33 results in English
View of the Mosque, While Congregational Salat Are Being Held inside
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
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Second View of the City of Mecca over the Northwest (Right) and Southwest (Left) Side of the Mosque
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
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The Western Part of the Mina Valley, Which Stretches from West to East, during the Great Annual Pilgrimage Gathering
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
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The Pilgrimage Station Muzdal'fah, Situated between Mina and 'Arafah
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Minaret in the Muslim Quarter of Hami and Ruin of the Mosque Destroyed by Rebels in 1872. Hami, Xinjiang, China, 1875
In 1874-75, the Russian government sent a research and trading mission to China to seek out new overland routes to the Chinese market, report on prospects for increased commerce and locations for consulates and factories, and gather information about the Dungan Revolt then raging in parts of western China. Led by Lieutenant Colonel Iulian A. Sosnovskii of the army General Staff, the nine-man mission included a topographer, Captain Matusovskii; a scientific officer, Dr. Pavel Iakovlevich Piasetskii; Chinese and Russian interpreters; three non-commissioned Cossack soldiers; and the mission photographer, Adolf Erazmovich ...
Tripoli Mosque
This image from the latter half of the 19th century depicts a street scene in Tripoli, Libya, under the minaret of a nearby mosque. Baedeker’s The Mediterranean (1911) said of Tripoli: “The town with its white houses, its slender minarets of the Turkish type, its green gardens and groups of palms, the reddish-yellow dunes of drift-sand from the Sahara, and the deep-blue sea, all bathed in dazzling sunshine, present a most fascinating picture.”
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Tripoli Mosque
This late 19th-century photograph depicts a street scene in Tripoli, Libya, under the minaret of a nearby mosque. Baedeker’s The Mediterranean (1911) noted of Tripoli: “The town with its white houses, its slender minarets of the Turkish type, its green gardens and groups of palms, the reddish-yellow dunes of drift-sand from the Sahara, and the deep-blue sea, all bathed in dazzling sunshine, present a most fascinating picture.”
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Samarkand. Portion of Shir-Dar Minaret and Its Dome with Tillia-Kari
At the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, composed of three major monuments of the madrasah (religious school). Seen here is the Shir Dar Madrasah, built in 1619–36 during the Bukhara Ashtrakhanid dynasty. This view shows part of the main facade and imposing entrance arch, or iwan (on right), with a flanking minaret, behind which is a ribbed dome over an instruction hall. Despite structural damage, the ceramic work is relatively well preserved. The minaret displays geometric figures integrated with words in block Kufic script from the Kalima ...
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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Minaret on the Northwest Corner
This photograph of the northwest minaret at the Bibi Khanym Mosque ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72, under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire's Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 with the spoils of Timur’s ...
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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Bibi Khanym. Congregational Mosque
This photograph of a ceramic panel on the facade of the main mosque at the Bibi Khanym ensemble in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. Built in 1399-1405 ...
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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Tillia Kari. Inner Courtyard (Southern Side). Upper Part of the Minaret
This photograph of a minaret on the south side of the Tillia Kari Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the ...
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Antiquities of Samarkand. Madrasah of Ulugh Beg. Main Facade (Eastern)
This photograph of the main facade of the Ulugh Beg Madrasah in Samarkand (Uzbekistan) is from the archeological part of Turkestan Album. The six-volume photographic survey was produced in 1871-72 under the patronage of General Konstantin P. von Kaufman, the first governor-general (1867-82) of Turkestan, as the Russian Empire’s Central Asian territories were called. The album devotes special attention to Samarkand’s Islamic architecture, such as 14th- and 15th-century monuments from the reign of Timur (Tamerlane) and his successors. In the center of Samarkand is the Registan ensemble, composed ...
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Mosque in Vladikavkaz
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Tillia Kari from Ulugh Beg. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three major examples of the madrasah (religious school). The third of these, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646–60 on the site of a former caravansarai. Its basic plan is formed by a rectangular courtyard, shown here with two stories composed of arcades of pointed arches that frame rooms for scholars. Although much damaged, the facades are profusely decorated with intricate ceramic work in geometric and floral patterns. On the far left is a corner of the ...
