61 results in English
Path of Eloquence
This manuscript is a copy of Nahj al-balāghah (Path of eloquence), the classic compendium of the sermons, writings, and aphorisms of ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (died 661), the fourth caliph. This work is especially revered by Shia Muslims who view ‘Ali and his descendants as the legitimate successors of the Prophet Muhammad. ‘Ali’s authorial voice is filtered here through his interpreter, Muhammad ibn al-Husayn, known as al-Sharif al-Radi (969 or 970–1016), who compiled the text from many early Islamic sources. The resulting anthology has led to debate over ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Radiances of Revelation and the Mysteries of Exegesis
Kitāb Anwār al-Tanzīl wa Asrār al-Ta’wīl (The radiances of revelation and the mysteries of exegesis) is the best-known work of the 13th century savant, ʻAbdallāh ibn ʻUmar al-Bayḍāwī (died circa 1286). As the title indicates, the subject of the work is Qurʼanic exegesis. After an introduction in which al-Bayḍāwī praises the science of al-tafsīr (exegesis) as the principal religious science and the basis for sharia (Islamic law), the text of the Qurʼan follows, with each ayah (verse) appearing in red ink accompanied by an explanatory passage in black ink ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Book of Taxation
Kitāb al-Kharāj (Book of taxation) is a classic text on fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), written by Abū Yusūf Yaʿqūb Ibrāhīm al-Anṣārī al-Kūfī (died 798; 182 A.H.) at the request of the Abbasid caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd (763 or 766-809). Abū Yusūf was the most famous student of Abū Ḥanīfa and along with his illustrious teacher is considered one of the founders of the Ḥanafī school of law. In the introduction to the book, Abū Yusūf describes how the caliph asked him to write a work treating the collection of al-kharāj (the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Treasure of Exactitudes: On the Doctrine of the Great Imam Abu Hanifah al-Nuʿman Ibn Thabit
Kanz al-daqāʼiq (The treasure of exactitudes) is a summary of Islamic legal prescriptions according to the Hanifite school of sharia law. It covers many aspects of ritual and of personal life, such as purity during menstruation, as well as obligations and procedures pertaining to marriage, divorce, inheritance and other aspects of gender relations. The work also covers commercial transactions, contracts, and manumission of slaves. The table of contents is in matrix form for easy reference to the book’s many subjects. It is not clear whether the author, al-Nasafi (died ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Images from Mecca
Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca) by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of absence to go to Jeddah and Mecca to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of the Mosque, While Congregational Salat Are Being Held inside
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Arabia: The Cradle of Islam
Samuel Zwemer (1867–1952) was an American Protestant missionary who lived for nine years in Bahrain and became a student of the Arab world and, especially, the Arabian Peninsula. Published in New York in 1900, Arabia: The Cradle of Islam contains detailed chapters on the geography of Arabia; the holy cities of Mecca and Medina; the Prophet Muhammad and the rise of Islam; the contemporary political scene on the Arabian Peninsula, including the rivalries among the British, Turks, and other powers; and the Arabic language and poetry. The book concludes ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Zigzag Journeys in the Camel Country: Arabia in Picture and Story
Samuel Zwemer (1867–1952) was an American missionary who became known as the “Apostle to Islam” for his strenuous, if not always successful, evangelization efforts in Islamic countries. He attended Hope College in Holland, Michigan, and the New Brunswick Seminary in New Jersey. In 1889 he and a classmate founded the American Arabian Mission, which later received sponsorship from the Reformed Church, and the next year he departed for the Arabian Peninsula. In 1896 he met and married Amy Wilkes (died 1937), an Australian fellow missionary and nurse. Together, the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Topsy-Turvy Land: Arabia Pictured for Children
Samuel Zwemer (1867–1952) was an American missionary who became known as the “Apostle to Islam” for his strenuous if not always successful evangelization efforts in Islamic countries. He attended Hope College in Holland, Michigan, and the New Brunswick Seminary in New Jersey. In 1889 he and a classmate founded the American Arabian Mission, which later received sponsorship from the Reformed Church. The next year he departed for the Arabian Peninsula. In 1896 he met and married Amy Wilkes (died 1937), an Australian fellow missionary and nurse. The Zwemers spent ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Arabia: Comprising Its Geography, History, and Topography
Josiah Conder (1789–1855) was a British publisher and author who wrote or compiled 33 volumes of travel literature about nearly every region of the world, including the Middle East. Conder himself never traveled abroad and composed his works by drawing upon the writings of earlier scholars and explorers. As indicated in the subtitle, Conder organized his book on Arabia into sections. He begins by describing the topography of the different regions of Arabia and such climatic phenomena as the semoum (poison) winds that blow across the Syrian Desert in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mohammedan History
