33 results in English
Representatives of the First Iranian Parliament
This photograph shows the representatives of the first Iranian Majles (parliament) in front of the military academy, which served as the first parliament building. In the 1870s–early 20th century, leading political figures in Iran concluded that the only way to save country from government corruption and foreign manipulation was to make a written code of laws, an attitude that laid the foundation for the Iranian Constitutional Revolution of 1905–7. The movement for a constitution bore fruit during the reign of Muẓaffar ad-Dīn Shah of the Qajar dynasty, who ...
First View of the City of Mecca: Left in the Background Is the Rampart of Jiyād. The Big Building to the Right Is the Ḥamīdiyyah, Nearby to the Left Is the Printing House
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
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The Printing House (Founded a Few Years Earlier) in Mecca
This rare photograph is from Bilder aus Mecca (Images from Mecca), an album by the Dutch orientalist Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857–1936) that is one of the earliest works by a non-Arab to document Mecca and the hajj in photographs. Hurgronje studied at Leiden University, where he earned a doctorate in Semitic languages and literature with a dissertation on Mecca and the pilgrim rituals and their historical background. He became a teacher at the Leiden training college for East Indian officials. In 1884–85 he was granted a leave of ...
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Partial View of the Destroyed Balcony of the Ministry of Finance
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
General View of the Ministry of Finance
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Palais de Justice. Court of Cassation
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Police Headquarters on the Rue de Jérusalem
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
The Palais de Justice and Sainte-Chapelle
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Palais de Justice
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Palais de Justice: The Great Hall and Clock Tower
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Storthings Bygningen, Christiania, Norway
The Storthings Byningen is the hall of the Norwegian parliament, which was completed in 1866. This photomechanical print from the Detroit Publishing Company shows how it appeared in the last decade of the 19th century. Oslo, the present-day capital of Norway, was called Christiania from 1624 to 1878 (Kristiania from 1878 to 1924). It was named after King Christian IV of Denmark, which was part of a Nordic union with Norway for more than 400 years.
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Union Buildings in Pretoria, South Africa
This photograph shows the eastern facade of the Union Buildings in Pretoria, South Africa. These buildings, 285-meters long and built from light sand stone, were designed in the English monumental style by the architect Sir Herbert Baker (1862-1946). The cornerstone was laid in November 1910, shortly after the Union of South Africa was formed. Construction was completed in 1913, at a cost of £1,310,640 for the buildings and £350,000 for the building site. The stamp on the back of the photograph reads: “Alan Yates, 240 Andries str ...
City Hall and Fire Tower (Mid-19th Century), Ustiuzhna, Russia
This view of the fire tower (kalancha) and town hall (gorodskaia duma) in Ustiuzhna (Vologda Oblast) was taken in 1998 by Dr. William Brumfield, American photographer and historian of Russian architecture, as part of the "Meeting of Frontiers" project at the Library of Congress. Located on the Mologa River (a tributary of the Volga River), Ustiuzhna was known already in the mid-13th century for its rich deposits of bog iron, which led to its development as one of the earliest Russian centers of metalworking. Fire was a perennial scourge of ...
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Maison du Franc, Bruges, Belgium
This photochrome print of the Maison du Franc in Bruges is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The Maison du Franc, also known as Landhuis van het Brugse Vrije (Palace of the Liberty of Bruges) was built in the 1720s, on the basis of the designs of the architect Jan van der Cruycen, and stands at the center of Bruges on the site of an older, 16th-century building. The structure, whose architecture reflects classical and baroque elements ...
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Palace of the Nation, Brussels, Belgium
This photochrome print of the Palace of the Nation in Brussels is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites in Belgium” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The Paleis der Natie, or Palais de la Nation, is a neoclassical building that faces the Royal Palace, or Palais Royal, and that has served as the seat of the Belgian parliament since the country’s independence in 1830. The building was constructed in 1779–83 for the assemblies of the old Council of Brabant, according to a design ...
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Hôtel de Ville, Paris, France
This photochrome print of the Hôtel de Ville, or Paris city hall, is part of “Views of Architecture, Monuments, and Other Sites in France” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The building depicted is the reconstructed version of the original Hôtel de Ville, which was built in 1533 and destroyed in 1871 during the upheavals of the Paris Commune. The reconstruction, undertaken by the French architects Theodore Ballu (1817–85) and Edouard Deperthes (1833–98), took place between 1876 and 1884 and resulted in an enlarged and ...
