43 results in English
Map of Greenland
This map of Greenland is by Hans Poulsen Egede (1686–1758), the Norwegian-born Lutheran clergyman and missionary known as the “Apostle of Greenland.” Egede made two journeys, in 1723 and in 1724, to explore the west coast of Greenland with the goals of mapping the coastline and obtaining information about the ancient Norse settlements on the island. Egede lived and worked in Greenland from 1721 to 1736. Upon his return to Denmark, he had this map made and published a book, Omstændelig og udførlig relation, angaaende den grønlandske missions begyndelse ...
Arabia: The Cradle of Islam
Samuel Zwemer (1867–1952) was an American Protestant missionary who lived for nine years in Bahrain and became a student of the Arab world and, especially, the Arabian Peninsula. Published in New York in 1900, Arabia: The Cradle of Islam contains detailed chapters on the geography of Arabia; the holy cities of Mecca and Medina; the Prophet Muhammad and the rise of Islam; the contemporary political scene on the Arabian Peninsula, including the rivalries among the British, Turks, and other powers; and the Arabic language and poetry. The book concludes ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zigzag Journeys in the Camel Country: Arabia in Picture and Story
Samuel Zwemer (1867–1952) was an American missionary who became known as the “Apostle to Islam” for his strenuous, if not always successful, evangelization efforts in Islamic countries. He attended Hope College in Holland, Michigan, and the New Brunswick Seminary in New Jersey. In 1889 he and a classmate founded the American Arabian Mission, which later received sponsorship from the Reformed Church, and the next year he departed for the Arabian Peninsula. In 1896 he met and married Amy Wilkes (died 1937), an Australian fellow missionary and nurse. Together, the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Topsy-Turvy Land: Arabia Pictured for Children
Samuel Zwemer (1867–1952) was an American missionary who became known as the “Apostle to Islam” for his strenuous if not always successful evangelization efforts in Islamic countries. He attended Hope College in Holland, Michigan, and the New Brunswick Seminary in New Jersey. In 1889 he and a classmate founded the American Arabian Mission, which later received sponsorship from the Reformed Church. The next year he departed for the Arabian Peninsula. In 1896 he met and married Amy Wilkes (died 1937), an Australian fellow missionary and nurse. The Zwemers spent ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
’Ventures among the Arabs in Desert, Tent, and Town: Thirteen Years of Pioneer Missionary Life with the Ishmaelites of Moab, Edom, and Arabia
Archibald Forder was an American missionary, born in 1863, who worked for 13 years in the Middle East, primarily in Al-Karak in Palestine, at that time part of the Ottoman Empire. ’Ventures among the Arabs is Forder’s account of his work and travels in the region. Chapter 12 contains a summary overview of Arabia, with brief treatments of the geography, principal cities, government structures, economy, population and language, religion, animals, and modes of transportation. Several chapters recount Forder’s largely unsuccessful attempts to enter Arabia for missionary work. Their ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Personal Narrative of a Year’s Journey through Central and Eastern Arabia (1862–63)
William Gifford Palgrave (1826–88) was a famous English traveler to Arabia who inspired a generation of European explorers and missionaries. He became fluent in Arabic while serving as a Jesuit missionary in Syria. In 1862 he undertook a year-long journey through the Arabian Peninsula with the stated aim of studying the “moral, political, and intellectual conditions of living Arabia.” He was also working as a secret agent for the French emperor, Napoleon III (1808–73). Palgrave disguised himself as a Syrian doctor and was accompanied by his assistant, Barakāt ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Life of Cornelius Van Dyck
Hayat Kurnilius Fan Dayk (The life of Cornelius Van Dyck) celebrates the life and achievements of American missionary, scientist, physician, and educator Cornelius Van Dyck (1818−1895). Born in Kinderhook, New York, Van Dyck received his degree from Jefferson Medical College in 1839 and left for the Near East the following year. His initial assignment was the intensive study of Arabic, the language of instruction at the Protestant schools. He also completed his study toward ordination and began work on the Bible translation that would be published some 20 years ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Tales of Heroes and Great Men of Old
