a ten-pointed radiating star motif in faience ...
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Mosaics on the Shah-i Zindah Walls. Samarkand
Among the greatest examples of Islamic art in Samarkand is the Gur-Emir ("tomb of the ruler") complex. The shrine was begun by Timur (Tamerlane) in 1403 in memory of his grandson Muhammad Sultan. Following Timur's own death in 1405, his body was placed in the structure, which became the Timurid Mausoleum. It was completed by another of Timur's grandsons, the astronomer-king Ulugh Beg. Shown here is a facade detail within the arch of the main entrance structure. The rich polychrome ceramic work in a Persian style includes geometric ...
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Mosaics on the Shah-i Zindah Walls. Samarkand
The Shah-i Zindah (Persian for “living king”) necropolis is located at the outskirts of Samarkand. Situated on an ancient burial ground, it is revered as a memorial to Kusam-ibn-Abbas, a cousin of the Prophet Muhammad. Shown here is the portal of the mausoleum of Shadi-Mulk Aga, built in 1372 for the burial of Uldjai Shadi-Mulk, daughter of Tamerlane's elder sister Kutlug-Turkan-aga. The portal is set within a peshtak  (entrance arch), the facades of which display a remarkable array of ceramic work, including majolica tiles and rosettes, as well as ...
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Bibi-Khanym Mosque. Samarkand
The Bibi Khanym complex in Samarkand was built in 1399–1405 with the spoils of Timur’s (Tamerlane’s) campaign in India. Bibi Khanym was named in homage to Timur’s senior wife, Sarai Mulk Khanym. The rectangular courtyard centers on the Main, or Friday, Mosque, which is flanked by two enormous polygonal minarets. This view shows a portion of the left minaret and adjacent wall. Despite severe damage, resulting from an earthquake in 1897, much of the ceramic ornamentation remains. The surface of the tower shaft is composed of ...
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Portion of the Left Minaret. Bibi-Khanym. Samarkand
The Bibi Khanym complex in Samarkand was built in 1399–1405 with the spoils of Timur’s (Tamerlane’s) campaign in India. Bibi Khanym was named in homage to Timur’s senior wife, Sarai Mulk Khanym. The rectangular courtyard centers on the Main, or Friday, Mosque, which is flanked by two enormous polygonal minarets. This view shows a portion of the left minaret and adjacent wall. Despite severe damage, resulting from an earthquake in 1897, much of the ceramic ornamentation remains. The surface of the tower shaft is composed of ...
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Above Main Entrance to Bibi-Khanym. Samarkand
The enormous Bibi Khanym complex in Samarkand was built in 1399–1405 with the spoils of Timur’s (Tamerlane’s) campaign in India. Bibi Khanym was named in homage to Timur’s senior wife, Sarai Mulk Khanym. The rectangular courtyard of the complex centers on the Main, or Friday, Mosque. This view of the central entrance, set within the iwan (entrance arch) of the mosque, shows the effects of extensive damage, particularly after an 1897 earthquake, but much of the ceramic ornamentation remains, including cursive Perso-Arabic inscription bands and panels ...
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Bibi-Khanym. Detail of Northeast Side. Samarkand
This view shows part of the rich ceramic work on the northeast side of the main facade of the great mosque at the Bibi Khanym complex in Samarkand. Built in 1399–1405 by the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane) with the spoils of his campaign in India, the Bibi Khanym complex was the location of the city’s primary mosque, named in honor of Timur’s senior wife, Sarai Mulk Khanym. The complex centers on the Main, or Friday, Mosque, one of the largest in the Islamic world. Shown here is an ...
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Dome of the Gur-Emir Mosque from Eastern Side. Samarkand
Shown here is Gur-Emir ("tomb of the ruler") in Samarkand, the burial place of the great Timur (Tamerlane). Timur began building the shrine in 1403 in memory of his grandson Muhammad Sultan, who had founded a madrasah on this site in the late 14th century. Following Timur's own unexpected death from pneumonia in 1405, his body was also placed in the structure, which became the mausoleum of the Timurids. It was completed by another of Timur's grandsons, the astronomer-king Ulugh Beg. This view from the east side shows ...
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Detail of Gate from Left Side of the Interior. Gur-Emir. Samarkand
The majestic Gur-Emir ("tomb of the ruler" in Persian) suffered major damage over the centuries. Known primarily as the burial place of Timur (Tamerlane), Gur-Emir was begun by Timur in 1403 to commemorate the death at the age of 27 of his beloved grandson, Muhammed Sultan. With Timur’s own burial there in 1405, Gur-Emir became in effect the mausoleum of the Timurids. Gur-Emir included the main domed structure, as well as a madrasah, khanaka, four minarets, and a large entrance structure to the courtyard. This detail of the interior ...