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Mirza Ulugh Beg. Registan. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three examples of the madrasah (religious schools). The oldest component is the Ulugh Beg Madrasah, built in 1417–20 by the scholar King Ulugh Beg (1393?–1449; grandson of Timur). Shown here is the main facade with the great iwan arch at the entrance. The facade displays remnants of polychrome ceramic ornamentation, including panels of geometric and botanical motifs, and a vertical Perso-Arabic inscription band. The walls also display monumental geometric tile figures, within which are patterns of block ...
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Tillia Kari from Registan Square. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The third of these, the Tillia Kari Madrasah, was built in 1646–60 on the site of a former caravansarai. Its basic plan is formed by a rectangular courtyard, bounded by arcades that contain rooms for scholars. Although much damaged, the facades still show intricate ceramic decoration in geometric and botanical motifs, as well as panels with Perso-Arabic inscriptions above the door of each cell. The corner minaret displays geometric tile patterns with block Kufic ...
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Right Dome of Shir-Dar Mosque. Samarkand
In the center of Samarkand is the Registan complex, consisting of three madrasah (religious schools). The second of these, the Shir-Dar Madrasah, was built in 1619–36 during the Bukhara Astrakhanid dynasty. This view from the interior courtyard parapet shows the ribbed dome over an instruction hall at the southwest corner. Despite losses in this active seismic zone, the surface displays lavish ceramic decoration that includes geometric and botanical motifs, as well as a horizontal Perso-Arabic inscription band. Uzbek craftsmen restored the ceramic tiles on the dome during the Soviet ...
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Portion of the Left Minaret. Bibi-Khanym. Samarkand
The Bibi Khanym complex in Samarkand was built in 1399–1405 with the spoils of Timur’s (Tamerlane’s) campaign in India. Bibi Khanym was named in homage to Timur’s senior wife, Sarai Mulk Khanym. The rectangular courtyard centers on the Main, or Friday, Mosque, which is flanked by two enormous polygonal minarets. This view shows a portion of the left minaret and adjacent wall. Despite severe damage, resulting from an earthquake in 1897, much of the ceramic ornamentation remains. The surface of the tower shaft is composed of ...
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Arched Entranceway to a Mosque with Minaret
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
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Street Scene with Vendors, Minaret in Background
The Kalyan Minaret, some 50 meters in height, dominates Bukhara’s historic center. The minaret is part of a complex known as the Poi-Kalian (“footrest of the Great One”) that contains the city’s main mosque and the Miri-Arab madrasah. Completed in 1127, during the reign of Arslankhan, the minaret ascends in bands of ornamented brick courses, some of which show traces of blue ceramic glaze. The structure tapers sharply from a massive base to the lantern, with its 16 window niches. At the top is a large, well preserved ...
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Passageway and Three Minarets Topped with Birds' Nests
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Children Sitting along Passageway, Two Minarets Topped with Birds' Nests in Background
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mosque in Al-Ain
This 1963 photograph shows an early example of a mosque and its minaret in Al-Ain, a desert oasis located approximately 160 kilometers east of the city of Abu Dhabi in the emirate of Abu Dhabi. Al-Ain (“the spring” in Arabic) takes its name from the abundant supply of underground fresh water that has been used for centuries to irrigate date groves and small farms. The photograph is from the Colonel Edward "Tug" Bearby Wilson Collection in the National Library, Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage, and was taken by ...
Sultan Bin Zayed I Mosque
This 1960s photograph shows the Shaykh Sultan bin Zayed I Mosque in Al-Bateen, a neighborhood of the city of Abu Dhabi. In the foreground are mahāmil, a type of fishing boat used in the Arabian Gulf. The photograph is from the Colonel Edward "Tug" Bearby Wilson Collection in the National Library, Abu Dhabi Authority for Culture and Heritage, and was taken by Wilson. Colonel Tug Wilson (1921–2009) was a British army officer who, in the 1960s, was seconded to the government of Abu Dhabi to help build the national ...
Mosque in the Old Town, Biskra, Algeria
This photochrome print of a street scene and mosque in Biskra, Algeria, is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Located on the northern edge of the Sahara, the town goes back at least to the time of the Romans, who valued the health-giving properties of the sulfur springs in the area and built a small fortification, which they called Vescera, close to the nearby oases. The French garrisoned the town in 1844 and constructed its modern parts. The ...