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The Luxembourg Palace, Paris, France
This photochrome print of the Palais du Luxembourg is part of “Views of Architecture, Monuments, and Other Sites in France” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). This palace, which today is the seat of the French Senate, was built between 1615 and 1620 by the French architect Salomon de Brosse (1571–1626) on the site of an older palace, the Hotel du Luxembourg. According to the 1900 edition of Baedeker's Paris and its Environs, with routes from London to Paris: Handbook for Travellers, the palace “bears ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Kremlin towards the Place Rouge, Moscow, Russia
This photochrome print of the Moscow Kremlin is part of “Views of Architecture and Other Sites Primarily in Poland, Russia, and the Ukraine” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The Kremlin is the seat of the Russian government. The word kremlin comes from the Russian for “fortification” or “citadel.” The first settlement on this site, a wooden fort, was built by the founder of Moscow, Yuri Dolgoruky, in 1147, but the structure was not given the name Kremlin until 1331. As described by Baedeker’s Russia with ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Town Hall, Berne, Switzerland
This photochrome print of the town hall in Bern is part of “Views of Switzerland” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). Baedeker’s Switzerland and the adjacent portions of Italy, Savoy, and Tyrol (1913) described the building as the “Rathaus or Cantonal Hall, erected in 1406-16 in the Burgundian late-Gothic style, with a modern facade approached by a covered flight of steps, and adorned with the arms of the Bernese districts.” This structure still serves as the seat of the cantonal Grand Council in Bern.
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Vienna 1, Parliament
Rudolf von Alt (1812–1905) was an Austrian painter, draughtsman, and printmaker known for his city scenes, landscapes, and interiors. Shown here is Alt’s ink drawing with white heightening of the parliament building in Vienna, signed and dated 1885 in the lower right-hand corner. Located in the Innere Stadt (Inner City), or the first district of Vienna (“Vienna 1”), the neoclassical structure was built in 1874–83 by Danish architect Baron Theophil Edvard von Hansen (1813–91). It served as the meeting place of the two chambers of the ...
Contributed by Austrian National Library
Palace of Justice, Tangier, Morocco
This photomechanical print shows the Palace of Justice, inside the Tangier Kasbah, as it appeared in the last decade of the 19th century. At the time the photo was taken, Tangier was the capital of Morocco. Located on a bay of the Strait of Gibraltar across from the southern tip of Spain, Tangier was home to Arabs, Jews, and many Westerners, including artists and writers. The African-American artist Henry Ossawa Tanner (1859-1937) painted the same building in around 1912-13. The painting can be seen in the Smithsonian American Art Museum ...
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Partial View of the Ministry of Finance
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Interior of Governors Palace, Algiers, Algeria
This photochrome print of the governor’s palace in Algiers is part of “Views of People and Sites in Algeria” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The palace, Dar Hassan Pacha, was described in the 1911 edition of Baedeker’s The Mediterranean, seaports and sea routes: Handbook for Travellers as having been “one of the latest specimens of Moorish-Turkish architecture in Algeria; but it has been entirely remodeled to suit its present purpose and has been provided with a new façade.” Pasha Hassan, finance minister to the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Seraskierat (i.e., Seraskerat) (War Ministry), Constantinople, Turkey
This photochrome print of the Seraskerat (Ministry of War) in Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) is part of “Views of People and Sites in Turkey” from the catalog of the Detroit Publishing Company (1905). The 1911 edition of Baedeker’s The Mediterranean, seaports and sea routes: Handbook for Travellers described how “the Serasker Kapu, the modern southern gateway, leads into the court, now a drilling-ground, of the Seraskerat (ministry of war). Here once stood the Eski-Serai, the oldest palace of the sultans. The Serasker Tower, about 200 feet [61 meters] high, built ...
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Kreshchatik Square
This view of Kreshchatik (or Khreshchatyk) Square is from Souvenir of Kiev, an early 20th-century album showing the main sites of Kiev, the capital of Ukraine and at that time one of the most important cities of the Russian Empire. Kreshchatik Square (later called Duma Square and today known as Independence Square) is located in the city center on Kreshchatik, Kiev’s main thoroughfare. In the center of the picture is the building of the Kiev city Duma (council), which was built in 1876. The statue atop the spire on ...
