12 results in English
Jewish Customs. Holiday Gathering
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Jewish Customs. External View of a Holiday Tent
This photograph is from the ethnographical part of Turkestan Album, a comprehensive visual survey of Central Asia undertaken after imperial Russia assumed control of the region in the 1860s. Commissioned by General Konstantin Petrovich von Kaufman (1818–82), the first governor-general of Russian Turkestan, the album is in four parts spanning six volumes: “Archaeological Part” (two volumes); “Ethnographic Part” (two volumes); “Trades Part” (one volume); and “Historical Part” (one volume). The principal compiler was Russian Orientalist Aleksandr L. Kun, who was assisted by Nikolai V. Bogaevskii. The album contains some ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Calculating Coptic Orthdox Easter
This manuscript deals with the calculation of Easter Sunday according to the Coptic calendar. Fixing this date each year governs much of the liturgical and devotional life of the Coptic Orthodox Church. The Coptic calendar begins in 284 AD, which is called Anno Martyrum (AM), or Year of the Martyrs. The first folio contains a table of the four seasons with their corresponding Coptic months and zodiacal signs. The following pages, some of which are torn or badly stained, provide instructions for calculating the movement of the moon and reconciling ...
Girl's Day
The Japanese art of Ukiyo-e (“Pictures of the floating [or sorrowful] world”) developed in the city of Edo (now Tokyo) during the Tokugawa or Edo Period (1600-1868), a relatively peaceful era during which the Tokugawa shoguns ruled Japan and made Edo the seat of power. The Ukiyo-e tradition of woodblock printing and painting continued into the 20th century. This print is one sheet of an illustrated book from between 1716 and 1736. It shows three richly dressed women or girls eating and drinking, probably celebrating Hina Matsuri (Girl's day ...
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Eid Blessings
This calligraphic fragment provides Arabic blessings to a ruler on the occasion of Eid (also seen as 'Id). A number of the patron's epithets and titles are included in the text, which is executed in black Naskh script on a beige paper. The words are fully vocalized in black and are framed by cloud bands on a gold background. The text panel is framed by a border decorated with red, blue, and green flower and vine motifs and is pasted to a larger salmon-orange colored piece of paper backed ...
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'Id (Feast Day) Poem
This calligraphic panel includes a ruba'i (iambic pentameter quatrain), signed and dated in the lower-left corner by the calligrapher Mir Muhammad Salih: “written by Mir Muhammad Salih, 1225” (AD 1810). Although little is known about the calligrapher, the date proves that this work dates from the early 19th century. The text is executed in black (Indian) naskh script on a beige sheet of paper, framed in a blue border decorated with gold leaf and vine motifs. Before the quatrain begins, a short invocation of God that reads "he is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
'Id (Feast Day) Prayer
This calligraphic fragment includes a poetical prayer wishing its owner happiness and prosperity on the occasion of the 'id (also seen as 'Id and Eid) festival of Noruz (New Year). Beginning with a (now barely legible) invocation to huwa ar-Raheem (God as the Glorious), the verses then read: “Oh, your face is 'id and your eyebrow is the moon of 'id / May your month and year be auspicious and happy / May my eye not be bright without seeing you / The arch of your eyebrow is the prayer direction of (all ...
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Noruz (New Year’s) Poem
This calligraphic panel includes a ruba'i (iambic pentameter quatrain) signed by the calligrapher Agha'i. He has signed his work: "written by the poor Agha'i." Unfortunately, nothing is known about this calligrapher, and the approximate date of the piece (17th−18th centuries) must remain conjectural. The quatrain is written in black nasta'liq script on a piece of paper framed in blue and pasted to a brown paper strengthened with cardboard. The poem reads as follows: “For you, Pride of Government and Religion / May happiness be your aide ...
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'Id (Feast Day) Blessing
This calligraphic panel executed in nasta'liq script on a beige paper sprinkled with gold flecks is provided with a (water-damaged) frame and is pasted to a brown piece of paper strengthened with cardboard. Between the two lines of calligraphy, which offer a prayer to a ruler on the occasion of 'id (also seen as 'Id and Eid), appears another small fragment cut out and pasted in the center right. It reads: "In the name of Muhammad and Muhammad's family [prayers upon them].” The two main lines of calligraphy ...
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'Id (Feast Day) Quatrain
This calligraphic fragment shows a ruba'i (iambic pentameter quatrain), written in nasta'liq script by the calligrapher Muhammad Qamar al-Din. He has signed the quatrain in the lower-left corner with the expression "katabahu [written by] Muhammad Qamar al-Din." Nothing is known about this calligrapher, although the steady nasta'liq script suggests that it was executed in Persia (Iran) during the 16th or 17th centuries. The text is framed by cloud bands executed in black ink and highlighted with gold paint, around which a blue frame with interlacing gold vine ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Good Wishes for Eid
This calligraphic fragment includes four lines in Persian wishing its owner good fortune and happiness on the occasion of Eid (also seen as 'Id). Initiated by praise to “huwa al-'aziz” (God, the Glorified), the verses read: “Oh, the joy of Eid is from your name / The comfort of the world is from your peacefulness / The bubbling of the sky reaches the celestial spheres / The wine of chance is in your glass.” The verses are written in black Thuluth script on a beige paper framed by cloud bands and placed ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Letter on Birch Bark from Siberia by Matilde Kaktiņa, June 10, 1951
On August 5, 1940, the independent country of Latvia was forcibly incorporated into the Soviet Union, after having been occupied by the Red Army in June of that year. Estonia and Lithuania suffered a similar fate. Thousands of Latvians were arrested for having anti-Soviet views, taking part in resistance movements, being farmers, belonging to political parties, or refusing to join a collective farm. Many were deported to Siberia. People who were in prisons, concentration camps, or settlements in Siberia wrote letters to friends and relatives on birch bark, which was ...