33 results in English
His Excellency: George Washington Esq: L.L.D. Late Commander in Chief of the Armies of the U.S. of America and President of the Convention of 1787
In 1787, the confederation of the 13 American states was descending into disarray. The coffers were empty, New York and New Jersey were in a dispute over duties charged on goods crossing state lines, farmers in Massachusetts were rebelling, and Spain and Britain were encroaching on American territories in the west. The Federal Convention was called to address the problems of governing the young republic under the existing Articles of Confederation. The convention responded by framing the document that became the United States Constitution. The convention delegates elected George Washington ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: General Dunham Massy
This portrait of General Dunham Massy (1838–1906) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Massy is shown standing next to his spiked pith helmet. As a lieutenant colonel, Massy successfully led a cavalry brigade at the Battle of Charasia in October 1879, but he subsequently was removed from cavalry command because of poor leadership in another engagement, the Battle of Killa Kazi, in December of the same year. He overcame this dismissal and by 1886 had risen to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Indian Celebrities: Sir Donald Stewart
This three-quarter-view portrait of Sir Donald Stewart (1824–1900) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Stewart commanded the Kandahar Field Force (also known as the Quetta Army) in October 1878 and, after arduous marching across harsh terrain and several cavalry battles against Afghan forces, successfully occupied Kandahar in January 1879. He was promoted to commander in chief in India in April 1881 and to field marshal in 1894. He is shown here in the uniform of a lieutenant ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir George Colley
This photograph of Sir George Colley (1835–81), likely taken within three years of his death, is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Colley served nearly all of his military and administrative career in British South Africa, but he played a significant part in the Afghan War as military secretary and then private secretary to the governor-general of India, Lord Lytton (1831–91). After the war Colley returned to South Africa, became high commissioner for South Eastern Africa in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir Peter Lumsden
This military portrait of Sir Peter Lumsden (1829–1918) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Lumsden’s first posting in the region was in the North-West Frontier of British India in the 1850s, where as an ensign in the 60th Bengal Native Infantry he participated in the suppression of rebellions by several Pashtun tribes. He also served in the Second Opium War and the Bhutan War. He was adjutant general of the Indian army 1874–79 and then ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir Frederick Haines
This photograph of Sir Frederick Haines (1819–1909) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Haines served as commander in chief in India (the highest-ranking military officer in the British Raj) throughout the war. His authority was subject only to the viceroy, Lord Lytton (1831–91). Haines and Lytton repeatedly clashed over British war strategy. At the start of the war, for example, Haines favored a significantly larger troop commitment than Lytton, but he was partially overruled by the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Lord William Beresford
This photograph of Lord William Beresford (1846–1900) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Beresford served as an aide-de-camp to several British viceroys, including under Lord Lytton during the war. He was also a captain in the 9th Queen's Royal Lancers and, while on leave from Delhi, volunteered to fight under General Sir Samuel Browne (1824–1901) at the November 1878 Battle of Ali Masjid. Beresford was commended for his valor in dispatches after the battle. He ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Colonel Mowbray Thomson
This photograph of Colonel Mowbray Thomson (1832–1917) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Thomson was one of only four survivors of the massacre of a British garrison in Cawnpore (now Kanpur) during the 1857 Indian Rebellion. After recovering from his injuries, he wrote a 260-page account of the massacre entitled The Story of Cawnpore. Thomson, then a captain, dedicated it to “the brave men, the patient women, and the helpless innocents of England,” who perished in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Group of Afghan Durbaries in Lahore, December 1880
This 1880 photograph of a group of Afghan notables in Lahore is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. The Persian term durbar (darbar in Hindi) used in the caption describes a gathering of princes and other notables, usually for the purposes of state administration and business. In this durbar two British officers are present, one on the floor to the left of center and the other behind him, suggesting that they might have been cooperating with the Afghan attendees ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sir Frederick Roberts and the Sirdars of Kabul, 1879
This photograph of Sir Frederick Roberts (1832–1914) and Afghan sirdars (noblemen) is from an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War. Roberts was a British Army officer who in a long career fought in Ethiopia, Afghanistan, and South Africa. In October 1879 he led the Kabul Field Force, consisting of a combination of British and Indian troops, over the Shotur Gardan Pass, defeated an Afghan army at the Battle of Charasia, and occupied Kabul. Roberts is seated among Afghan men and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Afghanistan, 1879-80
Afghanistan, 1879-80 is an album of rare historical photographs depicting people and places associated with the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878–80). The war began in November 1878 when Great Britain, fearful of what it saw as growing Russian influence in Afghanistan, invaded the country from British India. The first phase of the war ended in May 1879 with the Treaty of Gandamak, which permitted the Afghans to maintain internal sovereignty but forced them to cede control over their foreign policy to the British. Fighting resumed in September 1879 after an ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Commander of the Place Vendôme under the Commune