Siyar al-Abtal wa-al-Uzama’ al-Qudama’ (Tales of heroes and great men of old) introduces young readers to classical mythology. It typifies many publications of the British and American missionaries in the Levant in the mid-to-late 19th century. Uplifting humanistic writing of this kind was new to the Middle East. It grew directly from the children’s book movement in Britain in the first half of the century, led by the British Tract Society, which later reinforced the efforts of American missionaries to the Middle East, such as Cornelius Van Dyck. The ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Christian Doctrine and Catechism for the Instruction of the Indians, and of all the People Who Have to Be Instructed in Our Holy Faith: With a Confession Booklet and Other Necessary Things
Doctrina christiana, y catecismo para instrvccion de los indios, y de las de mas perʃonas, que han de ʃer enʃeñadas en nueʃtra ʃancta fé : con vn confessionario, y otras cosas neceʃʃarias (Christian doctrine and catechism for the instruction of the Indians, and of all the people who have to be instructed in our holy faith: with a confession booklet and other necessary things) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1584. It is the first book printed in South America. A trilingual edition in Quechua, Aymara, and Spanish, it is also ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Third Catechism and Exposition of the Christian Doctrine for Sermons that the Curate and Other Priests Preach and Teach to the Indians and all the Other People Conforming to the Decisions Established at the Holy Provincial Council of Lima
Tercero cathecismo y exposición de la Doctrina Chriʃtiana, por sermones para qve los cvrasy otros mini ʃtros prediquen y enʃeñen a los Yndios y a las demás perʃonas conforme a lo qve en el Sancto Concilio Prouincial de Lima de proueyo (Third catechism and exposition of the Christian doctrine for sermons that the curate and other priests preach and teach to the Indians and all the other people conforming to the decisions established at the holy provincial council of Lima) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1585. The first printing ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Confession Booklet for the Curate of the Indians with the Instructions for Their Rites, Last Rites in Preparation for Death, and a Summary of the Privileges and Impediments of Matrimony
Confessionario para los cvras de indios, con la instrvcion contra svs ritos: y exhortación para ayudar a bien morir y ʃumma de ʃus priuilegios y forma de impedimentos del matrimonio (Confession booklet for the curate of the Indians with the instructions for their rites, last rites in preparation for death, and a summary of the privileges and impediments of matrimony) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1585. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Catholic Indian Creed, in Which the Mysteries of the Faith, Which are Contained in the Three Catholic Creeds, the Apostles’, Nicene, and the Athanasian, are Manifested
Symbolo catholico indiano, en el qval se declaran los myʃterios dela fé, contenidos enlos tres symbolos catholicos, apoʃtolico, Niceno y de S. Athanaʃio (Catholic Indian creed, in which the mysteries of the faith, which are contained in the three Catholic creeds, the Apostles’, Nicene, and the Athanasian, are manifested) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1598. The book contains the texts of the three most important creeds in the Christian church, the Apostle’s Creed, the Nicene Creed, and the Athanasian Creed, in the languages of Quechua and Aymara, along ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
The Art of the Quechua Language
Arte de la lengva qvichva (The art of the Quechua language) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1619. The book is by Diego de Torres Rubio (1547−1638), a Spanish-born Jesuit priest who came to Peru in 1579, where he devoted himself to the study of Indian languages, especially Aymara and Quechua. The first printing press in South America was established in Lima by Antonio Ricardo (circa 1540−1606), an Italian who had worked for a time as a printer with the Jesuits in Mexico City. This book is part ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
Legal Allegation and Decision to Examine and Approve the Miracles on Record of the Very Pious Man Father Francis Solano, Member of the Seraphic Franciscan Order
Allegatio ivris, et consilium pro examinandis et approbandis miraculis religio fissimi viri Francisci Solano Seraphici Franciscani ordinis alumni (Legal allegation and decision to examine and approve the miracles on record of the very pious man Father Francis Solano, member of the Seraphic Franciscan Order) was published in Lima, Peru, in 1612. Saint Francis Solano (1549−1610) was a Spanish-born Franciscan friar who came to South America in 1589, where he worked for 20 years as a missionary among the Indians of northwestern Argentina and Paraguay. He was canonized in 1726 ...
