28 results in English
Sangallo’s Sienese Sketchbook
The so-called Sienese sketchbook of the famous architect and engineer Giuliano da Sangallo was originally in the library of Sienese scholar Giovanni Antonio Pecci. The librarian Giuseppe Ciaccheri, a committed and passionate collector who enriched the Biblioteca comunale degli Intronati di Siena with works of art of outstanding quality, acquired it in 1784. Together with the Codice Barberiniano in the Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, the sketchbook bears witness to the architect's prolific production of drawings and is a valuable source of knowledge about his work. The small format and the ...
Wilbur Wright Working in the Bicycle Shop
This 1897 photograph shows Wilbur Wright (1867–1912) at work in the bicycle shop in Dayton, Ohio, which he ran with his brother Orville (1871–1948). After starting a printing business and a weekly newspaper, in 1892 the brothers opened the shop to rent, sell, and eventually manufacture bicycles. Neither brother had education beyond high school, but they became fascinated by the possibilities of human flight and read and studied all they could about aerodynamics. Having concluded that all published tables on air pressures on curved surfaces were wrong, they ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vendôme Column and Felling Machinery
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Submarine Vessel, Transverse Section
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Pumps, Cocks, Water Chamber, and Anchor for “Plunging Boat”
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cock Cavity and Wheel Details for “Plunging Boat”
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Water Chambers, Valves, Water Passages
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Vessel-Sighting Mechanism Details
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Submarine Vessel, Longitudinal Section
The first working submarine, the Nautilus, was constructed in Paris in 1801 by the American engineer Robert Fulton (1765−1815). Best known for his development, in 1807−8, of the first commercially successful steamboat, Fulton built the submarine, or “plunging boat,” in hopes that Napoleon would adopt it for use in his war with Great Britain. The French and later the British showed some initial enthusiasm for Fulton’s idea, but in the end both declined to support the project. Fulton then turned to steamboats as a way to finance ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Theater of Instruments and Machines
A new type of book appeared in Europe in the late 16th century, representing a genre of literature known as the “theater of machines.” The first of the theaters was produced by Jacques Besson (circa 1540–73), a French Protestant, born in Grenoble, who worked primarily as a mathematics teacher until royal patronage came his way. In 1559, Besson published a book on extracting oils and waters from simple drugs. His second book, Le Cosmolabe, published in 1567, described an elaborate instrument that could be used for navigation, surveying, cartography ...
Contributed by Smithsonian Institution
The Frenchwoman in War-time
This World War I poster, published in Paris in 1917, depicts the many roles of French women during the war. One woman is shown working in a factory, another at home nursing her child, and a third working in a field, helping to replace farm labor lost to the armed forces. In the background appears a large silhouette of a woman, the personification of “Victory.” French women made up over 40 percent of the French workforce during the war, and more than two million were recruited into positions in heavy ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Planing Machine at the Imperial Lapidary Works. Ekaterinburg
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Planing Machine. Imperial Lapidary Works, Ekaterinburg
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Joining Shop for the Production of Scabbards at the Zlatoust Plant
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tea Factory in Chakva. Sorting Section
By the beginning of the 20th century, the plantation and processing plants at Chakva, Georgia, north of the port of Batumi, had become one of the main suppliers of tea to the Russian Empire and an alternative to imports from China. This photograph shows a room at Chakva where the tea leaves (in bundles above and behind) are sorted by size in rotary drums. Chutes at the base of each drum empty into wooden boxes, where the leaves await further processing. In the 19th century the Russian Empire expanded into ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Tea Factory in Chakva. Tubs and Baskets with Fragrant Tea
By the beginning of the 20th century, the plantation and processing plants at Chakva, Georgia, north of the port of Batumi, had become one of the main suppliers of tea to the Russian Empire. This photograph shows a steel-frame factory shed with bins of fermenting tea leaves and in the background copper vats for processing tea leaves. In the 19th century the Russian Empire expanded into the southern Caucasus, particularly after the conclusion of the Caucasus War in 1864. Previously, this area was dominated by the Ottoman Empire, which subjugated ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Steam Room for Treatment of Bamboo. Chakva
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Alternators Made in Budapest, Hungary, in the Power Generating Hall of a Hydroelectric Station in Iolotan on the Murghab River