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
General Staff of the Place Vendôme, under the Commune
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Scenes and Adventures in Affghanistan
Scenes and Adventures in Affghanistan is a personal account, by a soldier in the army of the British East India Company, of his experiences during the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838−42). The author, Sergeant-Major William Taylor, tells of the march of his regiment from the vicinity of Bombay (present-day Mumbai) in India to the borders of Afghanistan. In the preface he states: “Mine is a simple, straightforward narrative of a soldier, more accustomed to wielding the sword than the pen…” The action takes place in 1838 and 1839. In Taylor ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Afghan War, 1838−1842, from the Journal and Correspondence of the Late Major-General Augustus Abbott
Augustus Abbott (1804−67) was the eldest of five brothers, all of whom distinguished themselves as British soldiers. He joined the army at age 15 and served until his retirement in 1859 with the rank of major-general. During the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838−42), Abbott saw much action as commander of an artillery battery. This book is an account of the war, based on Abbott’s journals and correspondence, published during the Second Anglo-Afghan War (1878−80), when reader interest in Afghanistan was high. The book was edited, with an ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sale’s Brigade in Afghanistan, with an Account of the Seisure and Defence of Jellalabad
This book is a laudatory account of the actions of the First Bengal Brigade, commanded by Colonel Robert Henry Sale (1782−1845), in the First Anglo-Afghan War (1838−42). The war began in June 1838 when the British launched an invasion of Afghanistan from India with the aim of overthrowing its ruler, the amir, Dōst Moḥammad Khān, and replacing him with the supposedly pro-British former ruler Shah Shujāʻ. Sale’s brigade fought its way into the country and helped to install Shah Shujāʻ as ruler in Jalalabad. Dōst Moḥammad fled ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
History of Afghanistan: Official Text-Book for the Examination of Military Officers in Interpretership Pushtu
Tārīkh-i-Afghānistān (History of Afghanistan) is a translation into Pashto of G.B. Malleson’s History of Afghanistan, from the Earliest Period to the Outbreak of the War of 1878 (1879). Published in Peshawar in 1930, the book was used as a textbook for British military officers serving in the Pashto-speaking areas of northwestern India (present-day Pakistan) and Afghanistan. Its purpose was to provide a language learning text that would at the same time introduce its readers to the history of the Pashto lands. The translation was done by Ahmad Jan ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
South Korea, Juhamnu Pavilion in Front of Buyongji Pond in Changdok Palace in Seoul
This image highlights the Juhamnu pavilion, part of the Changdeokgung, or Changdok palace, in Seoul, Korea. Standing in the foreground, a man identified as Lieutenant Milligan is seen rolling a cigarette. This is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Changdeokgung was built in the 15th century as a secondary palace after the primary palace of Gyeongbokgung. Both palaces were burned down during the Japanese invasion in 1592, and ...
South Korea, Archery Practice in Pukhan Mountain Fortress
This image, showing a large group of men, some with archery bows, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Archery drill in the Puk-Han (mountain fortress); visited with commander-in-chief, May 31, 1885.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to the country in 1883 with a ...
South Korea, Prince Min Yong Ik, Korean Officials and American Naval Officers
This image, showing a group of Korean and American officials (including Prince Min Yong Ik, minister plenipotentiary), is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image identifies the men from left to right, and reads: “Number 3 is Lieutenant T.W.B. Mason, U.S. Navy; number 1 is Prince Min Yong Ik (minister plenipotentiary); number 4 is Percival Lowell (escort from Japan to ...
South Korea, Military Policeman in Kwangju
This image, showing a Korean military police official, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “The chung-kim (police military official ) of Kang-Ju, capital of Chung Chong province.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in Korea in the 1880s. He was first sent to the country in 1883 with a Korean delegation as the only ...
South Korea, Diplomat and Staff at American Embassy
This image, showing a group of men at the U.S. legation in Korea, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image identifies the men from left to right: “Korea, U.S. Legation: Su-il (head of house), Chin-Yong-Meuk (interpreter), G.C.F. (Ensign George C. Foulk, U.S. Navy, charge d'affaires), and Koin Su (messenger).” Foulk was a young naval officer who ...
South Korea, Archery at Chong-Dong in Seoul
This image, showing a group of men practicing archery, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image identifies the individuals from left to right: “Archery at Chong-Dong. Tiglath Pilser (a boy), Chung-Yong Muk  (interpreter), Su-il (head man of the house), Charlie ( bedroom-boy) and the captain of the Legation Guard.” Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in ...
South Korea, Juhamnu Pavilion in Front of Buyongji Pond in Changdok Palace in Seoul
This image, showing a group of visitors on the grounds of Changdeokgung or Changdok palace, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Changdeokgung was built in the 15th century as a secondary palace after the primary palace of Gyeongbokgung. Both palaces were burned down during the Japanese invasion in 1592, and Changdeokgung was the first to be rebuilt in the early 17th century (under Korean kings Sonjo  and ...
