64 results in English
The Diary of Mansai
Mansai (1378−1435) was an abbot of the Daigo-ji Temple in the early Muromachi period (14th−15th centuries). Born into an aristocratic family, Mansai was adopted by Shogun Ashikaga Yoshimitsu and ordained into the priesthood. He served three shoguns, not only as a priest but also as a political adviser and close associate. Mansai witnessed many important events in politics, foreign relations, literature, and society and was privy to the top secrets of the nation. Mansai jugō nikki (The diary of Mansai) is thus an important historical source. The National ...
Contributed by National Diet Library
Serbia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Serbia is Number 20 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Serbia was a powerful medieval kingdom conquered by the Ottoman Turks in 1459. The Serbs regained their independence in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Greece with the Cyclades and Northern Sporades
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Greece with the Cyclades & Northern Sporades is Number 18 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Turkey in Europe
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Turkey in Europe is Number 16 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. By 1914, when the war began, the Ottoman Empire had lost most of its once-extensive territories in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Albania
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Albania is Number 17 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Albania was conquered by the Ottomans in the middle of the 15th century and did not achieve full independence from ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Belgium
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Belgium is Number 26 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. The section on geography ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Bulgaria
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Bulgaria is Number 22 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Bulgaria was a powerful medieval kingdom that came under the control of the Ottoman Turks in the 14th century. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Dahomey
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Dahomey is Number 105 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Dahomey (present-day Benin) was an African kingdom that arose most likely in the second quarter of the 17th century. It ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Japan
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Japan is Number 73 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Written by John Harington Gubbins (1852−1929), a former British Foreign Office official and secretary of the British Legation in ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Upper Senegal and Niger
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Upper Senegal and Niger is Number 107 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Upper Senegal and Niger was a French colony, established in 1904 as part of the Government-General of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Macao
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Macao is Number 81 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Macau was at that time a colony of Portugal, leased by China to the Portuguese as a trading port. The ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kenya, Uganda and Zanzibar
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Kenya, Uganda, and Zanzibar is Number 96 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. As explained in an editorial note, in 1920 the British East Africa Protectorate became a colony and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kiaochow and Weihaiwei
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Kiaochow and Weihaiwei is Number 71 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Kiaochow (present-day Jiaoxian) is a port city in northeastern China that was seized by Germany in 1897 and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Liberia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Liberia is Number 130 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Liberia was originally founded by the American Colonization Society as a homeland for liberated slaves from the United States. It ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Gold Coast
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Gold Coast is Number 93 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Gold Coast (present-day Ghana) was comprised of the Gold Coast Colony, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, and two ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Greenland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Greenland is Number 132 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. At the time the study was written, Greenland was a Danish colony, its political and commercial affairs managed from Copenhagen ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
International Canals
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. International Canals is Number 150 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Written by Edward Arthur Whittuck (1844−1924), a specialist in Roman and international law associated with the University of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
International Congresses
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. International Congresses is Number 151 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Written by Sir Ernest Satow (1843–1929), a prominent British diplomat and scholar, the study is one of relatively ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
International Rivers
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. International Rivers is Number 149 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study was written by Belgian legal scholar Georges Kaeckenbeeck (1892–1973) and thus is one of relatively few ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
French West Africa
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. French West Africa is Number 100 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The study covers the Government-General of West Africa, which was formed in 1895 and reconstituted by a French ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Gambia
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Gambia is Number 91 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Gambia (the present-day Republic of Gambia) was a British-controlled territory, located on the Atlantic Coast of Africa and completely surrounded ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
German Opinion on National Policy Prior to July 1914: Part I
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. German Opinion on National Policy Prior to July 1914: Part I is Number 155 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book consists entirely of short excerpts, translated from German ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
German Opinion on National Policy Since July 1914
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. German Opinion on National Policy Since July 1914 is Number 157 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book consists entirely of short excerpts from books, speeches, and other statements ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Anglo-Egyptian Sudan
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Anglo-Egyptian Sudan is Number 98 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Encompassing the territories of the present-day Republic of the Sudan and the Republic of South Sudan, Anglo-Egyptian Sudan was ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Angola (Including Cabinda)