Contributed by National Library of Peru
The Uganda Journal, Volume I, Number 1, January 1934
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
View 5 more issues
Their Sound Spreads in Every Land and Their Words Reach Every Border of the Earth
This map, published in Rome in 1927, shows the locations of the Franciscan missions around the world in 1926. Each mission is marked on the map, and a numbered key is used to provide the name and area of geographic responsibility of the mission. Symbols indicate the type of mission and the rank of its leading prelate. The areas of historical mission activity are shown by shading. The map is in Italian, with the title banner in Latin: In omnem terram exivit sonvs eorum et in fines orbis terrae verba ...
Contributed by Slovak National Library
Elements of Christian Teaching, or a Short Sacred History and a Short Christian Catechism
Ioann Veniaminov (1797-1879) was a Russian Orthodox priest who in 1823 volunteered to go to Alaska as a missionary. Settling with his wife and family in Unalaska, he built a church and school and began his lifelong task of studying the native languages of the region. With the help of the Aleut chief Ivan Pan'kov, Veniaminov invented an alphabet for the Unangan (Aleut) language which he used to translate religious and educational material from Russian. This book, from the collections of the National Library of Russia, was first translated ...
Instructions of the Route to the Heavenly Kingdom: A Sermon
Father Ioann Veniaminov (1797-1879) was the greatest of the Russian Orthodox missionaries to Alaska. A man of enormous linguistic talents, Veniaminov created an alphabet for the Unangan (Aleut) language and, with the help of the Aleut chief Ivan Pan'kov, wrote and published in 1834 an Aleut catechism, the first book published in an Alaskan native language. As Bishop Innokentii, Veniaminov encouraged the study of Tlingit and a variety of Aleut-Eskimo dialects such as Atkan and Central Yup'ik. This work, published in Moscow in 1840, contains religious teachings by ...
Dictionary and Grammar of the Kongo Language, as Spoken at San Salvador, the Ancient Capital of the Old Kongo Empire, West Africa: Preface
William Holman Bentley (1855–1905) was born in Sudbury, United Kingdom, where his father was a Baptist minister. After working for a time as a bank clerk, he was accepted by the Baptist Missionary Society for its new Congo mission and, in April 1879, he sailed for the Congo with three other missionaries. In January 1881, Bentley and H.E. Crudgington became the first Europeans to establish a route inland from the mouth of the Congo River to Stanley Pool, site of present-day Kinshasa. While building mission stations and traveling ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tanganyika: Eleven Years in Central Africa
This book is an account of the Central African Mission of 1877–88 to Ujiji by Edward C. Hore, a British master mariner who was one of the six original members of the mission. In 1876-77 the London Missionary Society decided to establish the mission, which left Zanzibar for Ujiji on July 21, 1877. Ujiji is a town in the eastern part of present-day Tanzania, but also the designation for the surrounding region, defined by Hore as “a large tribal territory, bordered west and south by the Tanganyika Lake, north ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Georgian and Italian Dictionary
Published in Rome in 1629, this Georgian-Italian dictionary was the first book printed in Georgian using moveable type. The dictionary was compiled by an Italian, Stefano Paolini, with the assistance of Niceforo Irbachi Giorgiano, the Georgian ambassador in Rome. It contains 3084 words, printed in three columns: Georgian words in the left column; Italian transliterations (with accents marked) in the middle column; and an explanation of the meaning of each word, in Italian, in the right column. The Georgian alphabet and the Latin equivalents of each of its letters appear ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Wonderful Story of Uganda. To Which is Added the Story of Ham Mukasa, Told by Himself
The Wonderful Story of Uganda by the Reverend Joseph Dennis (J.D.) Mullins is an account of the mission to Uganda undertaken in the 1870s by the London-based Church Missionary Society (CMS) and the spread of Christianity in Uganda in the following decades. Mullins characterized the mission as “a Christian miracle of modern days. A nation situated in Central Africa, which twenty-five years ago had not received the Gospel, and had not even a written language, is to-day the home of thirty thousand Christians under Christian chiefs; its language has ...