Hatamoto (Senior Samurai of the Shogun) Corps Formation Rules
Presented here is an emaki (horizontal picture scroll) that depicts a battle formation procession setting off for the battlefield. It is 13 meters long. At first sight, it resembles the Kan’ei Gyōkoki (Record of an imperial visit in the Kan’ei period), in which pictures and letters are printed in type. However, the characters and horses were not printed in type, but were affixed using stamps. The actual number of stamps used is surprisingly small. The 54 mounted soldiers in the scroll were created from just five stamps, but ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
The Bad Child's Book of A.D.C's
The Bad Child’s Book of A.D.C’s is a short manuscript book of ink drawings and verse, probably produced by a British officer working at the General Head Quarters of the British Army in Montreuil Sur Mer, France, in 1917, during World War I. The subjects of the poems and drawings are the aides de camp working at the Allied General Staff. An aide de camp is a military officer who works as personal assistant or secretary to senior army or naval personnel. Among those caricatured was ...
Contributed by The British Library
The Great European War. A Heroic Feat by Cossack Gumilov, Who Rescued a Wounded Officer
This print showing the rescue of a wounded Russian officer is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “Some of the wounded brought to Petrograd from the Austrian battlefields told an interesting story about a heroic feat by the Cossack Gumilov. The Cossack took part in the Battle of L’viv. Together with three of his friends he reached the woods, where they drove off some Austrian cavalrymen. Gumilov went ahead and came to the edge of the forest. A ...
Contributed by The British Library
Great European War. Russian Troops Capture Galich Under the Command of Lieutenant General A. A. Brusilov, Who Was Awarded the Cross of Saint George of 4th Class for This Operation
This print showing Russian troops capturing the area of Galich (in present-day Ukraine) is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: “As reported from the Commander in Chief's Headquarters, our left wing covered 220 versts from August 4 to 21, while being engaged from August 7 to 21 in a continuous battle with the enemy. The main forces of the enemy had established strong positions between Kamenka and Galich, where they were destroyed on August 18 and 19. In ...
Contributed by The British Library
A North American: Portrait of Perry
Commodore Matthew C. Perry entered the port of Yokohama in 1853 with an intimidating fleet of steam warships, in order to compel Japan to open up after nearly two centuries of restricted foreign contact. The Japanese people became increasingly exposed to Western culture as new trade agreements prompted cross-cultural interaction. The influx of unfamiliar technology and customs gave rise to anxiety as well as awe among the Japanese people, whose curiosity about the external world is evident in the detailed depictions of foreign subjects by ukiyo-e (pictures of the floating ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Russian General Kuropatkin in a Sack
The Russo-Japanese War (1904–5) was documented in various forms of media, such as woodblock prints, photographs, and illustrations. The victories of the Japanese military in the early stages of the war inspired propaganda prints by Japanese artists. Kobayashi Kiyochika (1847–1915) contributed this farcical single-sheet print to the series, Nihon banzai hyakusen hyakushō (Long live Japan: 100 victories, 100 laughs). Kiyochika, known for producing woodblock prints using Western painting methods, had been under the brief tutelage of Charles Wirgman (1832–91), an English cartoonist for the Illustrated London News ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Miss Jiuliancheng and the Russian Soldier (Kyûrenjô no heiki)
The Russo-Japanese War (1904–5) was documented in various forms of media, such as woodblock prints, photographs, and illustrations. The victories of the Japanese military in the early stages of the war inspired propaganda prints by Japanese artists. Kobayashi Kiyochika (1847–1915) contributed this farcical single-sheet print to the series, Nihon banzai hyakusen hyakushō (Long live Japan: 100 victories, 100 laughs). Kiyochika, known for producing woodblock prints using Western painting methods, had been under the brief tutelage of Charles Wirgman (1832–91), an English cartoonist for the Illustrated London News ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Count d'Eu and Other Brazilian Officers who Took Part in the Paraguayan War
The Thereza Christina Maria Collection consists of 21,742 photographs assembled by Emperor Pedro II and left by him to the National Library of Brazil. The collection covers a vast range of subjects. It documents the achievements of Brazil and the Brazilian people in the 19th century, as well as includes many photographs from Europe, Africa, and North America. This photograph shows Louis Philippe, the Count of Eu, a French prince who was the husband of Princess Isabel, and fellow officers in the Paraguayan War. It was taken in the ...
American on Horseback, 1862
This ink and color wood-block print by Utagawa Yoshikazu (active 1848–63) was published in Edo (Toyko) in 1862. It depicts an American naval officer in black coat and top hat on a rearing brown horse, a dog in the foreground and civilians nearby. Along the top edge is a caption in Japanese which reads Kita Amerika shû no uchi Gasshûkoku mata Kyôwa seiji shû (On the North American Continent, the United States, also called the Republic). It comes from a series known as Foreigners from the Five Nations. The ...
Contributed by Brown University Library