94 results in English
Kiev-Mezhyhirya Earthenware Factory
This book is a compilation of articles about the famed Kiev-Mezhyhirya Earthenware Factory, which was part of the 10th-century Mezhyhirya Monastery. The factory was founded at the end of the 18th century and produced such quantities of faience that by the mid-19th century it was the largest industrial enterprise in Kiev. The first part of the book is dedicated to the history of the factory, and includes details and illustrations of the wide range of its products, both decorative pieces and more practical ones. The factory hallmarks (seals) are shown ...
Cartridge Factory on Avenue Rapp after the Explosion
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Cartridge Factory on Avenue Rapp after the Explosion
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Salmon Canneries of the Pacific Northwest
In the late 19th century, salmon canneries became a major industry along the Pacific coastline of the United States and Canada. American fishing interests in the Pacific Northwest pressed for the Alaska Purchase in 1867 and strongly shaped regional politics up until the turn of the 20th century. Imperial Russia had imposed limits on Americans fishing in Alaskan waters. After Russia sold Alaska to the United States in 1867, Americans gained access to new fishing grounds, including some of the world’s best salmon runs. The combination of access to ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Rapp Cartridge Factory After the Explosion: Avenue Rapp
The Franco-Prussian War was brought about by rising tensions between France and Prussia in the 1860s. France, under Emperor Napoleon III, was determined to check the growth of Prussian power and avenge what it saw as a series of diplomatic humiliations. Prussia, under Chancellor Otto von Bismarck, believed that a Prussian-led war of the German states against France would be a decisive act leading to creation of a unified German empire. The conflict began on July 19, 1870, when France declared war. The French army proved woefully unprepared and suffered ...
Minas and Rio Railway, Brazil: Brick Factory, at Kilometer 4
The Minas and Rio Railway, also known as the Rio Verde Railway, was opened for traffic on July 14th, 1884, in the presence of Emperor Pedro II (1825–91), his daughter Princess Isabel, and her husband, Prince Gastão de Orléans, conde d’Eu. The British-owned and constructed line ran from Cruzeiro in the interior of the state of São Paulo, across the Mantiqueira Mountains, and through cities and towns in the southern part of the state of Minas Gerais as far as Três Corações do Rio Verde. The line played ...
Nankou Machinery Management Bureau
The title of this photograph indicates that this building houses the Nankou Machinery Management Bureau, located near the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line, but no signs are visible. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed, built, and financed by the Chinese, without foreign involvement. The photographs in the album were taken between 1905 and 1909 by ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Nankou Transport Machinery Company
The title of this photograph indicates that this building houses the Nankou Transport Machinery Company, located on the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. Standing in front of the building is a group of workers. At the front and center of the image is a tall structure used for loading and unloading freight. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Nankou General Railway Materials Works
This photograph shows the buildings of the Nankou General Railway Materials Works, situated at the foot of a mountain and near the Jing-Zhang (or Beijing-Zhangjiakou) railroad line. The sign on the door of the main building is illegible. On the right, workers stand in front of piles of packages. The photograph is from Jing-Zhang lu gong cuo ying (Photographs of the Jing-Zhang Railway construction), an album issued in 1909 to mark the opening of the Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway (formerly known as the Imperial Peking-Kalgan Railway), the first railroad in China designed ...
Contributed by National Library of China
Spinner in Vivian Cotton Mills, Cherryville, North Carolina: Been at it Two Years. Where Will Her Good Looks Be in Ten Years?