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Angola (Including Cabinda) is Number 120 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Angola (present-day Republic of Angola) was a Portuguese colony located on the west coast of Africa, first occupied ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Austrian Littoral
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. The Austrian Littoral is Number 10 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Austrian Littoral (known in German as Küstenland) was a province of the Austro-Hungarian Empire that comprised the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Nyasaland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Nyasaland is Number 95 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Nyasaland (present-day Malawi) takes its name from Lake Nyasa. In September 1859 the Scottish explorer and missionary David Livingstone became ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
New Hebrides
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. New Hebrides is Number 147 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The New Hebrides (present-day Vanuatu) is a chain of 13 large and many smaller islands in the southwestern Pacific ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Nigeria
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Nigeria is Number 94 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria was a British-administered territory, created from the amalgamation of the Colony and Protectorate of ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Mozambique
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Mozambique is Number 121 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The Portuguese presence in this large territory along the east coast of Africa (also known as Portuguese East Africa) goes ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Manchuria
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Manchuria is Number 69 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, and economic conditions. A note indicates that the section on political ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Siam
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Siam is Number 74 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Written by Josiah Crosby, the British consul-general in Bangkok, the study is one of relatively few in the series issued ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sierra Leone
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Sierra Leone is Number 92 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. The book covers physical and political geography, political history, social and political conditions, and economic conditions. Sierra Leone was ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Spanish Morocco
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Spanish Morocco is Number 122 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. At the time this study was written, Spanish Morocco was made up of two zones, a northern zone consisting ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Sumatra
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Sumatra is Number 83 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Part of present-day Indonesia, Sumatra was at that time ruled by the Netherlands as part of the Dutch East Indies ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Togoland
In preparation for the peace conference that was expected to follow World War I, in the spring of 1917 the British Foreign Office established a special section responsible for preparing background information for use by British delegates to the conference. Togoland is Number 110 in a series of more than 160 studies produced by the section, most of which were published after the conclusion of the 1919 Paris Peace Conference. Located on the Gulf of Guinea in West Africa, Togoland was a German protectorate during the late 19th and early ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Thirty-two Years with Islam (1832-1864)
Trente-deux ans a travers l'Islam (1832-1864) (Thirty-two years with Islam [1832-1864]) is a memoir by French soldier and diplomat Léon Roches (1809−1901), covering his career in North Africa and other parts of the Middle East, including a brief sojourn in Mecca. It is based on his diary and on correspondence that he reviewed following his retirement from government service. Beginning with his first arrival in French Algeria in 1832, the author recounts his diplomatic and military assignments in Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, Egypt, and Arabia. His mastery of Arabic ...
Contributed by Qatar National Library
History of Islamic Conquests
Tarikh-e Futuhat-e Islamiyah (History of Islamic conquests) is a two volume work chronicling Islamic historical events, particularly wars, battles, and conquests. It is also known as Tawarikh-e Islam (History of Islam) and Futuhat-e nabawai (Conquests of the Prophet). This lithographic copy is a Persian translation from the original Arabic work by Sayyid Ahmad ibn Sayyid Zayni Dahlan (1816 or 1817−86), an eminent scholar of Mecca and Medina. The translation was a collective effort by “scholars of Herat . . . for an Afghan audience to know about the history of Islam.” It ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
The Sun of the Day, Volume 1, Number 9, January 1874
Shams al-nahār (The sun of the day) is the earliest printed periodical published in Afghanistan. It is written in the Dari language. The Afghan ruler Sher ʻAlī Khān (reigned 1863−66 and 1868−79) introduced the printing press to Afghanistan following a trip to India, where he appears to have been impressed by technological advances under the British Raj. At least three lithographic presses are known to have been operating in Kabul during the second period of Sher ʻAlī Khān’s rule: the Shams al-nahār, the Murtaḍāwī, and the Muṣṭafawī ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
South Korea, American Legation Secretary and Staff
This image, showing William Woodville Rockhill and his staff, is one of 43 photographs of Korea taken by George Clayton Foulk between 1883 and 1886 and held at the American Geographical Society Library at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. Foulk’s note on the image reads: “Korea, Secretary Rockhill and staff; U.S. Legation, December 11, 1886.” Rockhill was a U.S. diplomat who served in China and was a leading scholar in Chinese and Tibetan studies. Foulk was a young naval officer who served as a U.S. diplomat in ...
The Cradle of the War: The Near East and Pan-Germanism
The Cradle of the War: The Near East and Pan-Germanism is a study of the origins of World War I. The author, Henry Charles Woods (1881−1939), argues that the main cause of the conflict was “the Pan-German desire for domination from Hamburg to the Persian Gulf.” The book offers an overview of political and military developments in the Near East (defined as the Balkan Peninsula and Asia Minor), with chapters on Serbia and Montenegro, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Greece, and Albania. Later chapters cover military highways in the Balkans, the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Afghanistan
Angus Hamilton was a British journalist who reported for a number of newspapers and journals between 1894 and 1912. Among the events he covered were the Boer War in South Africa, the Boxer uprising in China, and the Russo-Japanese War of 1904–5. Like most books of this period, Afghanistan approaches its subject through the prism of the rivalry between Great Britain and Russia for influence in Central Asia, the so-called “Great Game.” The first chapter is devoted to the Orenburg−Tashkent Railway (in present-day Russia, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan) recently ...
Contributed by Library of Congress