- Kings and rulers in art
- Fencing (1)
- Generals in art (1)
- Italy -- History -- 1815-1870 (1)
- Napoleon I, Emperor of the French, 1769-1821 (1)
- Napoleon III, Emperor of the French, 1808-1873 (1)
- Napoleonic Wars (1)
- Pius IX, Pope, 1792-1878 (1)
- Popes in art (1)
- Vatican Palace (Vatican City) (1)
- Victor Emmanuel II, King of Italy, 1820-1878 (1)
The Fencing Lesson
This original ink-and-watercolor caricature shows a petite, prancing Napoleon dueling with a heavy, domineering Gerhard Leberecht von Blücher, while a British sailor judges the match. The participants in the duel are backed by supporters: Napoleon’s faction includes French generals, while von Blücher’s includes German peasants and a Russian cossack. The caricature parodies political conditions at the time. Following Napoleon’s retreat from Russia, the Germanic states, led by Prussia, reentered the wars against Napoleon. At the time the caricature was made, Prussian incursions were the primary threat to ...
Relieving Guard at the Vatican
This pencil caricature depicts King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy and Napoleon III as soldiers changing guard, while Pope Pius IX peers around the corner. The caricature relates to the intricate maneuvering in the mid-19th century among France, Austria, the Papal States, and Italian nationalists that preceded the unification of Italy. French and Austrian troops had been in Rome to protect the Papal States since 1850, when Pius IX began to fear the rise of anti-papal nationalists. In 1858, the Sardinians entered into an agreement with Napoleon III to fight ...