This image of a young girl working in a North Carolina textile mill in the early 20th century is from the Records of the National Child Labor Committee (NCLC) at the Library of Congress. The photograph is attributed to Lewis W. Hine (1874-1940), one of the leading American documentary photographers of the Progressive Era. Best known for his photography of urban social conditions in New York City, Hine also investigated conditions at cotton mills across the Carolina Piedmont. Working with the Reverend Alfred E. Seddon and journalist A.H. Ulm ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Weighing Section. Chakva Tea Factory
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
The War of Munitions. How Great Britain Has Mobilised Her Industries
This 1917 poster, showing 14 vignettes of the British armaments industry and armed forces, provides detailed information about the mobilization of national human and industrial resources by Great Britain during World War I. It notes that there “are 2 ½ million persons engaged on Government work in Munition trades, of whom nearly half a million are women.” Figures are given regarding huge increases in the production of bombs, machine guns, ammunition, and heavy guns, and in the number of national arsenals. The poster also provides information about the growth and ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Teifel Cardboard Factory in the Village of Uslanka. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Loparev Cardboard Factory. Belyi Ruchei. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View of Kamenskii Factory with the Dam. Kamensk-Uralskii
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Satkinskii State Plant
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View of the Factory. Kovzha. Russian Empire
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Petrozavodsk. General View of the Factory
Construction of a new railroad to the ice-free port of Murmansk lasted from 1914 to the spring of 1917, when it was connected to the capital, then called Petrograd. Among the towns in this northern area along the route was Petrozavodsk (“Peter’s factory”), founded in September 1703, just four months after Saint Petersburg. Tsar Peter I (the Great) needed an additional iron works to supply his military, and his associate Alexander Menshikov discovered an appropriate site where the Shuya River enters Lake Onega. The works were subsequently renamed the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Samedov Cotton Plant. Petropavlovskoe. Mugan Steppe
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress
Verkh-Isetskii Factory near the City of Ekaterinburg
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. This photograph shows the Verkh-Isetskii Zavod (factory on the Upper Iset’), one of the earliest settlements near the town of Ekaterinburg. The factory in the settlement was established in 1726, after Peter the Great implemented a strategy to build metalworking facilities near iron ore sources in the Urals. Hydraulic power for the factory came from a large pond ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Factory Settlement of the Verkh-Isetskii Factory. Ekaterinburg
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. The caption for this image mistakenly identifies the subject as the Verkh-Isetskii factory. It is actually a photograph taken in 1909 of central Ekaterinburg (named Sverdlovsk 1924–91), and it clearly shows the churches and bell towers of the town. On the outskirts of the town are houses typical of the region, built of wood on a brick ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Gates of the Imperial Lapidary Works. Ekaterinburg
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. In 1909 and 1910 he photographed extensively in the Urals region, including the city of Ekaterinburg (named Sverdlovsk 1924–91). Seen in this photograph from 1909 is a wall segment of the main city dam with a plaque commemorating the founding of the city. (The caption mistakenly identifies it as the gate to the Imperial Lapidary Factory, which ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of Kamenskii Cast Iron Smelting Factory. Kamensk-Uralskii
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. This 1909 photograph shows the settlement of Kamenskii Iron Foundry (now Kamensk-Uralskii), located to the southeast of Ekaterinburg at the confluence of the small Kamenka River with the Iset’ River. The oldest iron plant in the Urals, the Kamenskii Foundry had its origins in 1682 with the construction of a small ironworks by monks of the Dalmatovskii Dormition ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of Kamenskii Cast Iron Smelting Factory. Kamensk-Uralskii
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. This 1909 photograph shows the settlement of Kamenskii Iron Foundry (now Kamensk-Uralskii), located to the southeast of Ekaterinburg at the confluence of the small Kamenka River (seen in the background) with the Iset’ River. The Kamenskii Foundry had its origins in 1682 with the construction of a small ironworks by monks of the Dalmatovskii Dormition Monastery, situated down ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Kamenskii Factory with Workers' Housing. Kamensk-Uralskii