Refuting Heresy
Pi xie lun (Refuting heresy) is by Yang Guangxian (1597–1669) from Shexian, Anhui Province, a fierce opponent of the early Christian missionaries to China. Beginning about 1659, Yang assumed the self-appointed role of campaigner against the missionaries. In 1644, German Jesuit Johann Adam Schall von Bell (circa 1592–1666) was asked to prepare for the new Qing dynasty a calendar based on Western mathematical calculations. Schall later was named director of the imperial Board of Astronomy. Yang submitted a document to the Board of Ceremonies, charging Schall with errors ...
Contributed by National Central Library
Uganda in Transformation: 1876–1926
Herbert Gresford Jones (1870–1958) was an Anglican cleric and missionary to Uganda. He studied at Cambridge University and was ordained in 1895. After serving as a vicar at churches in England and as a chaplain with the British forces in World War I, he went to Uganda in 1920, where he was bishop suffragan of Kampala until 1923. Uganda in Transformation: 1876–1926 is Jones’s account of the development of the Anglican Church in Uganda since the arrival of the first British missionaries in 1877. In a series ...
Uganda by Pen and Camera
Charles William Hattersley (1866–1934) was a British missionary who joined the Church Missionary Society in early 1897 after having managed a cutlery works in Sheffield. In September of that year he left England for Uganda, where he helped to set up the system of primary education, was involved in educating the sons of Ugandan chiefs, and eventually served as headmaster of the Church Missionary Society school on Mengo Hill in Kampala. An enthusiastic amateur photographer, Hattersley became the official photographer to the Ugandan court and the church. His Uganda ...
Uganda's White Man of Work: A Story of Alexander M. Mackay
Uganda's White Man of Work: A Story of Alexander M. Mackay is a children’s biography of Alexander Murdoch Mackay (1849–90), a pioneering missionary to Uganda. In 1876 Mackay answered a call of the Church Missionary Society to go to Uganda after King Mutesa I of Buganda told the explorer Henry Morton Stanley of his interest in receiving Christian missionaries. Mackay spent nearly 14 years in Uganda. In addition to teaching the Christian gospel, he worked as a farmer, carpenter, bridge and road builder, schoolmaster, printer, and translator ...
A. M. Mackay: Pioneer Missionary of the Church Missionary Society to Uganda
Alexander Murdoch Mackay (1849–90) was a pioneering missionary to Uganda. The son of a Free Church of Scotland minister, he studied engineering in Edinburgh and Berlin. In 1876 Mackay answered a call of the Church Missionary Society to go to Uganda, where King Mutesa I of Buganda (reigned, 1856–84) had expressed an interest in receiving Christian missionaries. In November 1878 Mackay arrived in Uganda, where he spent nearly 14 years, never once returning to his native Scotland. He translated the Gospel of Matthew into Luganda and applied his ...
In Uganda for Christ: The Life Story of the Rev. John Samuel Callis B.A., of the Church Missionary Society
In Uganda for Christ is a biography of the Reverend John Samuel Callis (1870–97), an early Christian missionary to Uganda. Callis was born in England and graduated from Saint Catharine’s College, Cambridge. Moved by the death of his eldest sister, he decided to dedicate his life to the church. After studying theology and working among the poor in London, he was ordained an Anglican priest on May 28, 1893. He served three years as curate outside London and then offered himself to the Church Missionary Society for the ...