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Example of Mosaics on the Walls in the Home of a Wealthy Sart. On the Outskirts of Samarkand
According to the caption, this decorated interior is in a suburban house belonging to a wealthy Sart. In the late 19th century the term “Sart” referred not only to town dwellers, but also to the inhabitants of this area from before the coming of Uzbek tribes in the 16th century. The lavish decorative work displays floral bouquets, as well as botanical motifs and astral patterns formed by a complex system of intersecting lines. The owner of such a richly decorated house presumably belonged to a member of the local elite ...
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Drawings on Tiles above Gates into the Tsar's Tomb. Bogoeddin. Bukhara
Shown here are ceramic panels above the entrance to the tomb of Sheikh Bakhauddin Nakshbandi (1318–89), venerated sage and leader of the Sufi Nakshbandi order. In 1544 Bakhauddin’s burial site at Baha al-Din, near Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan), was enshrined within a large khanaka (memorial structure) built by the Sheibanid ruler Abd al-Aziz khan. Although much damaged over the centuries, the facade retained fragments of exquisite ceramic work, including glazed carved terra-cotta tiles (at top) with intricate floral motifs. Above the pointed arch of the portal are faience ...
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Duan-Beggi Medrese (in Labikhauz). Bukhara
The Astrakhanid dynasty in Bukhara (in present-day Uzbekistan) during the 17th century was adept in its organization of urban space. One example is the Lab-i-Hauz complex, a trading area containing a square reservoir that provided water and served as a reflecting pool for three buildings. Among them is the khanaka, or hostel for pilgrims and travelers, built in 1619–20 by Nadir Divan-Begi, a vizier (high official) and uncle of the Bukhara ruler Imam Kuli Khan. (The madrasah mentioned in the caption is in fact an adjacent structure.) Although severely ...
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Detail of Left Side of Duan-Beggi Madrasah. Bukhara
The Astrakhanid dynasty in Bukhara during the 17th century was adept at organizing urban space. The Liabi-Khauz complex is a fine example. It was a trading area with a square reservoir that provided water and served as a reflecting pool for three adjacent religious buildings. Among them is the madrasah (religious school) built in 1622–23 by Nadir Divan-begi, a vizier (high official) and uncle of the Bukhara ruler Iman Kuli-Khan. This photograph shows part of the facade, with recessed, arched bays that contained rooms for scholars. The adobe walls ...
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Above Entrance to Gauk Man Medrese. Bukhara
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Kush-Medrese. Outer Entrance. Bukhara
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Kush-Medrese (Interior from the Right Side). Bukhara
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Mosaics on Walls in Old Bukhara
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mosaics on Walls in Old Bukhara
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dome of the Gur-Emir Mosque from West (Cracked). Samarkand
Shown here is Gur-Emir ("tomb of the ruler") in Samarkand, the burial place of the great Timur (Tamerlane). Timur began the shrine in 1403 in memory of his grandson Muhammad Sultan, who had founded a madrasah on this site in the late 14th century. Following Timur's own unexpected death from pneumonia in 1405, his body was also placed in the structure, which became the mausoleum of the Timurids. It was completed by another of Timur's grandsons, the astronomer-king Ulugh Beg. This view from the west side shows severe ...
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Dome of the Gur-Emir Mosque. Samarkand
Shown here is Gur-Emir ("tomb of the ruler") in Samarkand, the burial place of the great Timur (Tamerlane). Timur began the shrine in 1403 in memory of his beloved grandson Muhammad Sultan. Following Timur's own death from pneumonia in 1405, his body was also placed in the structure, which became the mausoleum of the Timurids. It was completed by another of Timur's grandsons, the astronomer-king Ulugh Beg. This overcast view from the east side shows severe damage to the ceramic ornamentation of the ribbed dome. The cylinder beneath ...
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Entrance into the Gur-Emir Mosque. Door. Samarkand
Among Samarkand’s major monuments is Gur-Emir ("tomb of the ruler"), begun by Timur (Tamerlane) in 1403 in memory of his grandson Muhammed Sultan. Following Timur's own unexpected death from pneumonia in 1405, his body was also placed in the mausoleum. It was completed by another of Timur's grandsons, the astronomer-king Ulugh Beg. This view, mistakenly identified as an entrance to the “Gur-Emir Mosque,” shows remnants of intricate ceramic ornamentation, including mosaics of five and six-pointed star motifs. Above the portal is a Perso-Arabic inscription panel in flowing ...
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View of Arches and Mosaics
The Astrakhanid dynasty in Bukhara during the 17th century was adept at organizing urban space.  The Liabi-Khauz complex is a fine example. It was a trading area with a square reservoir that provided water and served as a reflecting pool for three adjacent religious buildings. Among them is the madrasah (religious school) built in 1622–23 by Nadir Divan-begi, a vizier (high official) and uncle of the Bukhara ruler Iman Kuli-Khan. This photograph shows a fragment of the left side of the main facade, which contains the great peshtak (entrance ...
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