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. This 1909 photograph shows the settlement of Kamenskii Iron Foundry (now Kamensk-Uralskii), located to the southeast of Ekaterinburg at the confluence of the small Kamenka River (seen in the background) with the Iset’ River. The Kamenskii Foundry had its origins in 1682 and was greatly expanded by the state during the reign of Peter I. In the 1820s ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of the Kasli Plant
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. Among the towns Prokudin-Gorskii visited in 1909 was Kasli (in present-day Chelyabinsk Oblast). Kasli had a number of metalworking enterprises centered on an iron smelter and foundry established in 1747 by Timofei Korobkov. In 1751 the factory was bought by the Demidov family; it subsequently was acquired by various owners in the 19th century. The Kasli plant still ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Molding Shop at the Kasli Plant
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. Among the towns Prokudin-Gorskii visited in 1909 was Kasli (in present-day Chelyabinsk Oblast). Kasli had a number of metalworking enterprises including an iron foundry established in 1747 by Timofei Korobkov. In 1751 the factory was bought by the Demidov family; it subsequently was acquired by various owners in the 19th century. The Kasli plant still functions and is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Molding of an Artistic Casting. Kasli Iron Works
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. Among the towns Prokudin-Gorskii visited in 1909 was Kasli (in present-day Chelyabinsk Oblast). Kasli had a number of metalworking enterprises including an iron foundry established in 1747 by Timofei Korobkov. In 1751 the factory was bought by the Demidov family; it subsequently was acquired by various owners in the 19th century. The Kasli plant still functions and is ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View of the Zlatoust Plant and the Church of Three Saints
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. Among the towns Prokudin-Gorskii visited in September 1909 was Zlatoust, located in the Ai River valley to the west of Chelyabinsk. Named in honor of Saint John Chrysostom (“golden-tongued,” or zlatoust), the town was founded in 1754 and became a center of finished metal production, including armaments. This dramatic view shows the imposing neoclassical Trinity Cathedral on a ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of the Zlatoust Plant. In the Distance Taganai Mountain
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. Among the towns Prokudin-Gorskii visited in September 1909 was Zlatoust, located in the Ai River valley to the west of Chelyabinsk. Named in honor of Saint John Chrysostom (“golden-tongued,” or zlatoust), the town was founded in 1754 and became a center of finished metal production, including armaments. On the right in this photograph is a corner of the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of the Taganai Mountain from Butylovka Mountain
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. Among the towns Prokudin-Gorskii visited in September 1909 was Zlatoust, located in the Ai River valley to the west of Chelyabinsk. Named in honor of Saint John Chrysostom (“golden-tongued,” or zlatoust), the town was founded in 1754 and became a center of finished metal production, including armaments. This view from Butylovka Hill includes a corner of the neoclassical ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Same Taken from the Dam on the Other Bank of the Ai River. Zlatoust Plant
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. Among the towns Prokudin-Gorskii visited in September 1909 was Zlatoust, located in the Ai River valley to the west of Chelyabinsk. Named in honor of Saint John Chrysostom (“golden-tongued,” or zlatoust), the town was founded in 1754 by Ivan and Maksim Mosolov, entrepreneurs from the central Russian ironworking center of Tula. In 1769, Maksim Mosolov sold the metalworking ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Joining Shop for the Production of Scabbards at the Zlatoust Plant
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. Among the towns Prokudin-Gorskii visited in September 1909 was Zlatoust, located in the Ai River valley to the west of Chelyabinsk. Named in honor of Saint John Chrysostom (“golden-tongued,” or zlatoust), the town was founded in 1754 and became a center of finished metal production, including armaments. The factory at Zlatoust flourished under Pavel Petrovich Anosov (1796–1851 ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Andrei Petrov Kalganov. Former Master in the Plant. Seventy-Two Years Old, Has Worked at the Plant for Fifty-Five Years. He Was Fortunate to Present Bread and Salt to His Imperial Majesty, the Sovereign Emperor Nicholas II. Zlatoust