The Church in Uganda: A Charge to the Missionaries of the Uganda Mission, 1913
The Church in Uganda: A Charge to the Missionaries of the Uganda Mission, 1913 contains the text of a document by J.J. Willis, bishop of Uganda, addressed to the Anglican missionaries in Uganda on the eve of the 1913 meeting of the Uganda synod. The document has two parts: the first is an overview of the situation of the church in Uganda and of the work done in the previous year; the second part deals with problems encountered by the Uganda mission in the field. The report on the ...
Rewards for Obedience, Punishment for Disobedience
Premios de la obediencia, castigos de la inobediencia (Rewards for obedience, punishment for disobedience) by Raymundo Azero (1739–94) is one of the first books printed in New Granada (the Spanish viceroyalty that comprised all or parts of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). Azero studied at the College of San Buenaventura in Santa Fe de Bogotá and was ordained a Franciscan priest. He later served as professor of theology at the college and as its director. He was also a missionary and local administrator. Azero’s missionary experience unfolded ...
Vocabulary of the Language Used by the Indians in These Missions
This manuscript, by an unknown author probably writing at one or several Catholic missions in the 18th century, was found at the College for the Propagation of the Faith in Popayán, New Granada (the Spanish viceroyalty that comprised all or parts of present-day Colombia, Ecuador, Panama, and Venezuela). It consists of 103 pages, most of which are taken up by a glossary of words in the Siona indigenous language with their Spanish equivalents. This part of the work is organized in columns, with the Siona words on the left and ...
Chibcha Dictionary and Grammar
This manuscript is a glossary with prayers, confessions, and sermons in the Chibcha language. It was compiled by an unknown hand, most likely in the mid-16th century (as suggested by the style of handwriting). The work was used by missionaries in the evangelization of the Muisca, the Chibcha-speaking people who lived in the central highlands of New Granada. The Spanish learned early in their colonial role that to accomplish their religious and other objectives they needed to communicate with the people in their native languages. As early as 1580 the ...
Original Unpublished Collection of Maps Relating to the Episcopate of Peru; Portraits of Archbishops, Viceroys, and Other Characters of Peru in Color and Gold; City Plans; Tables on Indigenous Languages: The Codex Trujillo del Perú. Volume I
Baltasar Jaime Martínez Compañón (circa 1735–97) was a Spanish-born priest who in 1767 was sent by King Charles III to serve in the Viceroyalty of Peru, initially as choirmaster of Lima Cathedral. He was named bishop of Trujillo in 1778. He remained in Peru until 1791, when he was appointed archbishop of Bogotá. Known for founding towns, building schools, and his efforts to educate the Indians of Trujillo, Martínez Compañón also was responsible for the Codex Trujillo del Perú, a nine-volume compilation of more than 1,400 illustrations and ...
A Study of the Saliba Language
This 1790 manuscript contains a grammar and partial glossary of the Saliba language, compiled by an unknown writer in San Miguel del Macuco (present-day Orocué, Colombia), and used by Jesuit missionaries. A note on the manuscript reads: “Under the Royal Order of our Catholic Monarch Charles IV, God preserve him, for demanding the greater learning and intelligence of the dictionary." The manuscript also includes a letter addressed to Charles IV by Friar Clement of Saint Xavier, in which the friar states that he has requested the Saliba language dictionary recommended ...
The Art and Vocabulary of the Achagua Language
Arte y bocabulario de la lengua achagua: Doctrina christiana, confessionario de uno y otro sexo e instrucción de cathecumenos (The art and vocabulary of the Achagua language: Christian doctrine, the confession of both sexes, and instruction in the catechism) attests to the linguistic effort undertaken by the Jesuit missionaries in the borderlands of present-day Colombia and Venezuela. As its long title explains, this small manuscript volume, written in beautiful calligraphy and now preserved in the National Library of Colombia, contains several items: a grammar of the Achagua language, an extensive ...