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Mohammedan History is Number 57 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published in 1920, after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Part I of the book is an overview of the history of Islam from the time of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
An Offering for Religious Scholars
Tuḥfat al-ʻulamā’ (An offering for religious scholars) is ostensibly a tract addressed to the ʻulamā’ (religious scholars) of Afghanistan, asking them to actively discourage the suspicion held by their followers toward things foreign. It was written by order of the Afghan ruler Sher Ali Khan (reigned 1863–66 and 1868–79). Little is known of the author, ʻAbd al-Qadir Khan, although he is identified as a qāḍī (judge) indicating his religious authority. ʻAbd al-Qadir uses numerous quotations from the hadith literature to argue that practices originating with “non-believers” may ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
An Offering for Kings
Tuḥfat al-mulūk (An offering for kings) is a collection of dicta that was written by order of ʻAbd al-Rahman Khan (also seen as Abdur Rahman Khan), who ruled Afghanistan from 1880 to 1901. The work consists of an introduction and 40 miniature “chapters,” with each chapter containing a moral precept on improving religious, political, and social life. Chapter One states: “Four things lead to the preservation of the kingdom: the protecting of religion and concern for its well-being, a trustworthy vizier, the safe-guarding of resolve, [and] the safe-guarding of confidence ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Italian Libya
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Italian Libya is Number 127 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. It recounts how ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
French West Africa
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. French West Africa is Number 100 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study covers the Government-General of West Africa, which was formed in 1895 and reconstituted by a French ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Poems of Abundant Benefit with Chronograms by Sardār Ghulām Muḥammad Khān, Known as Ṭarzī Ṣāḥib Afghān, Together with his Chronograms
This work is a collection of poems in the qaṣīda (ode) form by Ghulām Muḥammad Khān (1830–1900), a prominent Pashto Afghan intellectual of the 19th century. Known by his pen name Ṭarzī (the Stylist), he was a member of the important Bārakzay tribe of Kandahār. In 1882 Ghulām Muḥammad Khān fell into disgrace with the Afghan ruler Amir ʿAbd-al-Raḥmān (reigned 1880−1901) and was expelled from Afghanistan along with his family. He spent three years in Karachi, before immigrating to Damascus, which was then part of the Ottoman Empire ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
From a Father to his Son: Letters on Education, Schooling, and the Arts
Min wālid ilā waladihi: wa-hiyya rasā'il fī al-tarbiyya wa-al-ta‛līm wa-al-ādāb (From a father to his son: Letters on education, schooling, and the arts) is a collection of the letters that the author wrote to his son, Jamāl al-Dīn Aḥmad Ḥāfiz ‛Awwaḍ, during the latter's student years at the American University in Beirut. The book was published in Cairo in 1923. The first six letters are mostly devoted to the expression of the father's love for his son and to general themes of education and schooling. The ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Fragrant Blossom: A Work on Manners, Society, and Letters
Arij al-zahr: kitab akhlaqi, ijtima’i, adabi (The fragrant blossom: A work on manners, society, and letters) is a collection of essays by Shaykh Mustafa al-Ghalayini, a Lebanese Muslim teacher, writer, and authority on Islamic law. The essays cover a number of subjects presented in a readable style. Ghalayini discusses what it means to be an elegant speaker and writer in the “proper Arabic way,” avoiding the influences of what he calls a‘ujmah (non-Arabic) or afranj (European) style. In other essays, he treats the nature of mankind, the obligations ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Ideal Way to Shed Traditions and Embrace First Principles
This printed work by Nūr al-Ḥasan b. Ṣiddīq b. Ḥasan Khan (also seen as al-Qannawjī) deals with taqlid (adherence to Islamic tradition) and ijthad (flexible interpretation of religious principles), issues that have occupied Muslim thinkers for 1,400 years. Al-Ṭarīqah al-muthlá fī al-irshād ilá tark al-taqlīd wa-ittibāʻ mā huwa al-awlá (The ideal way to shed traditions and embrace first principles) is in itself less important than the context in which it was published. The author was from the Muslim court of Bhopal in India. He was the son of a ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Judges’ Assistant for Issues Raised by Adversaries at Law
Mu’in al-hukam fi-ma yataraddudu bayn khusmin al-ahkam (The judges’ assistant for issues raised by adversaries at law) is a handbook of Islamic law procedure. It was written in the 15th century by ‘Ali ibn Khalil al-Tarabulsi, also known as ‘Ala’ al-Din ibn al-Hasan ‘Ali ibn Khalil al-Tarabulsi (or al-Tarabulusi), a Hanafi jurist in Jerusalem. After introducing his book with references to the singular importance of sharia (Islamic law) in the Qur’an and among the prophets, al-Tarabulsi proceeds to explain that he wrote in order to elucidate the principles ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