The subject of this dignified portrait is Andrei Kalganov, retired master at the state metal-working factory in Zlatoust, located in the northwestern part of present-day Chelyabinsk Oblast. The caption states that the 72-year-old Kalganov worked in the factory for 55 years and “had the good fortune to present the ‘bread-salt’ greeting to His Imperial Majesty Emperor Nicholas II.” Zlatoust, named in honor of Saint John Chrysostom (“Golden-Tongued,” or zlatoust), was founded in 1754 and became a center of finished metal production, including armaments. Harsh working conditions led to periodic outbreaks ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Three Generations. A.P. Kalganov with Son and Granddaughter. The Last Two Work in the Shops of the Zlatoust Plant
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. Among the towns Prokudin-Gorskii visited in September 1909 was Zlatoust, located in the Ai River valley to the west of Chelyabinsk. Named in honor of Saint John Chrysostom (“golden-tongued,” or zlatoust), the town was founded in 1754 and became a center of finished metal production, including armaments. This frequently-reproduced photograph shows three generations of workers at the Zlatoust ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Asha-Balashovskii Iron Works
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. In the summer of 1910 Prokudin-Gorskii traveled along the Samara-Zlatoust Railway (built in 1885–90; now the Ufa-Chelyabinsk line). Seen here is the Balashovskii Factory, founded in 1898 by Nikolai and Ivan Balashov, who owned a number of factories in the Sim River area. This factory produced pig iron and cast iron, which was then reworked in other ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
View of the Miniarskii Plant. A Railroad Bridge across the Sim River
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. In the summer of 1910 Prokudin-Gorskii traveled along the Samara-Zlatoust Railway (built in 1885–92; now the Ufa-Chelyabinsk line). This richly detailed view shows the town of Miniar (in present-day Chelyabinsk Oblast) along the Sim River. The Sim, some 240 kilometers long, originates in the hills of western Chelyabinsk Oblast and flows southwest to the Belaia River. Miniar ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View of the Miniarskii Plant from Krasnaia Cliff
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. In the summer of 1910 Prokudin-Gorskii traveled along the Samara-Zlatoust Railway (built in 1885–92; now the Ufa-Chelyabinsk line). This view from Krasnaia (Red) Cliff shows the factory and town of Miniar (in present-day Chelyabinsk Oblast) along the Sim River. Miniar arose in 1771 adjacent to an iron-working factory at the confluence of the Sim and Miniar rivers ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View of the Miniarskii Plant from Krasnaia Hill
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. In the summer of 1910 Prokudin-Gorskii traveled along the Samara-Zlatoust Railway (built in 1885–92; now the Ufa-Chelyabinsk line). This view from Krasnaia (Red) Cliff shows the factory and town of Miniar (in present-day Chelyabinsk Oblast) along the Sim River. Miniar arose in 1771 adjacent to an iron-working factory at the confluence of the Sim and Miniar rivers ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Near Simskii Plant. Zavodskaia Knob
From 1909 to 1912, Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) made several trips to the territory around the Ural Mountains, where he photographed railroad installations, factories, urban settings, and natural scenes. This view of the Sim Ironworking Factory (Simskii Zavod) was taken from across a factory pond created on the Sim River. The settlement that arose in 1759–60 adjacent to the iron factory (in present-day Chelyabinsk Oblast) was officially renamed Sim in 1928. In 1774, the factory (which relied primarily on serf labor), its settlement, and a church ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
Domennaia Hill. Simskii Plant
This vista of the Sim Ironworking Factory (Simskii Zavod) and the adjacent Blast Furnace Hill (Domennaia Gora) was taken from across a factory pond created on the Sim River. Officially renamed in 1928 as Sim (in contemporary Chelyabinsk Oblast), the settlement arose in 1759–60 adjacent to the iron factory, which relied primarily on serf labor. The factory, its settlement, and a church were burned in 1774 by Bashkirs during Pugachev’s Rebellion. All were rebuilt by the end of the decade, when the factory resumed operation. Expanded in the ...
Contributed by Library of Congress
General View of Simskii Plant
At the beginning of the 20th century, the Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii (1863–1944) used a special color photography process to create a visual record of the Russian Empire. Some of Prokudin-Gorskii’s photographs date from about 1905, but the bulk of his work is from between 1909 and 1915, when, with the support of Tsar Nicholas II and the Ministry of Transportation, he undertook extended trips through many different parts of the empire.
Contributed by Library of Congress