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Kara-Keui (Galata) Bridge, Constantinople, Turkey
This photochrome print of the Galata Bridge spanning the Golden Horn on the western side of Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) is part of “Views of People and Sites in Turkey” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). According to the 1911 edition of Baedeker’s The Mediterranean, seaports and sea routes: Handbook for Travellers, the bridge, which links the Stambul and Galata districts of the city, was “originally built of timber in 1845, and called Sultan Valideh Bridge after its founder (the ‘sultan’s mother’), and was rebuilt in ...
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Mosque and Street, Scutari, Constantinople, Turkey
This photochrome print of a mosque and street scene in Scutari (present-day Üsküdar) on the edge of Constantinople (Istanbul) is part of “Views of People and Sites in Turkey” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Located on the Asian side of the Bosporus, Üsküdar was settled in the seventh century BC and was called Skoutarion in Byzantine times, probably after the leather shields of the imperial guards (scutari means “raw tanned leather”). It was known as Escutaire or Eksüdar to the successive waves of invading Persians, Macedonians ...
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Stamboul, Constantinople, Turkey
This photochrome print of Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) is part of “Views of People and Sites in Turkey” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The print shows the inner district of Stambul, as seen from across the Golden Horn. The 1911 edition of Baedeker’s The Mediterranean, seaports and sea routes: Handbook for Travellers described Stambul as “the chief seat of the Oriental merchants and the petty traders” in Constantinople, where “the old Oriental characteristics of the city still survive,” despite the ravages of “destructive fires (as in ...
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Yeni-Djama (i.e., Yeni Cami) by Moonlight, Constantinople, Turkey
This photochrome print of the Yeni Valide Camii (New Mosque of the Sultan’s Mother) in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) is part of “Views of People and Sites in Turkey” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The mosque adjoins the harbor on the southern bank of the Golden Horn by the Galata Bridge. It was begun in 1597 by Safiye, mother of Mehmed III, and finished in 1663 by order of Turhan Hatice, mother of Mehmed IV, placing it in a tradition of architectural commissions by Ottoman sultan ...
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Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Camii, Aksaray, Constantinople, Turkey
This photochrome print of the Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque in the Aksaray neighborhood of Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) is part of “Views of People and Sites in Turkey” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Construction of the Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque, also known as the Aksaray Valide Mosque, began in 1869 by order of Sultana Pertevniyal (1812–83) and was completed in 1871. It is thus one of the last mosques to have been built in Istanbul during the Ottoman period. The mosque was designed by the Armenian ...
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View of the City, Bursa, Turkey
This photochrome print is part of “Views of People and Sites in Turkey” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). It shows the city of Bursa, in northwestern Turkey. Probably founded by a Bithynian king in the third century BC, it was a prosperous city in Byzantine times and the site of a palace built by the Emperor Justinian I (reigned 527–65). It was captured by Turkish warlords in the 1320s, was the capital of the rising power that became the Ottoman Empire, and was sacked by ...
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Yıldırım Beyazıt Mosque, Bursa, Turkey
This photochrome print is part of “Views of People and Sites in Turkey” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). It shows the Yıldırım Beyazıt Mosque in Bursa, which was built in 1391–95 by Bayezid I, father of Mehmed I Çelebi. The five-arched portico with its square columns and the mosque’s two domes are clearly visible. Probably founded by a Bithynian king in the third century BC, Bursa was a prosperous city in Byzantine times and the site of a palace built by the Emperor Justinian ...
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Pundorah. Bengal - "Mahomed Tower near Hooghly"
This watercolor is from a collection of 18 paintings of Indian subjects by William Tayler (1808–92) dating from around 1842–45. Tayler was a civil servant of the East India Company who lived in India from 1829 until 1867. He became commissioner of Patna in 1855 and in 1857 was involved in the suppression of the Sepoy Rebellion. His measures against the local people were regarded as excessively harsh by his superiors, and he was suspended and given an appointment of lower rank. An enthusiastic amateur artist, Tayler sketched ...
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