This photograph shows alternators in the power generating hall of the Hindu Kush hydroelectric station at Iolatan on the Murgab (Morghab) River in present-day Mary Province, southeastern Turkmenistan. The Murgab River flows from Afghanistan into Turkmenistan and forms part of the border between the two countries. The hydroelectric station was completed in 1909. The caption indicates that the machines were manufactured in Budapest. Cotton production was a priority in the Russian economic development of this region, and hydroelectric power was essential to the development of the cotton industry. The image ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sacks Stacked in Storage Room, Pulley System Machinery Mounted along Wall
The Murgab estate near the town of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan) was a cotton center. The Murgab Oasis and the city of Merv (now Mary) were annexed by the Russian Empire in 1884. The oasis takes its name from the Murgab River, which flows from Afghanistan into Turkmenistan and forms part of the border between the two countries. Irrigation in that area enabled large-scale production of cotton and cotton byproducts, including press cake from cotton seed. Seen in this industrial building are sacks of press cake ready for shipping. In the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton Textile Mill Interior with Machines Producing Cotton Thread, Probably in Tashkent
Cotton was an essential raw material for the large textile mills of the Russian Empire, which underwent rapid industrialization in the late 19th-early 20th century. Russian authorities made concerted efforts to find sufficiently warm areas in the empire for the cultivation of this crop. This is an image of spinning machines in a cotton mill at the estate of Murgab near the town of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). The Murgab Oasis and the city of Merv (now Mary) were incorporated into the Russian Empire through negotiations in 1884. The oasis takes ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Machine Department. Oka River
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton Textile Mill Interior, Probably in Tashkent
Cotton was an essential raw material for the large textile mills of the Russian Empire, which underwent rapid industrialization in the late 19th-early 20th century. Russian authorities made concerted efforts to find sufficiently warm areas in the empire for the cultivation of this crop. This photograph shows a row of industrial cotton gins (machines that separated the cotton fibers from the seed bolls) at the factory on the estate of Murgab near Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). Cotton bolls can be seen inside the gin on the right. The image is by ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton Textile Mill Interior with Machines Producing Cotton Thread, Probably in Tashkent
Cotton was an essential raw material for the large textile mills of the Russian Empire, which underwent rapid industrialization in the late 19th-early 20th century. Russian authorities made concerted efforts to find sufficiently warm areas in the empire for the cultivation of this crop. Shown here are spinning machines in a cotton mill at the estate of Murgab near the town of Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). The Murgab Oasis and the city of Merv (now Mary) were incorporated into the Russian Empire through negotiations in 1884. The oasis takes its name ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton Textile Mill Interior, Probably in Tashkent
Cotton was an essential raw material for the large textile mills of the Russian Empire, which underwent rapid industrialization in the late 19th-early 20th century. Russian authorities made concerted efforts to find sufficiently warm areas in the empire for the cultivation of this crop. Shown here is a row of cotton gins (for separating the cotton fibers from the seed bolls) at the factory on the estate of Murgab near Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). On the tile floor are mounds of cotton bolls ready to be fed into the gins. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton Textile Mill Interior, Probably in Tashkent
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Cotton Textile Mill Interior, Probably in Tashkent
Cotton was an essential raw material for the large textile mills of the Russian Empire, which underwent rapid industrialization in the late 19th-early 20th century. Russian authorities made concerted efforts to find sufficiently warm areas in the empire for the cultivation of this crop. Shown here is a cotton bale press at the estate of Murgab near Bayramaly (present-day Turkmenistan). On the left is an example of a finished cotton bale. The Murgab Oasis was incorporated into the Russian Empire through negotiations in 1884. The oasis takes its name from ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Assembling a Generator, Westinghouse Works
Assembling a Generator, Westinghouse Works is one of 21 short films made at various Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company plants in April–May 1904 and shown at the Westinghouse Auditorium at the 1904 Saint Louis World’s Fair. The films average about three minutes each. This film, most likely made at the Westinghouse plant in East Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, shows a group of men at work on various parts of a large generator, assembling the pieces. A crane carries a large part over to the rest of the machine and the men ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Steam Hammer, Westinghouse Works, 1904
Steam Hammer, Westinghouse Works is one of 21 short films made at various Westinghouse Electric & Manufacturing Company plants in April–May 1904 and shown at the Westinghouse Auditorium at the 1904 St. Louis World’s Fair. The films average about three minutes each. This film, made at the Westinghouse plant in East Pittsburgh, shows workmen using an enormous steam hammer to fashion a large part for an industrial machine. With the help of a crane, the workers lift a block of heated steel from a furnace to a table, where ...
Contributed by Library of Congress