The Superabundance of the Commendable and the Reinforcement of the Yet-More Commendable: Poetry Collection
This diwan, Al-Faydh al- Muhammadi wa-al-Madad al-Ahmadi wa Huwa Diwan (The superabundance of the commendable and the reinforcement of the yet-more commendable: Poetry collection), is a book of poems, mostly in praise of the Prophet Muhammad or in supplication of his blessing and assistance. Some of the verses vary from this theme, for example, poetic prayers addressing Ahmad al-Rifa’i, founder of the famous Sufi order of which the author, Abū al-Hudá al-Ṣayyādī, was a prominent (and controversial) leader. Abu al-Huda was a prolific writer who rose from humble origins ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Illumination of the Virtues of the Family of the Most Favored Prophet
Nūr al-ibṣār fi manāqib Āl bayt al-Nabī al-mukhtār (Illumination of the virtues of the family of the Most Favored Prophet) is a collection of biographies of major personalities in Islamic history. It begins with narration of critical incidents in the life of the Prophet Muhammad, followed by biographies of Ahl al-Bayt (the Prophet’s family), the four earliest caliphs, and other significant figures of Islamic history, such as the founders of the four canonical legal traditions and the major Sufi orders. The author, Muʼmin ibn Ḥasan Muʼmin al-Shablanji (circa ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Defending the Qurʼan Against Slander
Tanzīh al-Qurʼān ʻan al-maṭāʻin (Defending the Qurʼan against slander) is a detailed commentary on the Qurʼan from the viewpoint of the early philosophical wing of Islamic speculative theology known as Mu’tazilah, which emphasized the oneness of the Godhead (Allah) and the primacy of human reason in understanding his will. This view gave rise to intense debate, with alternate views expressed by the rationalist Asharites and mystical adepts (Sufis). In Islamic intellectual history, philosophical speculation of this sort is termed ‘ilm al-kalam (science of discourse). As with many such abstract ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Discerning and Specifying the Circumstances of Revelation of the Noble Hadiīth
Al-Bayān wa-al-taʻrīf fī asbāb wurūd al-ḥadīth al-sharīf (Discerning and specifying the circumstances of revelation of the noble hadith) is a textual and contextual interpretation of the hadith (the statements and actions of the Prophet Muhammad), written by Ibrahim ibn Muhammad Kamal al-Din al-Husayni al-Dimashqi (1644 or 1645−1708). Hadith plays an important part in Islam, and the Prophet’s utterances and activities are integral to its scriptural tradition. In the introduction to the work, the author states that in some cases the circumstances of a hadith are clear from the ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Creation and History
Al-Badʼ wa-al-tārīkh (Creation and history) is a universal history from the Creation until the end of the reign of Abbasid caliph al-Muti in 974. It is not a particularly good example of historical scholarship. It is in large part a list of prophets and kings, leavened with stories derived from written sources, myths, scripture, and the personal thoughts of the author, as, for example, his reflection on the many religious traditions and practices of mankind. With the exception of a strongly worded introductory warning to the reader about those who ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Pilgrimage to the Caaba and Charing Cross
Hafiz Ahmed Hassan was an Indian Muslim, treasurer and advisor to the nawab of Tonk, Muhammad ‘Ali Khan (died 1895). Tonk was a principality in northwest India and is today part of the state of Rajasthan. When the nawab was deposed in 1867, the author accompanied him into exile, going first to Benares and then, in 1870, to the Muslim holy cities on pilgrimage. After completing the hajj, Hafiz proceeded to England where he spent a short time before returning to India. The focus of the book is his travel ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Leaves from an Afghan Scrapbook: The Experiences of an English Official and his Wife in Kabul
Ernest Thornton was an English official and industrial manager who in 1892 was engaged by the ruler of Afghanistan, Amir ʻAbd al-Rahman Khān (reigned 1880−1901), to establish a tannery and leather factory in Kabul. After encountering all manner of difficulties with the enterprise, Thornton resigned his post and left Afghanistan the following year. In late 1902, he received an offer from the Afghan government to return to Kabul to make another attempt at establishing a factory. Accompanied by his wife Annie, Thornton lived in Afghanistan in 1903−9, where ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Uganda Journal, Volume 22, Number 2, September 1958
The Uganda Literary and Scientific Society was established at Entebbe, Uganda Protectorate, in 1923. Its main activity consisted of the reading of papers and the delivery of lectures on topics relating to Uganda. In 1933 the society moved its headquarters to Kampala and decided to issue a regular publication, The Uganda Journal. The journal’s declared aim was “to collect and publish information which may add to our knowledge of Uganda and to record that which in the course of time might be lost.” Four issues per year were published ...