A Guiding Light to the Indians
Lucerna yndyca (A guiding light to the Indians) is a manuscript dating from 1715–22 containing a Castilian–Quechua dictionary and selections of the Gospels translated from Latin into Quechua, the predominant Andean language at the time of the Spanish conquest. The text is annotated with comments by the author, Esteban Sancho de Melgar y Santa Cruz. Melgar, a late-17th century academic, is known for his work Arte de la Lengua General de Inga Llamada Qquechhua (The art of the general language called Quechua) published in Lima in 1691. This ...
Priest Manuel M. Albis, with Converted Mocoa Indians, Caquetá Territory
This watercolor by Manuel María Paz (1820−1902) shows the priest Manuel Albis with Mocoa Indians who had become Catholics. Albis is known to have been interested in learning about the peoples he encountered in southern Colombia, and published scholarly work on the Andaquí language spoken by people living near Mocoa (also called Lowland Inga). These groups lived along the upper Caquetá and Putumayo Rivers in present-day Caquetá Department. The watercolor is typical of Paz’s work, which captured the diversity of the population of Colombia and depicted the daily ...
Duty of the Church to the Empire and the World: Especially to Africa
Duty of the Church to the Empire and the World: Especially to Africa is a report to an Anglican Church congress by the Reverend Alfred R. Tucker (1849-1914), who had served as the first bishop of Uganda from 1899 to 1911. Tucker made three main points: the work of evangelism in Africa should be assumed, to the greatest possible extent, by native Africans; church government should be based on African national or tribal methods; and education in the vernacular—in the local languages—was a great duty of the church ...
Policy of the Uganda Mission
Policy of the Uganda Mission is the report by J.J. Willis (1872–1954) that he presented to an Anglican Church congress in July 1912, the same year that he became the second bishop of Uganda, succeeding Alfred R. Tucker. The report begins with an overview of the area, population, and the church’s missionary policy in the six provinces of the Diocese of Uganda. This is followed by sections on church organization, education, discipline, finance, and the role, both positive and in some respects problematic, of European settlers in ...
The Gospel of St. Matthew
Ioann Veniaminov (1797-1879) was a Russian Orthodox priest who in 1823 volunteered to go to Alaska as a missionary. Settling with his wife and family in Unalaska, he built a church and school and began his lifelong task of studying the native languages of the region. With the help of the Aleut chief Ivan Pan'kov, Veniaminov invented an alphabet for the Unangan (Aleut) language and then used it to compose grammars and translate the Gospel of St. Matthew. Traveling throughout the Aleutian Islands, Veniaminov collected ethnographic and scientific material ...
Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa
Eighteen Years in Uganda and East Africa is an account in two volumes by Alfred R. Tucker (1849–1914) of his work as Anglican bishop of Eastern Equatorial Africa in 1890–99 and as the first bishop of Uganda from 1899 until 1908, when the book was published. Volume 1 includes a review of the early history of European involvement in East Africa, from the arrival of the first Church Missionary Society (CMS) missionary in Mombasa (present-day Kenya) in 1844. It recounts Tucker’s arrival in Africa in 1890 and ...
The Story of the Life of Mackay of Uganda Told for Boys
The Story of the Life of Mackay of Uganda Told for Boys is a biography of Alexander Murdoch Mackay (1849–90), a pioneering Scottish missionary to Uganda. Written by Mackay’s sister, Alexina Mackay Harrison, and published in London in 1892, the book was intended to inspire boys to follow Mackay’s example and devote their lives to service in Africa. It begins with a brief account of the early European explorers of Africa: Mungo Park, who in 1796 ventured up the River Niger; James Bruce, who in 1770 traced ...