Northeast View of the Old Court House in Market Street, Philadelphia
This lithographic print shows the Old Court House in Market Street, Philadelphia, built in 1707−10 by carpenter Samuel Powell after the justices complained of having to hold court in an ale-house. The lower level was originally a watch-house, and the courtroom was on the second story. Official proclamations were read from the balcony, which was also where newly appointed governors of Pennsylvania made their inaugural addresses and elections for the county and city of Philadelphia were held before the State House was built. A cupola on the roof held ...
Southwest View of the Old Court House in Market Street, Philadelphia at the Time of its Being Taken Down (7th April 1837)
This lithographic print shows the Old Court House in Market Street, Philadelphia, constructed in 1707−10 after the justices complained of having to hold court in an ale-house. In its first four decades, the building fulfilled a number of municipal functions, including those of watch-house, courtroom, and site of official proclamations, inaugural addresses by newly elected governors of Pennsylvania, and elections for the county and city of Philadelphia. A cupola on the roof held the town bell. The print is by William L. Breton (circa 1773−1855), a British-born watercolorist ...
U.S. Mint, Philadelphia
This lithograph print shows the second building of the United States Mint, which needed more space for its rising production than was afforded by its first structure. The new Mint opened in 1833 and was designed by William Strickland (1788–1854) in the early Greek Revival style. It is a simple building with two stories and a basement. Its wide flight of stairs, portico, and Ionic columns appear both dignified and inviting. The print is by John Caspar Wild (circa 1804−46) a Swiss-born artist and lithographer, who arrived in ...
United States Bank, Chestnut Street, Philadelphia
This lithograph shows the United States Bank, also called the Second Bank of the United States (because it was the second federally authorized national bank), on the 400 block of the south side of Chestnut Street, Philadelphia. Its functions included regulation of the currency and handling fiscal transactions for the U.S. government. The bank was constructed in 1818−24 to designs by Philadelphia architect William Strickland (1787–1854) and was one of the first Greek Revival buildings in the country, apparently modeled on the Parthenon in Athens. The building ...
State House. Philadelphia
This lithographic print shows the State House (Independence Hall) on Chestnut Street between 5th and 6th Streets in Philadelphia. Completed in 1753, to designs by Edmund Woolley and Andrew Hamilton, it first served as the colonial legislature for Pennsylvania. The building is best known as the site where the Declaration of Independence was adopted in 1776. The Greek Revival facade shown here was added by architect John Haviland in 1830. The print is by John Caspar Wild (circa 1804-46), a Swiss-born artist and lithographer who arrived in Philadelphia from Paris ...
Custom House. Late U.S. Bank
This view looking east shows the Custom House, formerly the Second Bank of the United States, built in 1821–24 after the designs of William Strickland (1788–1854) at 420 Chestnut Street in Philadelphia. Also visible is the neighboring Bank of Philadelphia, completed in 1837, also after the designs of Strickland, at 400–408 Chestnut Street. Pedestrians traverse the sidewalks in front of the banks and across from the buildings. Couples promenade and greet each other and patrons convene in front of the Bank of Philadelphia. Also seen are two ...
Panorama of Philadelphia from the State House Steeple. East
This print is a panoramic view of Philadelphia as seen looking east toward the Delaware River from the State House (Independence Hall) steeple. The area of the city shown is mainly east of Fifth Street between Arch and South Streets. The numbered key indicates 11 landmarks visible in the print: (1) the Court House, i.e. City Hall; (2) the Philadelphia Library, i.e., Library Company of Philadelphia; (3) United States Bank, i.e., Second Bank of the United States; (4) Philadelphia Bank; (5) Girard Bank; (6) Pennsylvania Bank; (7 ...
A Plan of the City and Environs of Philadelphia, 1777
This map of Philadelphia was published in London in 1777 by William Faden, successor to Thomas Jefferys as royal geographer to King George III. It is based on a 1752 map prepared by Nicholas Scull (circa 1687–1762) and George Heap (flourished 1715–60), updated with new details. An important addition to the 1777 map is the shading to indicate the expansion of the city from the waterfront along the Delaware River. One of the largest and most prosperous cities in mid-18th century British North America, Philadelphia was laid out ...
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