The Stanchion of Divine Precepts
ʻUmdat al-farāʼiz̤ (The stanchion of divine precepts) is a 1914 book on the laws of inheritance as described in the sharia (Islamic law). In the opening pages, the author, Nik Muhammad, formally praises the Afghan ruler Habibullah Khan (reigned 1901–19). He states that the book was written by decree of Prince Muʻin al-Saltana (i.e., Habibullah’s son, ‘Inayatullah Khan, who in 1929 would serve briefly as ruler of Afghanistan), and that it was printed by lithography at the Dar al-Saltana printing press in Kabul. The book includes a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
On the Obedience of the Ruler in Pashto
Risālah-i Puṣhto It̤āʻat-i ūlā al-amr (On the obedience of the ruler in Pashto) is a tract meant to encourage obedience to the ruler of Afghanistan. The expression ūlā al-amr refers to one who is foremost in authority, and the title of the book references a Qur’anic verse (5:59), “Oh Believers! Obey the Lord and the Prophet and those who are foremost in authority amongst you,” which is quoted at the beginning of the work. Numerous quotes from the hadith literature (primarily from the collection of al-Bukhari) follow ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Exposition of Realities Explaining “Treasury of Intricacies”
This six-volume work of al-shari’ah (Islamic law) is a commentary by ʻUthman ibn ʻAli al-Zaylaʻi (died 1342 or 1343) on a compendium of judgments by ʻAbd Allah ibn Ahmad Al-Nasafi (died 1310), a near contemporary of the author. Islamic legal texts are often accompanied by marginal commentaries and Tabayīn al-ḥaqāʼiq (Exposition of realities) is no exception. The main text by al-Zaylaʻi is accompanied in the margins by a commentary by Shihab al-Din Ahmad al-Shilbi (died 1611 or 1612). The manuscript thus contains al-Zaylaʻi’s commentary Tabayīn al-ḥaqāʼiq on ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Medina. Procession of the Maḥmal (Holy Carpet) through al-Manākha Square. 1914
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Medina. Main Gate (Bāb al-Salām) of the Holy Mosque at the Southwest Corner
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Medina. Old Minaret of the Holy Mosque, Built in 1483; the Green Dome over the Tomb of the Prophet was Built in 1840. 1910
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Medina. Courtyard (Southeast Corner) of the Holy Mosque with the Garden of Fāṭimah
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Medina. Al-Rawḍa. Southern, Oldest Part of the Mosque with the Graves of the Prophet and the First Two Caliphs, Abu Bakr and ʻUmar
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Medina. Al-Baqīʻ (Holy Cemetery). Right: al-Qubbat al-ʻAbbāsīyah
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Medina. Al-Baqīʻ (Holy Cemetery). Center: al-Ummahāt
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mecca. Bāb ʻAlī, Gate of the Holy Mosque at the East Corner; the Zamzam House is Visible through the Middle Door
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mecca. View of the Holy Mosque from the East Minaret. In the Foreground is the Zamzam House with the Kaaba Behind
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Encyclopedia of the Fourteenth Century A.H., Twentieth Century A.D.: A Reference for the Arabic Language and the Universal Sciences
This ten-volume encyclopedia is an effort to reconcile Islamic belief with the scientific and intellectual currents of the West early in the 20th century. Entirely the work of one man, Muhammad Farid Wajdi, or Wadjdi (1875−1954)‏, it is arranged in the same way as European reference works, i.e., alphabetically, with long essays on important topics. In each of these, the author argues that the Qurʼan and the prophetic traditions of Islam are predictive of or compatible with modern science and rational (but not materialistic) philosophies. The encyclopedia was ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
Movement of the Pilgrims through the Muna Valley to the Plain of Arafat. The Walled-In Pillar is the So-Called Second Satan (al-Jamrat al-Wusṭá)
This image is from Bilder aus Palästina, Nord-Arabien und dem Sinai (Images from Palestine, North Arabia, and the Sinai), an album of 105 photographs of scenes in the Middle East taken by German archeologist and orientalist Bernhard Moritz (1859–1939). The album includes views of Jerusalem, Mecca, Medina, Hejaz and Jiddah in Saudi Arabia, Petra in Jordan, and Mount Sinai in Egypt. Also shown are views of exteriors and interiors of temples, mosques, and archeological remains; street scenes in Mecca and Medina; small villages and views of the desert; and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress